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8．Which of the following organization replaced the GATT？（ ）[2012年真题]
C．the World Bank
D．APEC【答案】A【解析】A项，WTO为世界贸易组织；B项，IMF为国际货币基金组织；C项，the World Bank为世界银行；D项，APEC为亚太经济合作组织。1994年4月15日，在摩洛哥的马拉喀什市举行的关贸总协定乌拉圭回合部长会议决定成立更具全球性的世界贸易组织，以取代成立于1947年的关贸总协定。
Questions from 9 to 13 are based on the following passage:
As overseas sales and profits as a percentage of total sales and profits increase, there is likely to be more headquarters’ attention paid to foreign operations. Similarly, there will be pressures to centralize control in order to deal with the growing number of global competitors and the more homogenized（同质的） needs of global consumers. The need for centralization will present more challenges for MNEs in controlling their global operations.
One challenge involves management’s position in foreign facilities, where manager may see the erosion of their autonomy over marketing, production, and financial decisions. To keep those managers motivated, the company needs to include more nationalities on boards of directors and use cross-national management teams to develop practices that are globally rather than nationally oriented. But with such cross-national fertilization comes the risk of clashes between cultural traditions.
A second challenge for MNEs is a consequence of their size. A number of them already have sales larger than many countries’ GDPs. To manage such organizations may require even greater decentralization and more horizontal communication among subsidiaries in different countries that are mutually dependent on parts, products, and resources. This mutual dependence among subsidiaries may in turn require new hierarchical relationships within the organizational structure.[2010年真题]
9．Usually headquarters would pay more attention to their foreign business if（ ）.
A．their overseas sales and profits account for much of their total
B．their overseas sales and profits increase
C．their foreign operations perform well
D．they have a better foreign market【答案】A【解析】由第一段一句话“As overseas sales and profits as a percentage of total sales and profits increase, there is likely to be more headquarters’ attention paid to foreign operations”中可以得出答案为A项。
10．The better a company’s overseas performance is, the more necessary for the company to（ ）.
A．centralize its overseas control
B．control its global operations
C．guard against its competitors
D．present more challenges to itself【答案】B【解析】由“Similarly, there will be pressures to centralize control in order to deal with the growing number of global competitors and the more homogenized（同质的）needs of global consumers.”这句话可以看出，海外业绩越好，公司的集中控制压力越大，也越显重要。
11．If the company fails to control its foreign business, the headquarters’ position will be shaken in that（ ）.
A．its foreign management often challenges the headquarters
B．foreign management may make its own decisions without asking for the headquarters’ permission
C．foreign management might try to be independent in marketing, production, and financial decisions
D．headquarters’ decisions are often ignored【答案】A【解析】由“One challenge involves management’s position in foreign facilities, where manager may see the erosion of their autonomy over marketing, production, and financial decisions.”可以得出。
12．In order to （ ）, the company needs to include more nationalities on boards of directors and use cross-national management teams.
A．keep those foreign operation managers loyal to the headquarter
B．be nationally oriented
C．be globally oriented
D．keep the foreign management from independence【答案】C【解析】由“To keep those managers motivated, the company needs to include more nationalities on boards of directors and use cross-national management teams to develop practices that are globally rather than nationally oriented.”这句话得出答案。
13．The relation among subsidiaries preferred by an MNE is（ ）.
D．everlasting independence【答案】C【解析】由“To manage such organizations may require even greater decentralization and more horizontal communication among subsidiaries in different countries that are mutually dependent on parts, products, and resources.”这句话可以推断出为管理的需要，跨国公司偏好子公司之间拥有更多的平级交流。
Questions from 14 to 18 are based on the following passage:
In addition to visible trade, which involves the import and export of goods, there is also invisible trade, which involves the exchange of services between countries.
Transportation service across national boundaries is an important kind of invisible trade. International transportation involves different means of transport such as ocean ships, planes, trains, trucks and inland water vessels. However, the most important of them is maritime ships. When an export arranges shipment, he generally books space in the cargo compartment of a ship or charters a whole vessel. Some countries such as Greece and Norway have large maritime fleets and earn a lot by way of this invisible trade.
Insurance is another important kind of invisible trade. In the course of transportation, a cargo is vulnerable to many risks such as collision, pilferage, fire, storm, exploration, and even war. Goods being transported in international trade must be insured against loss or damage. Large insurance companies provide service for international trade and earn fees for other nations’ foreign trade. Lloyd’s of London is a leading exporter of this service.
Tourism is yet another important form of invisible trade. Many countries may have beautiful scenery, wonderful attractions, places of historical interest, or merely a mild and sunny climate. These countries attract large numbers of tourists, who spend money for traveling, hotel accommodations, meals, taxis, and so on. Some countries depend heavily on tourism for their foreign exchange earnings, and many countries are making great efforts to develop their tourism.
The fourth type of invisible trade meriting attention is called immigrant remittance. This refers to the money sent back to home countries by people working in a foreign land. Import and export of labor service may be undertaken by individuals, or organized by companies or even by states. And this is becoming an important kind of invisible trade for some countries.
Invisible trade can be as important to some countries as visible trade is to others. In reality, the kinds of trade nations engage in are varied and complex, often a mixture of visible and invisible trade.[2010年真题]
14．According to the definition of invisible trade, the followings belong to invisible trade except（ ）.
A．foreign trade consultation
D．on-line software maintenance【答案】A【解析】无形贸易涉及的是国家之间服务的交换与买卖，A项对外贸易咨询符合条件。
15．Lloyd’s is the leading company of（ ）.
D．import and export【答案】B【解析】由第三段内容可以看出Lloyd是顶级的为货物提供保险的公司。
16．Immigrant remittance means（ ）.
A．money sent back to home country by the people working abroad
B．money paying for the commodity they buy
C．the salary they own
D．the money people possess【答案】A【解析】由“This refers to the money sent back to home countries by people working in a foreign land. Import”可以得出答案。
17．According to the meaning of the passage, China at present engages mostly in（ ）.
C．combination of the two
D．commodity trade【答案】C【解析】最后一段中“In reality, the kinds of trade nations engage in are varied and complex, often a mixture of visible and invisible trade.”这句话可以推断出中国目前是有形贸易和无形贸易相结合的贸易方式。
18.How many types of invisible trade are mentioned in the passage？（ ）
Questions from 19 to 23 are based on the following passage:
China’s trade volume surged in 2010. The development wasn’t only in quantity, but also in quality — namely structure diversification.
The European Union, the United States and Japan remained China’s top 3 largest trading partners in 2010.
But trade volumes between China and other emerging economies increased also. Bilateral trade volumes between China and other BRIC nations — Brazil, Russia and India — all jumped more than 40 percent. That made India China’s tenth largest trading partner.
Huang Guohua, Statistics Department Director of General Administration of Customs said “Trade volume between China and emerging economies increased faster than that with the traditional market. It indicates that China’s foreign trade is diversifying, and showing less dependence on the traditional partners. It’s a good way to reduce risks.”
Data also shows that foreign trade volumes developed dramatically in China’s middle and western areas last year. Although the southern province of Guangdong still topped others in the total volume of import and export.
Huang Guohua said “The export volume of middle and western areas surged over 40 percent year on year in 2010. The speed was 10 percentage points higher than the country’s total. It indicates that industrial structure has improved in these areas.”
The import and export volume of private enterprises surged faster than the country’s average in 2010, with 47 percent year on year growth. Experts say China’s foreign trade development reduced dependence on foreign-funded enterprises.
2010 imports and exports reached a historical high with a strong sign that the country’s trade sector has shrugged off the global economic recession. [2011年真题]
19.Which country is not China’s top 3 largest trading partners in 2010？（ ）
20.According to the passage, what does the word “BRIC ” mean ？（ ）
A．Brazil, Russia , India and China
B．Britain, Romania , Italy and Canada
C．Bulgaria, Russia , Indonesia and Colombia
D．Belgium, Romania, Israel and Cuba【答案】A【解析】金砖四国（BRIC）代表的是Brazil、Russia、India和China这四个国家。
21．In which terms can we say that China’s foreign trade is diversifying？（ ）
A．the development in quantity
B．the development in quality
C．the development in quantity and quality
D．the development in quotient【答案】A【解析】文章第三段内容表示，中国与其他新兴经济体贸易量增加的速度超过传统贸易伙伴的增速，体现了中国的对外贸易多样化的形式。
22．What indicates that industrial structure has improved in middle and western areas？（ ）
A．Trade volumes between China and other emerging economies increased also.
B．Trade volume between China and emerging economies increased faster than that with the traditional market.
C．The southern province of Guangdong still topped others in the total volume of import and export.
D．The speed was 10 percentage points higher than the country’s total.【答案】D【解析】从“The speed was 10 percentage points higher than the country’s total. It indicates that industrial structure has improved in these areas.”这句话中得出答案。
23．According to the passage, which enterprises surged faster than the country’s in 2010？（ ）
D．foreign-funded enterprises【答案】C【解析】从“The import and export volume of private enterprises surged faster than the country’s average in 2010, with 47 percent year on year growth.”中得出答案。
Questions from 24 to 28 are based on the following passage:
There are a lot of “markets”. Some markets are local; you may be willing to compare prices for fruits and vegetables in a few shops in your local area, but you would be unwilling to go across the city to find out more information. Some markets are national. Many firms sell goods across the country. Some markets are global or international. Increasingly, more and more countries are involved in the world economy, whether they know about it or not.
However, there are many other markets: labor markets for job seekers, supermarkets for grocery shopping, foreign exchange market, capital market, real estate markets and so on. And we must not overlook the fact that many services such as banking, insurance are also bought and sold on a worldwide scale.
But what is a “market”? Most people would say, “A market is a place where enough buyers and sellers meet face to face, so that a market price for goods and services can be determined.” However, with rapid growth of telecommunications, it is no longer necessary for buyers and sellers to physically meet to form a market.
You may hear the terms “global market” or “global economy”. What do those terms mean to you? What do they mean to business today? Thanks to the Information Age we are seconds away from the rest of world. Business everywhere recognizes that they can expand their market to anywhere and do business at any time because of the Internet. Now, the Internet is the fastest growing market in the world today, yet buyers and sellers don’t even have to leave their own homes to transact business.
In the modern world, a market can take many forms. Generally speaking, a market may be housed in a place, or it may exist only in people’s minds. And a market can be any place or process that brings together buyers and sellers with a view to agreeing to a price.[2011年真题]
24．Which of following markets is not mentioned in the passage？ （ ）
25．The stock market, banking services market and capital market can be described as（ ）.
D．real estate market【答案】B【解析】股票市场、银行服务、资本市场都属于金融市场。
26．Which of following is the fastest developing market according to the passage？（ ）
D．international trade market【答案】C【解析】从“Now, the Internet is the fastest growing market in the world today”这句话中可以得出答案。
27．Which of following statements is True according to the passage？（ ）
A．You are willing to find fruits and vegetables at a lower price all over the country
B．If a firm sell its products across the country, then it is doing international business
C．Insurance can not be sold on a worldwide scale
D．Buyers and sellers can do business without meeting face to face【答案】D【解析】D项表达的意思与“However, with rapid growth of telecommunications, it is no longer necessary for buyers and sellers to physically meet to form a market.”这句话的内容相一致。
28．In the modern world, what a market can take？（ ）
A．A market can be housed in a place.
B．A market can exist in people’s mind.
C．A market can be a place where buyers and sellers meet for bargain.
Questions from 29 to 33 are based on the following passage:
China’s entrance into the World Trade Organization（WTO） will benefit not only itself but the whole world, said an article in People’s Daily.
For the last nine years negotiations have gone on concerning restoring China’s status in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade（GATT）,which is replaced by WTO. The negotiation have drawn attention from all over the world.
Only when consensus is reached on key issues, can the final decision, involving more than 100 member states , be made.
It is expected that China’s bid will eventually pass, though final details and a timetable have not been decided yet, said the People’s Daily.
Over the past years, China has taken important steps to conform with international trade regulations based on the Uruguay-round talks. It is clear that China has made its markets more open, both in commercial and tertiary industries. Since 1992, a series of measures has been taken in lowering tariff rates and reducing non-tariff barriers.
These reforms demonstrate China’s readiness to join the WTO. Serious disputes, however, still remain between China and some key member states over the obligations China should undertake.
China should be responsible for reform compatible with its current development level, the article stressed. In future negotiations, we should insist on this point and give the member states a clearer understanding of the practical situation in China.
China has a population of 1.2 billion, which increases by 10 million each year. The government must be very cautious in reforms to prevent dramatic economic downfalls, which may have disastrous results not only in China but around the world.
China’s per capita income remains less than $500, there are still 70 million people who do not have enough for basic food and clothing. The negotiators should bear in mind the country’s development level when they decide the obligations China should assume.
Otherwise, negotiation results will be meaningless, or worse; they could stifle the Chinese market. It is like the old Chinese saying: “Killing the hen to get the eggs.”
China is in transition from a planned economy to a market one. With such a big population and large economic development scale, a transitional period is necessary for any new reform measure. This is also the case when adopting some international practice.[2012年真题]
29．What is the meaning the word “consensus” in the passage？（ ）
30．What is the former economy mode in China before its reform？ （ ）
B．Market economy and planned economy
D．None of the above【答案】C【解析】改革开放前，我国是以计划经济为主体的。文章中最后一段说中国由计划经济转为市场经济。
31．The proverb “Killing the hen to get the eggs” means（ ）.
A．more haste, less speed
B．strike while the iron is hot
C．look before you leap
D．never run for two hares at the same time【答案】A【解析】题目中谚语的意思为杀鸡取卵，比喻贪图眼前的好处而不顾长远利益。A项是说欲速则不达；B项是说趁热打铁；C项是说三思而后行；D项是说同时追两兔，两头都落空，意为一心不能二用。
32．According to the passage, what kind of measures has been taken in China since 1992 ？（ ）
A．lowering tariff rates
B．reducing non-tariff barriers
C．opening all markets
D．Both A and B【答案】D【解析】文中“Since 1992, a series of measures has been taken in lowering tariff rates and reducing non-tariff barriers”，因此选D项。
33.The best title for the passage is（ ）.
A．History of WTO
B．From A Planned Economy to A Market One
C．Welcome to WTO
D．China’s Entrance Into WTO Benefits All【答案】D【解析】A项，描述的是WTO的发展历史，显然不符合文章大意；B项，没有提到中国与WTO；D项，中国加入WTO会有利于所有的国家，也不符合文章主旨。