2017年考研英语阅读完形翻译全突破(txt+pdf+epub+mobi电子书下载)

作者:赵小冬

出版社:中国人民大学出版社

格式: AZW3, DOCX, EPUB, MOBI, PDF, TXT

2017年考研英语阅读完形翻译全突破

2017年考研英语阅读完形翻译全突破试读:

前言

全国硕士学位研究生英语入学考试试题几度变化,对考生阅读理解能力的考查逐年加强。研究生英语入学考试是考查考生英语能力的考试。英语能力主要体现在阅读理解和写作两部分。在考研试卷中,除了专门用于考查阅读理解能力的4~5篇文章外,完形填空以及语句或语段填空(简称句段填空)、段落重排序、段落配标题、标题配段落等,都是对考生阅读理解能力的考查;英译汉也实则如此。满分为100分的试卷,仅阅读理解部分就占了70分(阅读40分,完形填空10分,新题型句段填空等10分,英译汉10分)。这就不难看出,当前考研英语的重中之重是阅读理解。考生抓住并解决了这一难点,就抓住了主要矛盾,从而就可以突破考研英语大关。

完形填空主要用来测试考生在整个语篇水平基础上的阅读理解能力。这种考试形式最早起源于20世纪50年代美国华盛顿大学的一位法语教师。当时这位教师在一篇文章中每隔七个词去掉一个词,对他的107位学生进行了阅读理解能力的考查。此后有人把一篇文章中每句话的奇数或偶数词去掉,再后来又有人把一句话的头、尾和中间的词去掉,来测试学生的阅读理解能力。这样一直延续到现在,逐步形成了去掉关键词并配四个选择项的完形填空考试形式。这就如同读一篇中文报纸上的文章,而这篇文章中又有些词给删去了,但是我们仍能读懂文章的道理是一样的。因此我们可以说完形填空是一种比阅读一篇文章还要难的考查阅读理解能力的形式。

新题型1 句段填空在原有完形填空的基础上,不是仅仅从文中去掉几个词,而是通过去掉几句或几段话来考查考生对整个语篇阅读理解的能力,从而进一步考查考生对诸如连贯性、一致性等语段特征及文章结构的理解能力。

新题型2 段落重排序是给出一篇各自然段排列顺序完全打乱的短文,要求考生阅读后把各自然段重新排序组成一篇逻辑连贯的文章。此题型考查考生通过上下文对文章阅读理解的能力,要求考生既理解全文,又能找出各段之间的逻辑关系。

新题型3 段落配标题或标题配段落要求考生通读有关短文、标题及后面列出的各自然段落,然后将段落与给出的各标题相匹配;或先给出各自然段的标题,短文列于后,要求考生在读懂标题及后面的短文后为每一自然段选出一个最合适的标题作为答案。

新题型也是一种比单纯阅读一篇文章还要难的考查阅读理解能力的形式。

英译汉不只是考查考生的翻译技巧,而主要是考查考生在阅读理解整篇文章的基础上对几个重点句的中文表达能力。考生不理解全文,不理解重点句,就不可能有忠实原文的准确的中文表达。可以说,阅读理解是基础,翻译是表达。

突破阅读理解这一难关的关键是:

◆尽可能地扩大词汇量。

◆大量地进行阅读实践。

本书就是以上述观点为指导对

上版作了相当数量的修改:(1)本书前四部分的讲解与练习全部使用真题及较为适用的资料。(2)修订并更换了第五部分的部分模拟练习,其目的就是为了增加一定难度及提高本书的实用性,从而为考生顺利通过考试铺平道路。

全书由以下部分组成:

第1部分:阅读理解与阅读技巧。

第2部分:阅读理解与四种新题型解析。

第3部分:阅读理解与完形填空。

第4部分:阅读理解与英译汉。

第5部分:模拟练习与真题。这部分包括了16套模拟练习与答案以及2009年至2014年考研英语部分真题与答案。

附录:包括2015年、2016年考研英语真题(附答案)。

本书特点:

◆按大纲要求编写,解释简明扼要,并选用多篇真题实践讲解,选材全面,实用性强,难易适度。

◆突出大量练习,为考生提供大量的阅读实践场所,以提高考生的阅读理解能力。全书包括:100篇以上的真题及练习短文;30多篇完形填空的真题及练习;20多篇新题型模拟题及练习;约200句英译汉真题及练习。

参加本书编写的刘文成教授、徐汝舟教授、赵小冬教授,孙艺之、刘晋副教授等,均为北京师范大学外语部长期从事大学英语教学、考研研究工作经验丰富的教师。

书中部分文章的版权分别属于不同的个人或机构,请各版权持有者通过出版社与本书编者联系处理。

由于时间紧,疏漏之处在所难免,欢迎读者及同仁批评指正。赵小冬2015年12月于北京师范大学第1部分阅读理解与阅读技巧如何提高阅读能力

阅读是人们进行交际所需要的基本语言技能。教育部颁发的《大学英语教学大纲》中,把对阅读能力的培养、提高和要求放在各项语言技能的首位。对考生来说,加强阅读训练,提高阅读理解能力是通过考研的重中之重。

为了提高阅读能力,考生必须从以下几个方面进行训练。一、学好语言基本知识,扩大词汇量和阅读量

要提高阅读能力,必须有扎实的语言基础,这主要是词汇和大量阅读两个方面。首先,考生应掌握一定量的词汇,按照《大学英语教学大纲》的要求,完成四级学习的学生至少应熟练掌握4200词(其中复用式2500词),精读阅读总量应达30000词,泛读阅读总量不少于129000词。阅读速度应达每分钟70~100词。达到六级的学生应具有的词汇量至少为5500词(其中复用式3000词)。阅读速度应达每分钟70~120词。如果词汇量不够,阅读时生词就多。这不但影响阅读的速度,也影响理解的程度,因而难以顺利通过研究生入学考试,而且在平时的学习和工作中,也不能有效地进行阅读。当然,英语语法和惯用法也是必不可少的基本知识,考生必须熟练掌握,否则就不能正确理解阅读中遇到的结构复杂的难句、长句。可见,提高阅读能力的前提就是练好扎实的语言知识基本功,主要是掌握尽可能多的词汇,熟练掌握英语语法和习惯用法,并进行大量的阅读实践。二、在阅读实践中提高阅读能力

阅读能力的提高包括速度的提高和理解力的增强。这都要通过必要的、大量的练习和专门的训练。考生不但要大量阅读涉及各种学科领域、各种题材的读物,扩大知识面,而且要有意识地读一些附有练习题的文章,并进行限时阅读,以便检查、测试自己的阅读能力。考生还要熟悉各种题目类型,从而在提高阅读速度和理解能力的基础上提高应试能力。三、掌握正确的阅读方法

提高阅读能力包括提高阅读速度和理解力两个方面。许多考生在阅读外语时速度很慢,这是由于一些不良的阅读习惯所致。例如:

◆一见到生词就要停下来查字典,不会联系上下文猜测词义。

◆用手指或笔尖指着文章逐词阅读。

◆在心中默读或小声地逐词朗读。

◆需要把每句话在心中或口头译成汉语才能理解句子的意思,不会用外语思维,直接理解句子的意义。

以上几种不正确的阅读习惯不但影响阅读的速度,而且影响对文章大意和主旨的正确理解。

提高阅读能力,还必须掌握正确的阅读方法和有效的阅读技能。一般说来,考生应根据不同的目的,采用不同的阅读方法。下面介绍三种基本阅读方法。

1.快速浏览,也叫略读(Skimming)

略读就是快读。目的是通过草草通读和浏览全文的方法,了解文章的大意和主旨,对文章的内容有个总的概念和印象。具体地说,就是略去细节部分,不要花时间琢磨难句和生词,重点阅读开头段、结尾段以及每段的首句和结尾句。这些部分往往概括了文章的写作意图和主题思想以及结论。多数情况下,每段的首句或结尾句就是该段的主题句。如果文章有题目或小标题,首先就要通过读题目或小标题思考一下,从中可以猜到本文所涉及的主要内容。

2.快速寻读,也叫查读(Scanning)

寻读或查读的目的是要有目标地去找出文章中某些特定的信息或回答阅读理解题所需要的事实或依据。因此,查读时,也要以很快的速度扫视文章,注意与答题内容有关的词句;与内容无关或关系不大的部分则可一带而过。

3.细读(Reading for Full Understanding)

在含有所需信息的段落或句子中要找到准确的内容,不但需要进一步重点细读有关的词语和句子,理解其表层意义,还需要对句子进行分析、归纳、推理,从而了解句子的真正内涵,做出符合逻辑的判断,回答较为复杂的问题。

在细读中遇到不熟悉的词语,可通过联系上下文,根据有关常识、背景知识以及利用构词规则来猜测词义。如果遇到难以理解的或结构复杂的长句,可借助语法知识,通过分析句子的结构,搞清主谓关系、指代关系以及修饰与被修饰关系等,从而达到更为深刻准确的理解。

通常我们应根据不同的目的,采用不同的方法进行阅读。例如,要了解一篇文章的大意,用略读的方法;要获取某些特定信息,用寻读的方法;要掌握确切的内容,要求深入地理解,就要用细读的方法。但在正式的考试中,这三种方法都是必不可少的。解答阅读理解题的过程,就是综合运用这几种方法的实践过程。一般可以按照以下方法来读:先用略读的方法,快速浏览全文,获得总体印象,了解文章大意和中心思想;再读问题,按照问题的要求进行寻读,在有关部分找出与所需信息有关的词语、句子;为准确回答问题,还需通过进一步细读来确定正确答案,为方便起见,可用笔画出重要的词语和句子,供答题时参考。题目做完后,最好再快读一遍全文,体会文章大意和主题,核实与确认答案是否符合文章原意。

主要的阅读技能包括:如何抓主题思想,如何找出主要事实或特定细节,如何进行推理与判断,如何确定难点以及如何猜测词义等。阅读理解题的应试策略一、熟悉阅读内容

研究生入学试题的阅读理解部分通常包括4~5篇短文(总词数约为1500~2000个)。文章多为说明性、论说性或叙述性文体。就题材而言,这些短文可以涉及各种社会问题、经济、历史、天文、地理、文化、风土人情、语言学习规律、国际问题、人际关系、文艺、体育、交通、动植物、医学、环境保护、生态平衡、社会进化、伦理道德、法律、哲学、心理学、现代科技普及读物等广泛的社会科学和自然科学的各个领域。但内容一般仅仅论及某学科或专题的一般知识,专业术语的应用是很有限的。如遇到较不常用的专业术语,往往在文中会有不同形式的解释或提示。因此,考生可以根据自己对短文所涉及学科的一般常识,应用自己的语言基本功,来读懂这些文章。

这些试题中,文章的难度略高于四级英语的水平,低于或相当于六级。在考试准备阶段,也可以有针对性地选读一些有关各学科基本知识的文章,增加一些背景知识,有意识地强化记忆有关词汇,以便能理解考试中将会遇到的各种内容的文章。二、掌握题目类型

阅读理解部分的短文后的问题通常有以下几类。

1.问文章主旨及大意(即主题思想)的题目

这类题目主要考查考生对短文中心思想、写作目的等问题的理解。这也是阅读一篇文章首先要抓住的要点。

主题思想也就是作者在文章中要表达的核心内容,也是作者写作的目的和始终要说明的问题。因此,找出中心思想是读懂一篇文章的关键所在,也是一项最重要的阅读技能。这类题目通常有以下表达形式:

Which of the following best reflects the main idea of the article?

Which statement best expresses the main idea of the passage?

The main(central)idea of this passage(selection,paragraph)is _______.

The theme(topic)of the passage is _______.

The author's purpose of writing this passage is _______.

What is the subject of this passage?

What does the passage mainly discuss?

回答此类问题最有效的方法是找出文章的主题句,因为主题句一般是对文章中心思想的最好概括。凡是与主题句意思相同或最接近的选择项一定是正确答案。主题句有两个特点:一是常用“主语+系词+表语”结构。主语是主题,表语是中心思想的概括。二是句子的意思比较笼统、概括,不涉及具体事实。主题句的位置通常在段首,少数在段末或段中。所以要找主题句就要特别注意段落的开头与结尾。

在确定表达中心思想的选择项或归纳主题思想时应注意,该选择项所包含的内容既要概括全部内容(而不是文章某些部分),又不要涉及文章中未提及的内容,也就是说,既不能太窄,也不能太宽。

给文章选择合适的标题也是抓中心思想的一种形式。标题往往是对文章主题思想最简练、最确切的概括。同样,所确定的选择项也应是最能全面概括全文内容并能准确表达中心思想的标题。

此类问题常见的形式有:

Which of the following is the best title of the passage?

Choose the best title for this passage.

Choose the title that best expresses the idea of the passage.

Select the most appropriate title.

Example 1

Read the following passage and answer the question below.

When George Washington became the first President of the United States,there was no permanent capital in which to house the government.During the Revolutionary War seven different cities had served as the national capital.In addition,the members of Congress could not agree as to where this permanent capital should be located.Some officials wanted it in the North,others wanted it in the South.Each of the states hoped that the capital might be established within its own state lines.

At last it was decided that the capital should occupy a section by itself,separate from any of the states.The place chosen was situated on the Potomac River.The land then belonged to the state of Maryland,but Maryland agreed to give it to the national government.The section was named the District of Columbia,after Christopher Columbus.The city itself was named Washington,after George Washington.

Work was begun on the new capital in 1791.In the year 1800Congress occupied the new Capital Building.The White House was opened at the same time as the home of all future Presidents.

Which of the following is the best title for this passage?

A.Washington's Presidency

B.The White House

C.Establishing the National Capital

D.How to Choose a Country's Capital【选C】本文内容是:在乔治·华盛顿任美国第一任总统时美国首都的选择、命名和建设过程。选项C概括了全文,因此是正确答案。选项A是说华盛顿任总统,不是文章主要内容。选项B的内容虽在第三段提到,但并不是本文论述的主要内容,也不是写本文的目的。选项D的表达太一般化,其中没有提及美国这一具体论述范围,不能从本文内容概括出这个标题,故A、B、D三项均不正确。

Example 2

Read the following passage and answer the question below.

Automobile accidents are as familiar as the common cold but far more deadly.Yet their causes and control remain a serious problem,difficult to solve.

Experts have long recognized that this discouraging problem has multiple causes;at the very least,it is a “driver-vehicle-roadway”problem.If all drivers exercised good judgment at all times,there would be few accidents.But this is rather like saying that if all people were virtuous,there would be no crime.

Improved design has helped make highways relatively much safer.But the tide of accidents continues to rise because of “man-failure”and an enormous increase in the number of automobiles on the road.

Attention is now turning increasingly to the third member of the accident-triangle—the car itself.Assuming that accidents are bound to occur,people want to know how cars can be built better to protect the occupants.

Which of the following statements gives the main idea of the passage?

A.Virtuous people would not commit crime.

B.Automobiles have to be built better.

C.Accidents always show poor driver judgement.

D.Road accidents must be reduced.【选D】本文讲交通事故是严重的、难以解决的社会问题,分析了与交通事故有关的三个主要因素:驾驶员、车辆与道路,提出了应从这三方面来减少事故的建议。很显然,全文的目的是要减少交通事故。因此选项D“必须减少交通事故”概括了文章的主旨,是正确答案。选项A是理解错误。原文是说不可能要求所有的人品德都很高尚,因而犯罪现象不可避免;同样的道理,要指望所有的司机时刻都能做出正确判断,从而减少交通事故,这也是不可能的。选项B“改进汽车的制造”只是一项具体的建议,不能概括全文的中心思想。选项C“交通事故总是表明司机没有做出正确判断”不符合原文内容,也不能概括全文主旨,因此也不正确。

Example 3

Read the following passage and do the exercise below.

The modern world is filled with material for reading.Newspapers,magazines and books all come immediately to one's mind.There are also the advertisements in newspapers and magazines,the labels on products we buy and the signs everywhere.We learn through reading.

Good readers know how to adjust their reading strategies to the material at hand.Reading a textbook,for example,is not the same as reading a newspaper or a magazine.This chapter presents selections for general reading,the kind that often does not take place in a classroom.In it,you will learn strategies for reading popular magazines,advertisements,essays,newspapers and non-fiction books as well as instructions for consumers.

When you read for general information,you must make use of many clues that help you understand the material.For example,knowing where the selection is from or the purpose of the selection tells you something about what to look for as you read.Looking for the key words in the selection alerts you to the main theme or topic.Finding the writer's point of view also helps you to read with more understanding.

Underline the topic sentence which tells the main idea of each paragraph.

第一段:第一句说现代社会给人们提供了大量阅读材料,以下是扩展句,列举了各种各样的读物,说明我们是通过这些材料来学习阅读的。

第二段:第一句说善于阅读的人知道如何根据自己所读的不同材料调整阅读方法(策略)。以下是扩展句,用的是举例的方法,说明要学会用不同的阅读方法来阅读不同体裁的文章。

第三段:第一句说阅读时必须充分利用能帮助理解的线索或暗示,以下是举例。

因此,每段的主题句都是第一句。

Example 4

Read the following passage quickly to determine its main idea.

Magazines have flooded the market.You find them everywhere—in the stationery,the drugstore,the beauty shop,the doctor's or dentist's office,the barbershop,railroad stations,bus terminals—wherever people seek a pleasant way to spend leisure time reading.Perhaps the greatest reason for the magazine's popularity in America is the demand for short,interesting stories and informative articles with a wealth of lively colorful illustrations.Another reason may be the exciting variety of magazines appealing to everyone's taste,whether for sports,fishing,the outdoors,romance,adventure fashion,news,westerns,mystery,movies,science,etc..

A.You can read magazines in the doctor's office.

B.Magazines are good for sportsmen.

C.Magazines are colourful and interesting.

D.Magazines are very popular.【选D】A项仅仅是文章中具体事例中的一个,不能概括整个文章的中心思想;B项也只是事实的一个方面;C项的论断与文章内容有关,但也不能体现全文的中心思想;D项与文章开头的主题句Magazines have flooded the market意思相同,既概括了全文大意,又点出了文章的中心思想,故D项是正确答案。

Example 5

Choose the best title for the passage.

In New York and other large cities,air pollution is an increasingly severe threat to human health.It can become a similar threat to plant and animal life,too.We cannot minimize the need to intensify our effort to preserve our most abundant and most valuable natural resource:pure air.

What is pure air?It is a mixture of gases and water vapor necessary for the main tenance of all higher forms of life on earth.Trees and man,orchids and fish,wild flowers and birds—in fact,just about every living thing uses one or more of the normal elements of pure air.

A.The Dangers of Air Pollution

B.The Preservation of Flowers and Fish

C.The Elements of Pure Air

D.Living Things and Pure Air【选A】选择项B包含了第一段和第二段分别出现的词汇,意思是文章内容的一部分,但并未包含文章的其他内容;C项是第二段中展开叙述的部分内容,作为概括全文的内容面太窄;D项也只能说明第二段的一部分内容,并未涉及第一段内容,不全面;选择项A才真正抓住了全文的中心,表明了作者的写作意图。A项中dangers一词和短文的第一句(主题句)中的threat一词是近义词;A项这个标题概括了文章的主题,因此,选择项A是正确答案。

Example 6

For the following paragraph,underline the sentence that contains the main idea(topic sentence).

There is a growing controversy over the use of drugs in sports.Denny Mclain,pitcher for the Detroit Tigers,claims that he needs pep pills or something to keep him going,especially when he is expected to be good at 162ball games a year.However,Dr.William Fowler,Jr.of the UCLA medical school,claims that studies show there is no increase in strength,motor performance or vital capacities(with drugs).

第一句There is a growing controversy over the use of drugs in sports 讲的是:对体育运动中使用药物的问题,目前存在着越来越多的争论。下面通过Denny Mclain和Dr.William Fowler两人截然相反的观点(用however连接)给出双方争论的具体事实,是对第一句的例证。所以第一句是主题句,概括了这段的中心思想。

Exercises

Ⅰ.Choose the best subtitle for each of the following paragraphs and write the main idea of each paragraph.

Passage A

Most mothers have a good piece of advice:never go into a supermarket hungry!If you go shopping for food before lunchtime,you'll probably buy more than you plan to.Unfortunately,however,just this advice isn't enough for consumers these days.Modern shoppers need an education in how—and how not—to buy things at the grocery store.First,you should check the weekly newspaper ads.Find out the items that are on sale and decide if you really need those things.In other words,don't buy anything just because it's cheaper than usual!Next,in the market,carefully read the information on the package,and don't let words like “New and Improved!”or “All Natural”on the front of a package influence you.Instead,read the list of ingredients on the back.Third,compare prices;that is,you should examine the prices of both different brands and different sizes of the same brand.

A.Compare Prices Before Purchasing.

B.Advice for Consumers.

C.Never Go into a Supermarket Hungry.

D.Don't Be Influenced by the Attractive Ads.

The main idea:________________________________________

Passage B

Another suggestion for consumers is to buy generic items instead of famous brands.Generic items in supermarkets come in plain packages.These products are cheaper because manufacturers don't spend much money on packaging or advertising.The quality,however,is usually identical to the quality of well-known name brands.In the same way,in buying clothes,you can often find high quality and low prices in brands that are not famous.Shopping in discount clothing stores can also help you save a lot of money.Although these stores aren't very attractive,and they usually do not have individual dressing rooms,not only are the prices low,but you can often find the same famous brands that you find in high-priced department stores.

A.Discount Stores Aren't Attractive.

B.Generic Items Are Cheaper.

C.Generic Items and Brand Names.

D.Plain Packages and Low Prices.

The main idea:________________________________________

Passage C

Wise consumers read magazine advertisements and watch TV commercials,but they do this with one advantage:knowledge of the psychology behind the ads.In other words,well-informed consumers watch for information and check for misinformation.They ask themselves questions:Is the advertiser hiding something in small print at the bottom of the page?Is there any real information in the commercial or is the advertiser simply showing an attractive image?Is this product more expensive than it should be because it has a famous name?With the answers to these questions,consumers can make a wise choice.

A.Advertisers Hide Something in Ads.

B.Attractive Image and Real Information.

C.Famous Names Are More Expensive.

D.Intelligent Consumerism.

The main idea:________________________________________

Ⅱ.Read the following news,then decide which of the four choices can be the headline of each news item.

Passage A

Busmen refused to carry pupils of a London comprehensive school yesterday after an inspector had nearly lost an eye and three other busmen had been injured when schoolchildren attacked a bus crew.

The crew imposed a ban on pupils of Kingsdale School in Alleyn Park.Dulwich,where a pupil was thought to have started the incident,has been suspended.

About 18pupils turned on a conductor on Monday after he had told a youth to stop smoking on the lower deck of a bus.

A.Busmen were injured and a pupil was suspended.

B.School children attacked bus crew.

C.Bus ban on pupils after attack on crew.

D.Conductor stopped smoking.

Passage B

Heroin worth more than $1million was distributed by accident in packets of frozen prawns delivered to Chinese restaurants in Glasgow after a ship from Hong Kong docked at Newcastle.Police have recovered most of the consignment and have launched a full-scale investigation.

A.Heroin was delivered to restaurants.

B.$1million heroin haul.

C.Police investigate heroin.

D.Heroin was discovered by police.

Ⅲ.Read the following article,then choose the statement that best expresses its central idea.

Robots designed and made in Japan by Fujitsu Fanus are to be marketed by Hydro Machine Tools,of Halstead,Essex(a member of the 600Group),in the UK at prices ranging from $25,000to $60,000.

Basically,the machines are programmed pick-and-place mechanical arms and hands,and will complement the company's existing numerically controlled lathes,making it possible to produce turned components without human attention.

One of the units,Sirobot 2,has five basic movements and can move bodily up and down,rotate on its own axis,move backwards and forwards horizontally,while the picking hand is able to twist or tilt.

As a result,the robot can supply five associated metal removal machines placed around it with stock metal and remove the finished components to off-loading stations.

Introducing the new units,600Group chairman Sir Jack Wellings said that although considerable initial effort will be needed in the UK to make such systems acceptable,their ultimate use was“absolutely inevitable”and the company was determined to be at the early stages of growth.

There are probably under 100such installations in the UK at the moment,compared with an estimated 20,000to 25,000in Japan—a figure described by Sir Jack as “frightening”.

The central idea of this article is:

A.Robots are used in Japan more than in Britain.

B.A British firm is going to market robots designed and made in Japan.

C.British workers will not accept robots.

D.Robots have five basic movements.

Ⅳ.Read the following passage and select the correct answer from the four choices.

In police work,you can never predict the next crime or problem.No working day is identical to any other,so there is no“typical”day for a police officer.Some days are relatively slow,and the job is boring;other days are so busy that there is no time to eat.I think I can describe police work in one word:variety.Sometimes it's dangerous.One day,for example,I was working undercover;that is,I was on the job,but I was wearing normal clothes,not my police uniform.I was trying to catch some muggers who were stealing money from people as they walked down the street.Suddenly,seven guys jumped out at me;one of them had a knife,and we got into a fight.Another policeman arrived,and together,we arrested three of the men;but the other four ran away.Another day,I helped a pregnant woman.She was trying to get to the hospital,but there was a bad traffic jam.I put her in my police car to get her there faster.I thought she was going to have the baby right there in my car.But fortunately,the baby waited to“arrive”until we got to the hospital.

Which of the following statements cannot summarize the main idea of this passage?

A.There is no“typical”day for a police officer.

B.Police work can be described as variety.

C.Police can never predict the next crime or problem.

D.Some days are slow and boring,while other days are too busy.

Ⅴ.Read the following passage and do exercises 1,2and 3according to the directions.

1.Read the following passage and select the answer which gives its main idea.

Significant changes in the pattern of our economic life have been taking place.These changes are calculated to affect profoundly the character of our labor unions as well as other familiar features of our developing industrialism.

The changes chiefly relevant here are technological—the emergence of large-scale mass production,the substitution of power-driven machines for the craftsman's tools,the linkage of machines in series and the evolution of the continuous-process industry,the resulting displacement of craft skill,and the wide eclipse of the artisan and the craftsman by the unskilled or semi-skilled factory operative.In many,if not most industries,the very craft skill which was the basis of union membership and of bargaining advantage is in the process of extinction.

A.The craftsman's tools have been replaced by machines.

B.New industries are being developed.

C.Semi-skilled workers are no longer needed.

D.Technological advances are affecting the nature and memberships of unions.

2.Choose the best title for the following passage.

The present mainland of the United States stretches,east to west,from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean.These two great bodies of water seem so clearly to be the “natural”east-west boundaries of the country that one sometimes gets the impression that the United States always existed in its present form.Yet,as we all know,this is not true.

The United States began as a narrow section of territory along the Atlantic coast.Later,with victory in the American Revolution,the boundary was extended as far west as the Mississippi River.This was the first step in the country's growth.

The second great step was the Louisiana Purchase.By this purchase,the country was suddenly doubled in size.The United States now extended well beyond the Mississippi River.The exact western limits of the new territory were not known;the treaty itself was not clear on this point.But this was not too important.The important fact was that no strong foreign power now held territory to the west of us.The young United States was able to grow in the direction of the distant Pacific.

A.The Territory of the United States.

B.The Louisiana Purchase.

C.The Growth of the United States.

D.The Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

3.Read the following paragraph and underline the topic sentence.

Because of the way prime-time television portrays them,America's elderly have a distorted image.Only 1out of every 50fictional television characters is over 65;in real life 1out of every 10persons has passed that age.Studies show that in 1,365night-time programs,older people are portrayed as stubborn,eccentric,ineffectual,sexually unattractive,and sometimes silly.Older women appear on television shows seldom and in roles with few romantic possibilities.Older men are shown as having evil powers.Because the largest group of people watching television is over 55,television could end up alienating its

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