王佐良全集·第四卷(txt+pdf+epub+mobi电子书下载)

作者:王佐良

出版社:外语教学与研究出版社

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王佐良全集·第四卷

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王佐良(1916—1995),浙江上虞人,英语语言文学专家、教育家、翻译家、作家。1935年考入清华大学外文系,抗战爆发后随校迁往云南昆明,在西南联合大学完成学业,1939年留校任教。1947年考取庚款公费留学,入英国牛津大学茂登学院,获硕士学位。1949年回国,任教于北京外国语学校(后更名为北京外国语学院、北京外国语大学)。曾任北京外国语学院教授、英语系主任、外国文学研究所所长、副院长,中国外语教学研究会副会长,中国外国文学学会副会长,中国英语教学研究会会长,中国莎士比亚研究会副会长,学术期刊《外国文学》主编,多语种学术杂志《文苑》主编等。历任第六、七届全国政协委员,国务院学位委员会学科评议组外国文学组组长,国家教委高等学校专业外语教材编审委员会主任等。

王佐良先生一生致力于外语教育与外国文学研究事业,不仅为国家培养了大批外语人才和学术骨干,还与老一代学者一道为我国外语教学的学科建设和外国文学研究的发展作出了卓越贡献。他学术视野开阔,对西方历史、文化、语言有广泛的知识和深刻的了解,以此为背景展开的英国文学研究体大思精、成果丰硕,从而跻身国际最著名英国文学研究专家之列。他是中国现代以来少数几位用英语撰写比较文化与文学研究论著的先驱之一,所涉及的多为该研究领域内影响重大的学术议题,充分体现了其深厚的语言功底和会通中外文化的高度融摄能力。他以民族文化为立足点,吸纳西方先进的研究方法,形成了独特的、具有前瞻性的翻译理论,且身体力行,翻译了多部佳作,并参与了《毛泽东选集》一至四卷的翻译工作。

王佐良先生从学生时代起开始文学创作,在内容与技巧上同时接受了新文化运动与西方现代主义的影响,逐渐成为一位享誉文坛的年轻诗人,被文学评论家认为是抗战期间最突出的一代新诗人之一。他晚年以散文创作为主,风格简劲高旷,擅用淡笔写浓情,与他的学术文章相映成辉,代表了文化散文一脉中西学大家的旨趣。

王佐良先生是一位爱国知识分子,早年积极参加抗日救亡运动,1949年从英伦返国后即投身新中国的教育事业,终其一生心系民族前途与文化命运,并为此贡献了他的全部心血。

王佐良先生自上世纪30年代起笔耕不辍,毕生著述宏富。为完整保存他的研究成果,并进一步推动我国的外语教育与外国文学研究事业,经其家属授权,外语教学与研究出版社成立了《王佐良全集》专家委员会和编辑出版委员会,首次全面搜集整理他的著作,结集十二卷出版。除作者生前自己定稿的专著、文集、译著外,《全集》主要增补了散见于报章、杂志、书籍、手稿中的作品,时间贯穿20世纪30年代至90年代,少数作品为首次发表。遵照作者家属意见,信札、日记等未予收录。

全集大体按著作性质分卷排列,补遗类散篇结集按作品出版或写作时间编次。各分卷卷首增写说明,简要介绍该卷内容及版本源流。为保持单部著作的完整性,作者生前出版的专著、文集中的重复内容未作删减,非作者自撰的辅文未收;重复内容中不尽一致之处为作者不同时期改动,保留版本差异。最后一卷著录全集著作篇目索引,便于读者查阅。专著、文集之外的补遗文章,尤其是笔名文章,遵照专家及家属意见加以甄别并酌情收录。所收著作及散篇均注明校勘所据版本、出处,并尽量参校其他版本。囿于资料收集的困难,个别已知为作者所著作品如《都柏林人》、《昆明居》等未能收录,祈愿今后补充修订。

在《全集》编辑过程中,编者以尊重作品原貌为大原则,重点厘定各版本的文字差互,根据现行语言文字规范订正若干文字、标点,并统一全书体例。因底本漫漶不能辨识的文字,均用□代替。除技术性校注外,编者对原文不作任何改动。凡作者本人的注释不另补注说明;作者所加译注注明“译者注”;原编者所加注释注明“原编者注”;《全集》编者所加新注注明“编者注”。

王佐良先生学识精深广博,著作意蕴丰赡,编者限于学养与经验,虽勉力为之,仍难免疏漏,敬请读者方家教正。作者家属提供了大量资料及图片,《全集》专家委员会、北京外国语大学校史馆、美国布朗大学图书馆、中国现代文学馆等对我们的工作均给予了重要支持和无私帮助,在此一并致以诚挚谢意。外语教学与研究出版社2016年1月

第四卷说明

本卷收《英国散文的流变》。《英国散文的流变》1994年由商务印书馆初版,2011年出版珍藏本。全集据2011年版校勘,重新排印。序

散文似乎可有两义:1.所有不属于韵文的作品都是散文,这是广义;2.专指文学性散文,如小品文之类,这是狭义。我是倾向于广义的,也难说有多少科学根据,只是感到如果范围广些,更易看出散文的各种表现。而且广、狭两义的散文都需达到某些共同要求,如都应首先把内容说清楚;也有一些共同的问题,如都有文风问题,而一种体裁的文风改进了也会提高整体散文的质量。

我的专业是英文,所以此书专谈英国散文,但不限于文学性散文,文学性散文也不限于小品随笔之类,还包括同类书通常不涉及的小说中的散文。方面广有好处,但也带来困难,即古今作品如此之多,如何选择?自己所知有限,可能谈到的并不重要,而更好的却忽略了。

其次,谈法也须斟酌。仅仅作语法、词汇分析往往浮于表面,而仅仅作文学品评又易流于印象。我的谈法——我的试验——是想把语言分析同文学阐释结合起来,而且尽量引用原作,让读者可以自己判断。叙述依据时代前后,古略今详,必要的史实有所交代,而由于引文较多、较长,又近似历代名篇展览,可说是散文史与名篇选读的结合。

为了便利未必有志深造英文但对好的散文感兴趣的读者,引文一般都附译文,有的取自已出书刊,有的请朋友新译,都有注明,在此一并致谢;多数系我自译,推敲不够,未尽妥当,连同我的选材和评论方法一起,并请读者批评指正。

此书之成,从提供译文到编制索引,得自杨君国斌之助者殊多,谨此致谢。最后,我之能够写出任何一书,背后都有我妻徐序的支持和帮助,这就不是一两句话就能表达我的感激之情的了。王佐良,北京1990年11月  第一章 引论:莫尔的历史著作和风格

英国散文始于何时?这是文学史家感兴趣的问题。

一般说来,散文的起始迟于韵文。最初的诗歌实际是远古丛林里、大海边、高山上人们宣泄情感的呼叫,是口头的;散文则是用来讲道理、记事、翻译宗教及其他经典等等的,是书面的,要等书面文字形成一个体系才能出现。从这个意义上说,散文是文明的产物。

许多民族的早期文学选本,总是诗歌的比例大大超过散文,也许原因就在这里。

英国散文的特殊情况还在于:它经历了三个语言时期,即古英语、中古英语、近代英语。三种语言有联系,然而差别很大,在古英语、中古英语时期,散文收获似乎不及韵文,而散文中的重要著作还是用拉丁文写的,比德的《英国人民宗教史》就是一例。所以用拉丁文,是因为它是欧洲知识分子共有的文字,用它便于交流思想和学术,且不说作者想替自己建立全欧的声誉了。

迟至16世纪,已是近代英语时期,培根还用拉丁文写他的哲学著作,只在他认为次要作品的《随笔》里,他才用了英语。

但是事情的另一面却是在每个时期,都有人坚持用本土语言写作。这些有志之士当中,第一个重要的是9世纪的阿尔弗雷特国王(King Alfred)。他为了振兴本土学术,组织人——并且亲自动手——把一些拉丁文著作译成了古英语。对此,凯尔(W. P. Ker)教授曾说:

那位伟大的国王常遭被除名的危险,然而政治史和文学史都少不1了他,而英国的文学史同政治史一样是前后连贯的。

这个“前后连贯”论是有争议的,但是凯尔的继任者、也是伦敦大学英国文学教授的钱伯斯(R. W. Chambers)不仅坚持此说,而且把由阿尔弗雷特开始的英国散文传统从9世纪延伸到了16世纪,并指出其中的关键人物是莫尔。

汤玛斯·莫尔(Thomas More,1478—1535)是英国文艺复兴的重要人物,其名著《乌托邦》(1516)是用拉丁文写的,但是他也用英文写了《理查三世史》(1543,1557)。从此书和莫尔的其他英文著作,钱伯斯引了大量例子,说明莫尔在叙事、辩论、写对话等方面的能力,以及在形成《圣经》英文译本中的影响,结论是:

莫尔是发展出一种有力的散文的第一个英国人,这种散文适合他的时代的一切用途:有雄辩力量,有戏剧性,多样化。莫尔的散文既善辩论,又善叙述,能够构筑出有持续说服力的段落,又能迅捷地开展对话,时而活泼,口语化,时而精雕细刻,甚至近乎绮丽。这当中有些方面已是当时的英文所能做到,……但是莫尔是第一个具有能满足16世纪英国的一切要求的散文风格的人。当时英国特别缺乏一样东西。别的作家……能够掌握雄辩文和说明文的风格,而那时英国最需要的是一种能把当代事件用生动、有戏剧性的叙述文体记录下来的2散文风格。

莫尔提供了这样的风格;不仅如此,批评家还发现他的《理查三世史》是“一个精心设计、细心完成的整体,比例恰当,无懈可击”。3钱伯斯还进而论述莎士比亚的历史剧《理查三世史》也得益于莫尔4的这部同名史书。

既然如此,让我们读读莫尔的文章本身。这里是《理查三世史》的一个片段,是关于已故国王爱德华四世的情妇琪恩·肖厄的:

From The History of King Richard III5A King's Mistress6

Now then, bye and bye, as it were for anger not for covetise, the Protector sent into the house of Shore's wife(for her husband dwelled not with her) and spoiled her of all that ever she had, above the value 7of two or three thousand marks, and sent her body to prison. And 8when he had a while laid unto her for the manner' sake, that she went about to bewitch him, and that she was of counsel with the Lord 910Chamberlain to destroy him; in conclusion when that no color could fasten upon these matters, then he laid heinously to her charge that thing that herself could not deny, that all the world wist was true, and 11that natheles every man laughed at to hear it then so suddenly so 12highly taken, that she was naught of her body. And for this cause (as a goodly continent prince clean and faultless of himself, sent out of heaven into this vicious world for the amendment of men's manners) he caused the Bishop of London to put her to open penance, going before the cross in procession upon a Sunday with a taper in her 13hand. In which she went in countenance and pace demure, so 14womanly, and albeit she were out of all array save her kirtle only, yet went she so fair and lovely, namely while the wondering of the people 15cast a comely rud in her cheeks (of which she before had most miss) that her great shame won her much praise among those that were 16more amorous of her body than curious of her soul. And many good folk also that hated her living and glad were to see sin corrected, yet pitied they more her penance than rejoiced therein when they considered that the Protector procured it, more of a corrupt intent than 17any virtuous affection.

This woman was born in London, worshipfully friended, honestly brought up, and very well married, saving somewhat too soon, her husband an honest citizen, young and goodly and of good substance. But forasmuch as they were coupled ere she were well ripe, she not 18very fervently loved for whom she never longed. Which was haply the thing that the more easily made her incline unto the King's appetite 19when he required her. Howbeit that respect of his royalty, the hope of gay apparel, ease, pleasure and other wanton wealth was able soon to pierce a soft tender heart. But when the King had abused her, 20anon her husband (as he was an honest man and one that could his 21good, not presuming to touch a King's concubine) left her up to him altogether. When the King died, the Lord Chamberlain took her, which 22in the King's days, albeit he was sore enamored upon her, yet he forbare her, either for reverence or for a certain friendly faithfulness. 23Proper she was, and fair: nothing in her body that you would have changed, but if you would have wished her somewhat higher. Thus say they that knew her in her youth. Albeit some that now see her(for yet she liveth) deem her never to have been well visaged. Whose judgment seemeth me somewhat like as though men should guess the beauty of one long before departed by her scalp taken out of the 24charnel house; for now she is old, lean, withered and dried up, 25nothing left but rivelled skin and hard bone. And yet being even 26such, whoso well advise her visage might guess and devise which parts how filled might make it a fair face. Yet delighted men not so much in her beauty as in her pleasant behavior. For a proper wit had she, and could both read well and write, merry in company, ready and quick of answer, neither mute nor full of babble, sometime taunting 27without displeasure and not without disport. The King would say that 28he had three concubines, which in three divers properties diversly excelled: one the merriest, one the wiliest, and one the holiest harlot in 29his realm, as one whom no man could get out of the church lightly to any place but it were to his bed. The other two were somewhat greater 30personages, and natheles of their humility content to be nameless and to forbear the praise of those properties. But the merriest was this Shore's wife, in whom the King therefore took special pleasure. For 31many he had, but her he loved, whose favor, to say the truth, (for sin it were to belie the devil) she never abused to any man's hurt, but to many a man's comfort and relief. Where the King took displeasure, she would mitigate and appease his mind. Where men were out of favor, she would bring them in his grace. For many that had highly offended, 32she attained pardon. Of great forfeitures she gat men remission. And finally in many weighty suits, she stood many men in great stead, either for none or very small rewards, and those rather gay than rich, 33either for that she was content with the deed' self well done, or for that she delighted to be sued unto and to show what she was able to do with the King, or for that wanton women and wealthy be not always covetous.

I doubt not some shall think this woman so slight a thing to be written of and set among the remembrances of great matters, which 34they shall specially think that haply shall esteem her only by that they 35now see her. But me seemeth the chance so much the more worthy to be remembered, in how much she is now in the more beggarly 36condition, unfriended and worn out of acquaintance, after good 37substance, after as great favor with the prince, after as great suit and seeking to with all those that those days had business to speed, as many other men were in their times, which be now famous only by the infamy of their ill deeds. Her doings were not much less, albeit they be much less remembered, because they were not so evil. For men use if they have an evil turn to write it in marble; and whoso doth us a good 38turn, we write it in dust, which is not worst proved by her; for at this day she beggeth of many at this day living, that at this day had begged if she had not been.

接着,逐渐地,似乎是出于愤怒而不是贪婪,护国公派人去到肖厄的媳妇家里(因为她丈夫并不与她同居),把她所有的财物搜刮一空,价值在三千马克以上,并把她本人投进监狱。然后按章对她进行了审问,说她到处奔走,想迷惑他,又说她同王室大臣合谋想杀害他;等到一看这些罪名无法成立,就恶毒地提出一条她本人无法否认,而且全世界都知道是确有其事的罪名,不过在这时突然地郑重其事地提出只使所有的人听了发笑罢了——这罪名就是她不贞。因此之故,他作为一位有节操、不乱来、洁身无垢的王爷,自命是上天派到这邪恶的世界来纠正人们的道德的,下令伦敦区主教责成她当众赎罪,办法就是要她在星期日手持蜡烛走在十字架前,跟随一队人游街。结果她走在队里,面容娴静,步伐规矩,虽然身上只穿一件宽大的袍子,可是显得十分秀美,连她那原本苍白的双颊也在众人好奇的注视下出现了可爱的赭红,于是她那可耻的大罪反而赢得群众中那些看上了她的身体远于她的灵魂的人的纷纷赞美。不喜欢她的行为的良善的人对于罪恶得到纠正是高兴的,但也对她的赎罪感到同情,而不是感到庆幸,因为他们考虑到护国公之所以这样惩罚她并非出自道德感,而是另有卑劣用心的。

这个女人生在伦敦,来往都是体面人物,从小受到良好家教,婚姻也合适,只是嫁得早了一点,丈夫是良善市民,年轻,和气,有钱。但由于他们结婚时她还不成熟,她并不热爱他,对他从无热恋之心。这可能是一个原因,使她容易在国王引诱她的时候,愿意满足他的胃口。当然,对国王的尊敬,对美丽的衣饰、优裕、愉快的生活和大量钱财的指望也能迅速地打动一颗温柔多情的心。当国王勾上了她,她丈夫天性良善,懂得怎样对自己有利,不敢碰国王的小老婆一下,马上把她完全让给了国王。国王死后,宫廷大臣收纳了她,其实国王在世之日他早已垂涎于她,只是不敢接近,或是出于尊敬,或是由于一种友好的忠诚。她长得标致,白皙,身上无一处不合式,如能身高略增一点就更美了,凡是在她年轻时见过她的人都这样说。当然也有某些人现在看了她(因为她还活着),觉得她绝不可能曾经漂亮。我认为这种判断类似把一个死了多年的人从坟墓里挖出头骨,凭这一点来猜想此人过去是否美丽一样,因为她现在当然老了,瘦了,干瘪枯缩了。但就是这样,如果想重构她的面容,还是可以看出只需把某些部分充实一下仍然可以现出美貌。喜欢她的人不仅爱她的美貌,更爱她的愉快的举止。因为她有才智,能读会写,客人面前表情愉快,问什么话说,既不都一声不响,也不唠叨,有时还不伤大雅地说说笑话。国王常说他有三妾,各有所长:一个最愉快,一个最有心计,一个最虔诚,可称是他那王国里最信神的娼妇,因为很难使她离开教堂,除非是立刻上他的御床。这三人中两个是有身份的人,但由于谦虚自愿做无名氏,也放弃别人对她们特长的赞美。最愉快的那位就是肖厄家的媳妇,国王也因这一点特别喜欢她。他有许多女人,但只爱她一个,而说实话(不然即使对魔鬼也是罪孽),她从不用她的影响去害人,而是使许多人得到了安慰或解救。国王不高兴了,她会使他宽解,息怒;某些人失去国王的欢心了,她会使他们重获恩宠。有些人犯了大罪,她可以为他们取得赦免。有些人的财产快被没收,她能使命令收回。最后,她帮许多人递上对国王的重要请求,不收任何报酬,或虽收小量也只是为了好玩而不是攒钱,像是她只要能将一件事做好也就满意了,或为了表明她有能力左右国王,或表明有钱的浪荡女人并不总是贪婪的。

我料定会有人想,这个女人无足轻重,不值得浪费笔墨,不该将她夹在重要事务之间来一起追忆,特别是那些只凭她的现状来估量她的人更会这样想。但是我认为正因为她现在沦为乞丐,无人照顾,缺朋少友,她更值得我们追忆。想当年她有钱,得国王欢心,在朝廷有势,帮许多人办成了事情。许多别人也有过这种时候,只不过由于干了坏事才至今留名。她所做不比这些人少,但因没有干多少坏事就被人忘怀。人们总是把作恶的人刻在大理石上,而对行善的人则委名于尘土。这个女人的遭遇就是一个好例子,因为她今天所乞求的活着的人如果当年没有她,则今天乞求的该是他们了。

果然是一节出色文章。从文字讲,已十分接近现代英语,除个别虚词和句法形式外,对于今天的读者不构成特别困难。而且文字没有书本气,倒是平易的,口语化的。它很好地完成了叙述任务,但又非纯客观的叙述,而是含有评论以至讽刺的,例如讲当时还称“护国公”的理查三世的为人和用心时就很明显。细节的生动和戏剧性是另一特色,读者很难忘记琪恩·肖厄游街的情景。文章的组织也见匠心,以写这个女人在先王死后的遭遇开始,继而叙述她的背景和如何成为先王的情妇,如何又与一般得宠的情妇不同,不是借势欺人而是常以助人为乐,并且着力写她的美,通过今昔对比而更显其美,最后则作者出来发表了一番议论,表示他写的虽是一个女人,用意却在烘托理查三世的阴险诡诈,并未离开主题。换言之,这里有历史,也有史论,两者都不浅薄,而有深度——用美人的荣枯同人们对待善恶的态度相提并论,涉及人世的沧桑和人情的冷暖,这一切构成了文章的深层肌理,是经得起一再重读的。

我们通过这段文章,也多少可以看出莫尔是怎样一个有才华、有热情、又有风趣的人,这对于我们进一步了解《乌托邦》也是有帮助的。《理查三世史》终未完成,但是莫尔已在英国散文史上建立了功39绩。前面引过的钱伯斯等位学者的话是有道理的;莫尔所提供的不只是一般所谓好散文,而是“能满足16世纪英国的一切要求的散文风格”,特别是“一种能把当代事件用生动、有戏剧性的叙述文体记录下来的散文风格”。由于他做到了这一点,由于他的英文在总体上是平易、口语化的,他——一位历史学家、思想家,而不是舞文弄墨的词章家——成为班扬、笛福、德莱顿等人的先驱。从近代英国讲,站在平易散文传统这条长线的起点的就是这位伟大的人文主义者。

经过这样的后顾和前瞻,我们可以进而审视英国散文发展史上的几个重要阶段了。注释1 亨利·刻雷克编:《英国散文选》,卷一,第16页。2 R. W.钱伯斯:《英国散文的连续性》,1932年,第liv页。此书原是“早期英文文献学会”丛书之一的尼科拉斯·哈卜斯菲尔特所作《汤玛斯·莫尔爵士传》的序言,后又单本发行,公认为突破旧说的出色之作。3 转引自钱伯斯:《英国散文的连续性》,第liv页。4 同上书,第clxv—clxvii页。5 Jane Shore, wife of a London merchant and mistress of the late king, Edward IV, persecuted by Richard Duke of Gloucester, "the Protector" during the minority of Edward's sons. After their mysterious death in the Tower of London he ascended the throne as Richard III.6 Greed.7 A mark equals 2/3 of a pound.8 Accused her, to justify arrest.9 Lord Hastings, beheaded by Richard.10 Plausibility.11 Nevertheless.12 Unchaste.13 The standard punishment for a harlot.14 Dressed only in a loose gown.15 Lack.16 Concerned about.17 Motive.18 Perhaps.19 Attempted to seduce.20 Immediately.21 Knew what was good for him.22 Very.23 Handsome.24 Common burial place.25 Shrivelled.26 Would like to reconstruct.27 Playfulness.28 Different.29 Easily.30 Nevertheless.31 Influence.32 I.e., got cancellation of orders to forfeit property.33 Deed's.34 That which.35 I think.36 Without friends.37 Influence at court.38 I.e., is a good example.39 钱伯斯的著作造成重大影响之后,50年代的牛津学者C. S.路易斯在其所著《十六世纪除戏剧外的英国文学》(1954年,《牛津英国文学史》的一卷)中对于莫尔散文的评价不同,指出其缺点是句子太长,形容词太多,以及“几乎完全缺乏节奏上的变化”(第180页),但也承认它的长处,特别是善于描绘人物,“琪恩·肖厄的写照是作者结合明晰和严肃的一个美好例子”(第166页)。  第二章 文艺复兴时期

在英国文艺复兴时期,诗歌繁荣,但散文作品也是丰富多彩的。

求知欲与好奇心席卷了学术思想领域,出现了一场大规模的翻译运动。希腊罗马的古典文学、哲学著作、传记、政论,海峡对岸的拉伯雷、蒙田等人的作品都纷纷被译成英文,并且产生了重大影响。到了17世纪初年,54位学者合力译出了英文《圣经》,由国王詹姆斯一世钦命印行,更是影响深远,直到今天。

这场翻译运动之所以能够取得巨大成功,也有语言上的原因。16世纪的英国文学语言有两大特点:一是吸收性强,对外来的和民间下层的词汇说法大量采用;二是表达力强,叙事、状物、写景、辩难,无所不能。语言处于这样开放的状况,翻译才能顺利进行;而反过来,大量的翻译又给了语言以多方面的锻炼,使它有更大的伸缩性,更胜任各种繁难的具体工作,同时又更富于探索和创造精神。

因此这是一个伟大的翻译家时期,现在人们一谈英文翻译,总要回忆这个伊丽莎白朝盛世,提到诺斯、弗洛里欧、欧克特、霍兰德等名译手。这又是一个新的散文风格和品种纷纷涌现的时期,重要的作家作品在16世纪后半叶有黎里的《尤弗伊斯》、纳什的《不幸的旅人》、胡克的《论教会政策的法则》、培根的《随笔》,17世纪前半叶又出现了勃登的《忧郁的解剖》、汤玛斯·勃朗的《医生的宗教》和《瓮葬》、弥尔顿的《论出版自由》、沃尔顿的《垂钓全书》,以及无数的人物特写、传记、历史书、地方志、海外旅行记、席间谈话,无数的布道文,无数有关宗教、政治、社会问题的小册子。

英国散文从未有过这样兴旺发达的局面。在风格上,千姿百态;在内容上,几乎什么都谈,现实人生之外,还有人探究隐秘心理,涉猎外国古俗;既有沃尔顿的水边凝思,也有弥尔顿的当朝抗言;在小册子之战中,不仅有绅士们的说教,还传来了“平等派”、“掘地派”的群众呼声,一场人民革命的雷鸣已隐约可闻。高雅文化在这里,下层文化和边缘文化也在这里,二者的对立和冲突使得这个时期的散文更充实,也更有光彩。两种风格的争论;科学家的介入

冲突也见于关于散文风格的争论。在16世纪,古罗马的拉丁散文风格还有重大影响,虽然英国本土的散文传统也日益壮大;但同样是古典风格模式,西塞罗式(Ciceronian)与色尼加式(Senecan)显著不同:前者讲究修辞术,用大量的明喻、暗喻、拟人、夸张等手段铺陈一事,句子是长的、丰满的,音调是铿锵的;后者则相反,着重论点的鲜明与表达的有力,句子是短的,不求堂皇的韵律而接近口语的节奏。起初,英国散文家中大多学习西塞罗式,而黎里的《尤弗伊斯》(John Lyly, Euphues)讲究对仗、用典和音韵上的和谐,则雕琢更过于西塞罗风格,创立了类似中国骈文的“尤弗伊体”,略举一例如下:

No, no, it is the disposition of the thought, that altereth the nature of the thing. The Sunne shineth vpon the dounghill, and is not corrupted: the Diamond lyeth in the fire, and it is not consumed: the Christall toucheth the Toade and is not poysoned: the birde Trochilus lyueth by the mouth of the Crocodile and is not spoyled: a perfect wit is never bewitched with lewdnesse, neither entised with lasciuousnesse. Is it not common that the Holme Tree springeth amidst the Beech? That the Iuie spreadeth vpon the hard stones? That the soft fetherbed breaketh the hard blade?

曰:否,此大不然也,盖唯心所指则变物之性。日照粪壤,不损其明;钻石入火,不损其坚;水有蟾蜍,不染其毒;鹪鹩栖鳄吻,不为所吞;贤者不涉遐想,不动绮思。冬青耸出掬林;薛荔罩笼磐石;柔茵能当利刃,此非物之常乎?(周珏良译文)

这类美文自有爱好者,当时的贵妇小姐还竞相仿效,却为一些真要用散文来说清一件事情的务实之士所忌。他们不仅反对“尤弗伊体”,就连一般的修辞术也不以为然。有一位写蒙田式,即培根式随笔的康华利斯把西塞罗式的修辞术比作“翻文字跟斗……明明一个字能说清的事却硬要用三个字!”而培根本人更是认为整个16世纪的主导风格是“追求词语过于内容”,是讲究修辞手段而不问内容是否重要,必须加以改革。

这些人推崇的是色尼加风格。当时另一位散文家霍尔主教因其文章的朴实被称为“英国的色尼加”,他特别称赞色尼加风格的简短,曾说:“简短使文章内容更便记忆,更易使用。”就连写得并不简短的勃顿也在《忧郁的解剖》第六版(1651)的前言里说:“我有啥说啥。我尊重内容而不是词语。……我不注意妙句,只尽全力使读者理解,而不是取悦他的耳朵。”

但是色尼加风格也有它的毛病,有时太突兀,有时太散漫,靠许多连接词松散地串成一片。这时知识界出现一股新的力量,干脆要求把事情说清楚,而不问什么风格不风格。提出这主张的是科学家们。他们是时代的宠儿,在1660年成立了皇家学会。他们早已讨厌修辞术之类了,学会一成立,就共同约定:

They have exacted from all their Members, a close, naked, natural way of Speaking; positive Expressions, clear Senses; a native Easiness; bringing all Things as near the mathematical Plainness as they can; and preferring the Language of Artizans, Countrymen, and Merchants, before that of Wits, or Scholars.

要求全体会员用一种紧凑、朴素、自然的说话方式,正面表达,意思清楚,自然流利,一切尽量接近数学般的清楚,宁用工匠、乡下人、商贩的语言,不用才子、学者的语言。

这一空前革命性的主张,又表达得如此彻底,完全不留余地,是斯泼拉特写在1667年出版的《皇家学会史》里的。它至少表示:散文能否写清楚不是一件小事,关系到思想文化的全局,关系到将来社会的发展,因此自然科学家们当仁不让,要从外面来解决才子和学者们争论不休的问题了。英文《圣经》的文学成就

我们且来通过具体篇章,略窥这时散文的风貌。

首先,英文《圣经》(The Authorized Version of the English Bible,1611)。《圣经》由《旧约》(Old Testament)、《新约》(New Testament)两大部分构成。《旧约》主要是希伯来人最早的传说、历史、先知的言行、格言、哲理书等等,一上来就是《创世纪》1(Genesis):

In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.

And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.

And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.

And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.

起初,神创造天地。地是空虚混沌,渊面黑暗。神的灵运行在水面上。神说:要有光。就有了光。神看光是好的,就把光暗分开了。神称光为昼,称暗为夜。有晚上,有早晨,这是头一日。

以后就是上帝创造亚当、夏娃两位人类始祖的故事,他们如何因吃了禁果而被逐出伊甸园;摩西的故事,他如何率领以色列人逃出埃及,后来又如何在巴勒斯坦重建家园;接着来了以色列人历代君主和族长的史传……

但是《旧约》也包括了美丽的《雅歌》,如《所罗门的歌》(The Song of Solomon):

The voice of my beloved! behold he cometh leaping upon the mountains, skipping upon the hills.

My beloved is like a roe or a young hart: behold, he standeth behind our wall, he looketh forth at the windows, showing himself through the lattice.

My beloved spake, and said unto me, Rise up, my love, my fair one, and come away.

For, lo, the winter is past, the rain is over and gone;

The flowers appear on the earth; the time of the singing of birds is come, and the voice of the turtle is heard in our land;

听啊,是我良人的声音。看哪,他翻山越岭而来。我的良人好像羚羊,或像小鹿。他站在我们的墙壁后,从窗户往里观看,从窗棂往里窥探。

我良人对我说:我的佳偶,我的美人,起来,与我同去。因为冬天已往,雨水止住过去了。地上百花开放、百鸟鸣叫的时候已经来到,斑鸠的声音,在我们境内也听见了。

How beautiful are thy feet with shoes, O prince's daughter! the joints of thy thighs are like jewels, the work of the hands of a cunning workman.

Thy navel is like a round goblet, which wanteth not liquor: thy belly is like a heap of wheat set about with lilies.

Thy two breasts are like two young roes that are twins.

王女啊,你的脚在鞋中何其美好。你的大腿圆润好像美玉,是巧匠的手做成的。你的肚脐如圆杯,不缺调和的酒。你的腰如一堆麦子,周围有百合花。你的两乳好像一对小鹿,就是母鹿双生的。《雅歌》也不尽是这类愉快的吟唱,还有更深、更强烈的感情流露:

Set me as a seal upon thine heart, as a seal upon thine arm: for love is strong as death; jealousy is cruel as the grave: the coals thereof are coals of fire, which hath a most vehement flame.

Many waters cannot quench love, neither can the floods drown it: if a man would give all the substance of his house for love, it would utterly be contemned.

求你将我放在你心上如印记,带在你臂上如戳记,因为爱情如死之坚强,嫉恨如阴间之残忍,所发的电光是火焰的电光,是耶和华的烈焰。

爱情,众水不能熄灭,大水也不能淹没。若有人拿家中所有的财宝要换爱情,就全被藐视。

而在《约伯记》(Book of Job)里,还有震撼灵魂的人天对话,涉及如何看待命运和苦难,深刻地端出了悲剧性的人的处境,连文字也带上了激动、焦灼的节奏:

Is there not an appointed time to man upon earth? are not his days also like the days of a hireling?

As a servant earnestly desireth the shadow, and as a hireling looketh for the reward of his work;

So am I made to possess months of vanity, and wearisome nights are appointed to me.

When I lie down, I say, When shall I arise, and the night be gone? and I am full of tossings to and fro unto the dawning of the day.

My flesh is clothed with worms and clods dust: my skin is broken, and become loathsome.

My days are swifter than a weaver's shuttle, and are spent without hope.

人在世上岂无争战么?他的日子不像雇工人的日子么?像奴仆切慕黑影、像雇工人盼望工价,我也照样,经过困苦的日月,夜间的疲乏为我而定。我躺卧的时候,便说:我何时起来,黑夜就过去呢?我尽是翻来覆去,直到天亮。我的肉体以虫子和尘土为衣。我的皮肤才收了口,又重新破裂。我的日子比梭更快,都消耗在无指望之中。

WHY, seeing times are not hidden from the Almighty, do they that know him not see his days?

Some remove the landmarks; they violently take away flocks, and feed thereof.

They drive away the ass of the fatherless, they take the widow's ox for a pledge.

They turn the needy out of the way: the poor of the earth hide themselves together.

Behold, as wild asses in the desert, go they forth to their work; rising betimes for a prey: the wilderness yieldeth food for them and for their children.

They reap every one his corn in the field: and they gather the vintage of the wicked.

They cause the naked to lodge without clothing, that they have no covering in the cold.

They are wet with the showers of the mountains, and embrace the rock for want of a shelter.

They pluck the fatherless from the breast, and take a pledge of the poor.

They cause him to go naked without clothing, and they take away the sheaf from the hungry;

Which make oil within their walls, and tread their winepresses, and suffer thirst.

Men groan from out of the city, and the soul of the wounded crieth out: yet God layeth not folly to them.

全能者既定期罚恶,如何不使认识他的人看见那日子呢?有人挪移地界,抢夺群畜而牧养,他们拉去孤儿的驴,强取寡妇的牛为当头。他们使穷人离开正道,世上的贫民尽都隐藏。这些贫穷人,如同野驴出到旷野,殷勤寻找食物。他们靠着野地给儿女糊口,收割别人的禾稼,摘取恶人余剩的葡萄,终夜赤身无衣,天气寒冷毫无遮被盖,在

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