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关于萧伯纳 萧伯纳（George Bernard Shaw）是现代爱尔兰戏剧家，鲁迅称他为“世界的文豪”，于1856年出生在爱尔兰都柏林一个小公务员的家庭。中学毕业后，因家贫，没有能够上大学，在一家公司里当职员。二十岁时，迁居伦敦。当时英国社会主义运动高涨，他在参加社会活动的同时，开始文艺创作，先是写小说，所著《一个脱离社会的社会主义者》（An Unsocial Socialist），尖锐批判资本主义。九十年代，他受了易卜生的社会剧的影响，并鉴于英国戏剧界的萎靡不振，决心从事戏剧创作。到1950年萧伯纳以九十四岁的高龄逝世，半个多世纪里他写了五十一个剧本。他惯用似非而是的俏皮话，无情揭露、批判资本主义社会种种不合理现象。资本主义的政治、经济、宗教、文化无不是他抨击的对象，其影响之大，遍及全世界。然而，他本身毕竟是个改良主义者，所以始终不能指出彻底改造社会的道路。
萧伯纳的主要剧作有《鳏夫的房产》（Widowers' Houses, 1892）、《华伦夫人的职业》（Mrs Warren's Profession, 1893）、《武器与人》（Arms and the Man, 1894）、《魔鬼的门徒》（The Devil's Disciple, 1897）、《凯撒和克丽奥佩拉》（Caesar and Cleopatra, 1898）、《人与超人》（Man and Superman, 1903）、《巴巴拉少校》（Major Barbara, 1905）、《卖花女》（Pygmalion, 1912）、《伤心之家》（Heartbreak House, 1919）、《回到玛士撒拉》（Back to Methuselah, 1921；旧译《千岁人》）、《圣女贞德》（Saint Joan, 1923）、《苹果车》（The Apple Cart, 1928）等。
萧伯纳在剧本序言中说，在Higgins身上有英国著名语言学家Henry Sweet（1845–1912）的影子。但这与剧情和剧本的中心思想没有多大关系。《卖花女》写于1912年，1914年首次上演，1916年出版，是萧伯纳最有趣的一个剧本。1938年修改，并添上了一些场景，拍摄电影，也很成功，曾在我国放映。王佐良先生在《萧伯纳戏剧三种》的“译文序”中称《卖花女》“情节有趣，发人深思。至今显得十分新鲜。”这是很恰当的评语。《剑桥英国文学史简编》（The Concise Cambridge History of English Literature）也承认《卖花女》是“可喜的喜剧”，但不喜欢它的结局，这正是资产阶级的偏见。1956年美国抒情歌曲作家Alan Jay Lerner把萧伯纳的这部剧本改编成音乐喜剧《窈窕淑女》（My Fair Lady），把原来的结尾改成Higgins和Eliza“大团圆”，并拍摄了电影，轰动一时。
London at 11.15 p.m. Torrents of heavy summer rain. Cab 3whistles blowing frantically in all directions. Pedestrians running for 456shelter into the market and under the portico of St. Paul's Church 78(not Wren's cathedral but Inigo Jones's church in Covent Garden 910vegetable market), among them a lady and her daughter in evening 11dress. All are peering out gloomily at the rain, except one man with 12his back turned to the rest, who seems wholly preoccupied with a notebook in which he is writing busily.13
The church clock strikes the first quarter.
THE DAUGHTER [in the space between the central pillars, close 1415to the one on her left] I'm getting chilled to the bone. What can 1617Freddy be doing all this time? He's been gone twenty minutes.18
THE MOTHER [on her daughters' right] Not so long. But he 19ought to have got us a cab by this.
A BYSTANDER [on the lady's right] He wont get no cab not until 2021half-past eleven, missus, when they come back after drop-ping 22their theatre fares.
THE MOTHER But we must have a cab. We cant stand here until 23half-past eleven. It's too bad.2425
THE BYSTANDER Well, it aint my fault, missus.
THE DAUGHTER If Freddy had a bit of gumption, he would have 26got one at the theatre door.27
THE MOTHER What could he have done, poor boy?
THE DAUGHTER Other people got cabs. Why couldnt he?28
Freddy rushes in out of the rain from the Southampton Street 29side, and comes between them closing a dripping umbrella. He is a young man of twenty, in evening dress, very wet around the ankles.
THE DAUGHTER Well, havnt you got a cab?30
FREDDY Theres not one to be had for love or money.31
THE MOTHER Oh, Freddy, there must be one. You cant have 32tried.33
THE DAUGHTER It's too tiresome. Do you expect us to go and 34get one ourselves?3536
FREDDY I tell you theyre all engaged. The rain was so 37sudden: nobody was prepared; and everybody had to take a cab. Ive been to Charing Cross one way and nearly to Ludgate Circus the 38other; and they were all engaged.39
THE MOTHER Did you try Trafalgar Square?
FREDDY There wasnt one at Trafalgar Square.
THE DAUGHTER Did you try?40
FREDDY I tried as far as Charing Cross Station. Did you expect 41me to walk to Hammersmith?
THE DAUGHTER You havnt tried at all.42
THE MOTHER You really are very helpless, Freddy. Go again; and dont come back until you have found a cab.434445
FREDDY I shall simply get soaked for nothing.4647
THE DAUGHTER And what about us? Are we to stay here all 4849night in this draught, with next to nothing on? You selfish pig –
FREDDY Oh, very well: I'll go, I'll go. [He opens his umbrella and 5051dashes off Strandwards, but comes into collision with a flower girl who is hurrying in for shelter, knocking her basket out of her hands. A 52blinding flash of lightning, followed instantly by a rattling peal of 53thunder, orchestrates the incident.]54
THE FLOWER GIRL Nah then, Freddy: look wh' y' gowin, deah.
FREDDY Sorry. [He rushes off.]
THE FLOWER GIRL [picking up her scattered flowers and 5556replacing them in the basket] Theres menners f' yer! Tə-oo 57banches o voylets trod into the mad. [She sits down on the plinth of the column, sorting her flowers, on the lady's right. She is not at all a 58romantic figure. She is perhaps eighteen, perhaps twenty, hardly 5960older. She wears a little sailor hat of black straw that has long been 6162exposed to the dust and soot of London and has seldom if ever 63been brushed. Her hair needs washing rather badly: its mousy color 6465can hardly be natural. She wears a shoddy black coat that reaches 6667nearly to her knees and is shaped to her waist. She has a brown 68skirt with a coarse apron. Her boots are much the worse for wear. 6970She is no doubt as clean as she can afford to be; but compared to 7172the ladies she is very dirty. Her features are no worse than theirs; 73but their condition leaves something to be desired; and she needs 74the services of a dentist.]
THE MOTHER How do you know that my son's name is Freddy, 75pray?76
THE FLOWER GIRL Ow, eez yə-ooa san, is e? Wal, fewd dan y' dəooty bawmz a mather should, eed now bettern to spawl a pore 7778gel's flahrzn than ran awy athaht pyin. Will ye-oo py me f'them? [Here, with apologies, this desperate attempt to represent her dialect without a phonetic alphabet must be abandoned as unintelligible 79outside London.]8081
THE DAUGHTER Do nothing of the sort, mother. The idea!8283
THE MOTHER Please allow me, Clara. Have you any 84pennies?85
THE DAUGHTER No. Ive nothing smaller than sixpence.86
THE FLOWER GIRL [hopefully] I can give you change for a 87tanner, kind lady.88
THE MOTHER [to Clara] Give it to me. [Clara parts reluctantly.] Now[to the girl] this is for your flowers.89
THE FLOWER GIRL Thank you kindly, lady.
THE DAUGHTER Make her give you the change. These things are only a penny a bunch.90
THE MOTHER Do hold your tongue, Clara. [to the girl] You can keep the change.
THE FLOWER GIRL Oh, thank you, lady.
THE MOTHER Now tell me how you know that young gentleman's name.
THE FLOWER GIRL I didnt.91
THE MOTHER I heard you call him by it. Dont try to deceive me.92
THE FLOWER GIRL [protesting] Who's trying to deceive you? I 939495called him Freddy or Charlie same as you might yourself if you 9697was talking to a stranger and wished to be pleasant.
THE DAUGHTER Sixpence thrown away! Really, mamma, you 98might have spared Freddy that. [She retreats in disgust behind the pillar.]
An elderly gentleman of the amiable military type rushes into the 99shelter, and closes a dripping umbrella. He is in the same plight as Freddy, very wet about the ankles. He is in evening dress, with a light 100101overcoat. He takes the place left vacant by the daughter.
THE GENTLEMAN Phew!
THE MOTHER [to the gentleman] Oh, sir, is there any sign of its 102stopping?103104
THE GENTLEMAN I'm afraid not. It started worse than ever about two minutes ago. [He goes to the plinth beside the flower girl; puts up his foot on it; and stoops to turn down his trouser ends.]
THE MOTHER Oh dear! [She retires sadly and joins her daughter.]105
THE FLOWER GIRL [taking advantage of the military 106gentleman's proximity to establish friendly relations with him] If it's 107108worse, it's a sign it's nearly over. So cheer up, Captain; and buy 109a flower off a poor girl.110
THE GENTLEMAN I'm sorry. I havnt any change.111
THE FLOWER GIRL I can give you change, Captain.112113
THE GENTLEMAN For a sovereign? Ive nothing less.114
THE FLOWER GIRL Garn! Oh do buy a flower off me, Captain. 115116I can change half-a-crown. Take this for tuppence.117
THE GENTLEMAN Now dont be troublesome: theres a good 118119120girl. [trying his pockets] I really havnt any change – Stop: 121heres three hapence, if thats any use to you. [He retreats to the other pillar.]
THE FLOWER GIRL [disappointed, but thinking three halfpence 122better than nothing] Thank you, sir.123
THE BYSTANDER [to the girl] You be careful: give him a 124125flower for it. Theres a block here behind taking down every 126blessed word youre saying. [All turn to the man who is taking notes.]
THE FLOWER GIRL [springing up terrified] I aint done nothing 127wrong by speaking to the gentleman. Ive a right to sell flowers if I 128129keep off the kerb. [hysterically] I'm a respectable girl: so help 130me, I never spoke to him except to ask him to buy a flower off me. 131[General hubbub, mostly sympathetic to the flower girl, but 132133deprecating her excessive sensibility. Cries of Dont start 134hollerin. Who's hurting you? Nobody's going to touch you. Whats 135136137138the good of fussing? Steady on. Easy, easy, etc., come 139from the elderly staid spectators, who pat her comfortingly. Less 140patient ones bid her shut her head, or ask her roughly what is 141142wrong with her. A remoter group, not knowing what the matter is, 143144crowd in and increase the noise with question and answer: 145Whats the row? What-she do? Where is he? A tec taking her 146147148149down. What! him? Yes: him over there: Took money off the gentleman, etc.]150
THE FLOWER GIRL [breaking through them to the gentleman, 151crying wildly] Oh, sir, dont let him charge me. You dunno what it 152153means to me. Theyll take away my character and drive me on 154the streets for speaking to gentlemen. They –
THE NOTE TAKER [coming forward on her right, the rest 155crowding after him] There! There! There! There! Who's hurting you, 156you silly girl? What do you take me for?
THE BYSTANDER It's aw rawt: e's a genleman: look at his bə-157oots. [explaining to the note taker] She thought you was a copper's 158nark, sir.
THE NOTE TAKER [with quick interest] Whats a copper's nark?159160
THE BYSTANDER [inapt at definition] It's a – well, it's a 161162copper's nark, as you might say. What else would you call it? A 163sort of informer.164
THE FLOWER GIRL [still hysterical] I take my Bible oath I 165never said a word –
THE NOTE TAKER [overbearing but good-humored] Oh, shut up, shut up. Do I like a policeman?166
THE FLOWER GIRL [far from reassured] Then what did you take down my words for? How do I know whether you took me down 167168169right? You just shew me what youve wrote about me. [The note taker opens his book and holds it steadily under her nose, though 170the pressure of the mob trying to read it over his shoulders would 171172upset a weaker man.] Whats that? That aint proper writing. I cant read that.173
THE NOTE TAKER I can. [reads, reproducing her 174pronunciation exactly] 'Cheer ap, Keptin; n'baw ya flahr orf a pore 175gel.'
THE FLOWER GIRL [much distressed] It's because I called him 176177Captain. I meant no harm. [to the gentleman] Oh, sir, dont let 178him lay a charge agen me for a word like that. You –179
THE GENTLEMAN Charge! I make no charge. [to the note taker] Really, sir, if you are a detective, you need not begin protecting 180me against molestation by young women until I ask you. Anybody could see that the girl meant no harm.181
THE BYSTANDERS GENERALLY [demonstrating against 182183police espionage] Course they could. What business is it of 184185yours? You mind your own affairs. He wants promotion, he 186187188does. Taking down people's words! Girl never said a word to 189190him. What harm if she did? Nice thing a girl cant shelter from the 191rain without being insulted, etc., etc., etc. [She is conducted by the more sym-pathetic demonstrators back to her plinth, where she 192resumes her seat and struggles with her emotion.]193
THE BYSTANDER He aint a tec. He's a blooming busybody: thats what he is. I tell you, look at his bə-oots.194
THE NOTE TAKER [turning on him genially] And how are all 195196your people down at Selsey?
THE BYSTANDER [suspiciously] Who told you my people come 197from Selsey?198199
THE NOTE TAKER Never you mind. They did. [to the girl] 200How do you come to be up so far east? You were born in Lisson 201Grove.
THE FLOWER GIRL [appalled] Oh, what harm is there in my 202leaving Lisson Grove? It wasnt fit for a pig to live in; and I had to 203204205pay four-and-six a week. [in tears] Oh, boo-hoo-oo –206
THE NOTE TAKER Live where you like: but stop that noise.207
THE GENTLEMAN [to the girl] Come, come! He cant touch 208you: you have a right to live where you please.
A SARCASTIC BYSTANDER [thrusting himself between the note 209taker and the gentleman] Park Lane, for instance. Id like to go into 210211the Housing Question with you, I would.212
THE FLOWER GIRL [subsiding into a brooding melancholy 213over her basket, and talking very low-spiritedly to herself] I'm a good girl, I am.214
THE SARCASTIC BYSTANDER [not attending to her] Do you 215know where I come from?216
THE NOTE TAKER [promptly] Hoxton.217218
Titterings. Popular interest in the note taker's performance in-creases.219
THE SARCASTIC ONE [amazed] Well, who said I didnt? Bly 220me! you know everything, you do.221
THE FLOWER GIRL [still nursing her sense of injury] Aint no 222call to meddle with me, he aint.
THE BYSTANDER [to her] Of course he aint. Dont you stand it 223224from him. [to the note taker] See here: what call have you to 225226227know about people what never offered to meddle with you?
THE FLOWER GIRL Let him say what he likes. I dont want to 228have no truck with him.229
THE BYSTANDER You take us for dirt under your feet, dont 230you? Catch you taking liberties with a gentleman!
THE SARCASTIC BYSTANDER Yes: tell him where he come 231232from if you want to go fortune-telling.
THE NOTE TAKER Cheltenham, Harrow, Cambridge, and 233India.
THE GENTLEMAN Quite right.234
Great laughter. Reaction in the note taker's favor. 235236237Exclamations of He knows all about it. Told him proper. Hear 238239him tell the toff where he come from? etc.240
THE GENTLEMAN May I ask, sir, do you do this for your 241242living at a music hall?243
THE NOTE TAKER Ive thought of that. Perhaps I shall some 244day.
The rain has stopped; and the persons on the outside of the 245crowd begin to drop off.
THE FLOWER GIRL [resenting the reaction] He's no gentleman, 246he aint, to interfere with a poor girl.247
THE DAUGHTER [out of patience, pushing her way rudely to 248249the front and displacing the gentleman, who politely retires to the 250other side of the pillar] What on earth is Freddy doing? I shall get 251252pneumownia if I stay in this draught any longer.
THE NOTE TAKER [to himself, hastily making a note of her 253254pronunciation of 'monia'] Earlscourt.
THE DAUGHTER [violently] Will you please keep your impertinent 255remarks to yourself.256257
THE NOTE TAKER Did I say that out loud? I didnt mean to. 258259I beg your pardon. Your mother's Epsom, unmistakeably.
THE MOTHER [advancing between the daughter and the note 260261262taker] How very curious! I was brought up in Largelady Park, near Epsom.263
THE NOTE TAKER [uproariously amused] Ha! Ha! What a 264265devil of a name! Excuse me. [to the daughter] You want a cab, do you?266
THE DAUGHTER Dont dare speak to me.267
THE MOTHER Oh please, please, Clara. [Her daughter 268repudiates her with an angry shrug and retires haughtily.] We 269should be so grateful to you, sir, if you found us a cab. [The note 270271taker produces a whistle.] Oh, thank you. [She joins her daughter.]272
The note taker blows a piercing blast.273
THE SARCASTIC BYSTANDER There! I knowed he was a 274plain-clothes copper.275
THE BYSTANDER That aint a police whistle: thats a sporting 276whistle.277
THE FLOWER GIRL [still preoccupied with her wounded 278feelings] He's no right to take away my character. My character is 279the same to me as any lady's.280
THE NOTE TAKER I dont know whether youve noticed it; but the rain stopped about two minutes ago.281
THE BYSTANDER So it has. Why didnt you say so before? 282And us losing our time listening to your silliness! [He walks off towards the Strand.]
THE SARCASTIC BYSTANDER I can tell where you come from. 283Youcome from Anwell. Go back there.284
THE NOTE TAKER [helpfully] Hanwell.
THE SARCASTIC BYSTANDER [affecting great distinction of 285286287288289speech] Thenk you, teacher. Haw haw! So long. [He 290291touches his hat with mock respect and strolls off.]
THE FLOWER GIRL Frightening people like that! How would he 292like it himself?
THE MOTHER It's quite fine now, Clara. We can walk to a motor bus. Come. [She gathers her skirts above her ankles and hurries off towards the Strand.]293
THE DAUGHTER But the cab – [Her mother is out of hearing.] Oh, how tiresome! [She follows angrily.]
All the rest have gone except the note taker, the gentleman, and the flower girl, who sits arranging her basket, and still pitying herself in