中级通用英语综合训练教程(txt+pdf+epub+mobi电子书下载)

作者:张锦涛 郝丽华 主编

出版社:南京大学出版社

格式: AZW3, DOCX, EPUB, MOBI, PDF, TXT

中级通用英语综合训练教程

中级通用英语综合训练教程试读:

前言

当今世界军事舞台上,外语的作用举足轻重,与国防的关系日益密切。军队的国防语言能力是一个国家战斗力的重要构成部分,一支外语能力过硬、国际视野开阔、知晓行动区域语言文化的军队能够更加自信地遂行使命任务。为满足遂行多样化军事任务对新型军事人才国防语言能力的需要,我们编写了《国防语言课程系列教材》。该系列教材自出版以来,已被多所院校采用,受到一致好评。《国防语言综合技能训练系列教程》为《国防语言课程系列教材》相配套的英语综合技能训练教材,对教材起到补充和增强的作用,包括《通用英语综合训练系列教程》和《军事英语同步训练系列教程》。《通用英语综合训练系列教程》包括《初级通用英语综合训练教程》、《中级通用英语综合训练教程》和《高级通用英语综合训练教程》三册。《中级通用英语综合训练》的适用对象为大学一、二年级学员,旨在强化学员英语基本技能、全面提升学员英语综合应用能力,为后续的军事英语学习奠定坚实的基础。

本书包括听力、阅读、翻译、写作四项技能的综合训练,每部分包括题型解析、主题材料分析以及同步训练三个模块。在题型解析模块中,结合大学英语综合技能考试中对学员听、读、译、写能力的要求,分析各个题型特点,并以具体考题的解题思路演绎解题技巧。本书中所选用的语言材料多数来自历年大学英语四级考试真题,选材规范,实用性强。在主题材料分析模块中,所选语言材料涵盖“文化教育”、“社会生活”、“科普技术”、“商业经济”四类英语考试中常见主题,通过进一步运用题型解析模块中的解题技巧分析主题材料,将理论与实践融会贯通。同步训练模块的练习设计遵循由浅入深、循序渐进的原则,分为基础练习(四级水平)和提高练习(六级水平)两部分,供学员课外自学自测,丰富的题量和分级练习的形式,符合学员的认知发展特点,学员的英语综合技能也能够步步进阶。

囿于编者的经验和水平,本书在设计和内容上恐难免有疏漏,我们热诚地欢迎更多的反馈意见和建议,以便本书不断得到完善。编者2017年10月目录

前言

第一章 听力 Part Ⅰ 听力题型解析Part Ⅱ 听力材料分析Part Ⅲ 同步训练

第二章 阅读 Part Ⅰ 阅读理解题型解析Part Ⅱ 阅读材料分析Part Ⅲ 同步训练

第三章 翻译 Part Ⅰ 翻译题型解析Part Ⅱ 同步训练

第四章 写作 Part Ⅰ 写作题型解析Part Ⅱ 实战创作Part Ⅲ 常用句型Part Ⅳ 同步训练

第五部分 参考答案第一章 听力答案参见此处Part Ⅰ 听力题型解析

英语听力理解能力是大学英语阶段非常重要的语言输入能力,主要是指学生获取口头信息的能力,包括理解主旨大意、重要事实和细节、隐含意义,判断话语的交际功能、说话人的观点、态度等。随着社会对大学生英语听力能力需求进一步提升,全国大学英语四、六级考试委员会自2016年6月考试起对四、六级考试的听力试题作局部调整。四级听力试题取消短对话和短文听写,新增短篇新闻3段,六级听力取消短对话和短文听写,将听力篇章由3篇调整为2篇,新增讲座/讲话3篇。总体来说,调整后的听力题型更符合国内外主流英语能力测试的标准,当然对学生的听力理解能力也有了更高的要求。本章由预测题、推断题、细节题及主旨题的解题技巧入手,结合具体的真题实例,进一步巩固练习,步步为营,以帮助学生进一步提高听力理解能力。一、听力技巧分析之预测题(一)命题特点

听力考试由于时间限制,或由于情绪紧张,考生们通常觉得没有完全听懂某篇文本,只抓住了只言片语。如果能在正式听到听力文本之前对文本有个预测,大概了解文本的主题,问何种题目,题目出现的位置等,那么对考生而言就十分有利。我们可以通过阅读题目的选项,找到以上问题的突破点。(二)预测技巧

1.利用重复词语,推测主题

根据各题选项中出现的相同或相似的词语,推测出文章的大致主题,从而在听音频时可以更容易、更准确地理解文章大意。

A)Job security.

B)Good labour relations.

C)Challenging work.

D)Attractive wages and benefits.

根据预览选项中的关键词job security、labor relation、work和wages and benefits可知,此篇短文主旨与人们对工作的满足感有关。

A)Many countries have not taken measures to create enough

jobs.

B)Few countries know how to address the current economic

crisis.

C)Few countries have realized the seriousness of the current

crisis.

D)Many countries need support to improve their people's

livelihood.

根据预览选项中的关键词“enough jobs”“economic crisis”“realized the seriousness of the current crisis”和“people's livelihood”可知,此篇短文主旨与各国对经济危机的反应相关。

2.利用选项特点,推测问题。

● 选项以动词原形开头,问题大多是关于建议某人做某事,或表示为了某个目的而做某事。

● 选项是动名词或现在分词,问题大多是正在进行的动作或某种计划、打算。

● 选项是不定式,问题大多是目的、计划、承诺等。

● 选项中有should\had better\would like等一类的词,问题大多是关于观点、态度、建议。

● 选项中有think\like\dislike\enjoy\agree\disagree\mind\reasonable\wise\absurd\disgusting等一类的词,问题大多是关于某人的评价或感受。

● 选项中含有形容词或副词的比较级或最高级,或其他表示比较的词,问题可能涉及人或事物之间的异同点或优劣的比较。

● 选项均为概括性较强的名词性短语,且各选项内容差异较大,问题很可能是关于文章主题或文章中出现的某一事件主题。

A)Pay back their loans to the American government.

B)Provide loans to those in severe financial difficulty.

C)Contribute more to the goal of a wider recovery.

D)Speed up their recovery from the housing bubble.

预览选项都是以动词原形开头,问题很可能是建议某人做某事。

Q.What does President Obama hope the banks will do?

A)To sell a particular product.

B)To build up their reputation.

C)To promote a specific service.

D)To attract high-end consumers.

预览选项都是以不定式开头,问题很可能是关于目的、计划等。

Q.What does the speaker say is the purpose of many organization using prestige advertising?二、听力技巧分析之主旨题(一)命题特点

主旨题大多为新闻和篇章听力中常见的题型之一,主要考查学生对新闻和篇章主旨大意(main idea)和主题(topic)的总结归纳能力,由于新闻和篇章听力涉及的内容范围较为广泛,而且词汇量也比较大,新鲜的知识和讯息也较多,学生理解听力材料主旨的难度较大。但新闻和篇章听力材料的文体特点决定了它们的主题句(topic sentence)一般在文章的开头,所以新闻和篇章开头部分往往是主旨题考查的重点,基本上只要听懂了第一句的大意,就能找到主旨题的答案。

Question:What is the news report mainly about?

A)The International Labour Organization's key objective.

B)The basic social protection for the most vulnerable.

C)Rising unemployment worldwide.

D)Global economic recovery.

如上题,只要听到第一句“The International Labour Organization says the number of people without jobs is increasing.”,就不难选出C)项。(二)命题形式

由于主旨题一般出现在听力材料的第一句或开头部分,主旨题一般也设置在一则听力材料问题中的第一题。

主旨大意题通常的提问方式有如下几种:

● What is the news report/passage/dialogue/lecture mainly about?

● What is the best title for the passage?

● What does the speaker tell us?

● What are the two speakers talking about/discussing?

● What are the two speakers doing?

● What's the topic of the passage?

而在主旨题的选项中间,混淆、误导学生的选项可能较多,因而增加了做题的难度。

Question:What are big fast food chains in New York City required to do according to the new rule?

A)Serve standardized food nationwide.

B)Put calorie information on the menu.

C)Increase protein content in the food.

D)Offer convenient food to customers.

提问方式除了上述通常情况外,还有一些特殊情况。如上题,提问的方式非常具体,看上去像是细节题,但这边的问题和答案构成了整篇文章的主旨,而答案则是关于“what to do”的问题,是主旨中的核心内容,可以在文章的第一句找到出处,文章接下来的文字则围绕着“how”“why”“when”等细节展开。(三)解题技巧

1.放松心情,答题前浏览选项

答题前浏览选项非常重要,因为几乎每个选项中都有与听力材料相关的因素存在,这些相关因素可以让你在听之前做好一些词汇和内容的准备,了解相关信息,可以做到有备而听、临阵不慌,就像平时我们做听力练习前先要把听力中的陌生单词逐个过一遍一样,这样可以避免在听的过程中遇到生词而造成的紧张和不安,避免听力理解过程突然短路。

首先分别看每道题的四个选项,寻找其中的相同之处,初步可以猜测这道题大致是什么问题。比如,如果都是句子或名词短语,而且几个选项之间在结构和内容上也没有多少相同之处,那很可能就是问这篇文章的主旨,也就是我们所说的主旨题。而且这样的题目一般出现在文章的第一题。因为在听力的各项题型中,新闻、篇章和讲座一般都会有一个比较集中的主题,通常在开篇时都会把所讲内容的主旨或主要意思第一时间告知大家。长对话是日常口语交流,因而随意性较大,对话的主旨和目的出现在开头几率较其它几种题型要小得多。

然后,在发现了共同点的基础之上,还需要将各选项互相比较一下,抓住他们的不同之处,这些不同之处是我们判断选项是否符合听力内容的关键,这样可以做到有目的地听,也就把握住了重点和区分各个选项的关键点。如果条件允许,还可以将每道题的四个选项进行归类排列,这样可以更加突出我们听的重点。对于水平较高的同学来说,可以将这几个听力材料中的所有选项进行一个整体考虑,猜测整个材料将要讲的内容,以及主要的考点,虽然猜测的内容不一定与听力材料内容一致,但可以在听的过程中逐步修改更新所猜测的内容,这样每个选项内容和文章的相关程度就基本了然于胸了。

2.把握开头,成功过半

其实,在预读各题各选项之后,你仍然不能确定第一道题目是否是主旨题。当你听完开头的几句话之后,第一题的各选项的正误判断基本可以建立了,这时无论第一题是主旨题还是细节题都已经没有关系了,因为整个听力材料的主要思想已经把握住了。下面的内容与开头之间的关系无非就是归纳、演绎、承接、转折等,相对而言,只要把握住了关键点,后续的题目应该问题不大。

3.5W1H是重点,what最重要

一般的听力材料都是记叙文体,所以5W1H的原则一定要记住,而作为事件型的听力材料,该事件就是文章的主旨或主题,这对我们来说,就要回答好what这个问题,因此在听的过程中,我们随时都要把what的内容给它丰富起来,其他的4W1H只是what的修饰和细节,通常出现在细节题中,不会在主旨题里发挥作用。

4.前后对照,保持一致

一旦对材料的主旨心中有数,后续的题目也就有了明确的指引。在听的过程中,把握好听力材料是如何围绕着主旨开展的,遵循怎样逻辑,这样就能把握听力材料的主要结构、主体内容和关键点,用笔或脑做好相应的记录。在做好所有题目之后,再回过头来检查各选项的答案,看看这些答案是否与文章主旨的思想内容保持一致,如有明显矛盾的地方则需要仔细思考,通盘斟酌,有可能是主旨大意没有搞准确,也有可能是细节或推理不符合主旨大意。这样才能从整个听力材料的角度出发验证你对文章主旨大意整体的把握和全面的领会。三、听力技巧分析之推断题(一)命题特点

推断题大多为长对话与短文听力的考查重点。对话部分的听音难度并不大,涉及的话题贴近生活,且较口语化。因此,出题人倾向于在题目本身做文章,即通过提高推断题的考查数量来增加题目难度。

听力短文在形式上与阅读理解基本相同,都是根据材料所包含的信息回答后面提出的问题,但听力短文材料的难度比阅读理解小得多,只相当于一般的口语材料。此部分考查学生对于短文的整体理解能力及信息提取能力。鉴于听音难度较大,推断题出现在该部分,其推理论证的过程都不会太难。(二)命题形式

推断题的典型问法有:

Where does the conversation most likely occur?

Where are the speakers now?

What is the probable relationship between the speakers?

What is the man's job?

What can be inferred from the conversation?

What does the man imply?

What does the woman mean?

What can be inferred from the passage?

What do we learn from the passage?

What does the man say about something?

推断题在考查学生逻辑推理能力的同时,也考查对某个细节更深入的理解,原因在于推理是建立在细节之上的。对话中通常会出现考察地点的题型,答案设置有两大特点:一是对话涉及几个地点;二是正确答案往往不会在对话中直接出现,需要考生在对话里寻找与备选项涉及的某一地点相关的蛛丝马迹,如在该地点通常做何事或该地点有何特有事物,进而推导出正确答案。在对话中,考查职业或对话双方关系题型的备选项多为相关的名词或名词短语,看到选项即看到了问题。但是该类题型的正确答案通常不会直接出现,要求考生捕捉对话中的关键信息。(三)解题技巧

1.未听先读,从选项入手

多数学生在听力题型上一筹莫展的很大原因在于抓不住重点。那么何为重点?如何在未听之前就找到重点?关键在于“侦探精神”,解剖选项,搜寻当中的联系。(1)看长相

在听力中,一组备选项的构成形式常常相同,主要有以下几种情况:

第一种情况是备选项均为“动词原形+宾语”形式:或为祈使句、或为省略to的动词不定式短语,表明问题可能考查行为、请求、命令或建议等,也可能考查省略to的动词不定式短语所表述的内容。

A)Find out more about the five schools.

B)Send their children to a better private school.

C)Talk with their children about their decision.

D)Put Keith in a good boarding school.

M:Well,Enderby High is very good—and Carlton Abbey even better,70%of their pupils go on to university.Donwell isn't so good.Only 8%.And Enderby Comprehensive in Saint Mary's not much more,about 10%.

W:Well,it seems like there is a broad selection of schools.But we have to find out more than statistics before we can decide.

Q:What are the speakers going to do next?

在2014年6月第一套真题第二篇长对话中,第四题的选项均为“动词原形+宾语”形式,如上文所述,可能考查行为、请求、命令或建议等。带着这一预测信息听录音,捕捉到“a broad selection of schools”和“have to find out more than statistics before we can decide”这两处信息时,能推断出本题考查行为,同时记录关键词“a broad selection of”和“find out”,不难选出正确答案为A)。

第二种情况是备选项均以“动词ing”形式开头:问题可能考查文中的某一具体信息,也可能考查正在进行的动作或当前的状态。

A)Reading newspapers.

B)Chatting with friends.

C)Listening to the daily news.

D)Planning the day's work.

M:Ah,that's a good question.In the morning,I just sit in comfort and read the papers to catch up with the news.On the way home at night,I relax with a good book or chat with friends or even have a game of bridge.

Q:How does the man spend his time on the morning train?

四个备选项均以“动词ing”形式开头,如上文所述,可能考查具体信息、正在进行的动作亦或当前状态。带着这一预测信息听录音,捕捉到“read the papers to catch up with the news”和“chat with friends”这两处信息时,应将其与A)、B)两个选项做一联想,同时记录下前者发生在morning,后者发生在night。这样,考生只需在问题出现时将选项信息与记录内容匹配即可。

第三种情况是备选项均为动词不定式短语:问题很可能与行为、目的或原因等相关。

A)To look for a job as a salesperson.

B)To have a talk with Miss Thompson.

C)To place an order for some products.

D)To complain about a faulty appliance.

W:Sales Department.Can I help you?

M:Oh,yes,I hope so.My name is Kings Bruce of GPF Ltd.We need some supplies for our design office.

Q:What is the man's purpose in making the telephone call?

四个备选项均为动词不定式短语,如上文所述,可能考查行为、目的或原因等,听音时可重点关注对话中是否出现与其相关的信息。当听到女士问“Can I help you?”时,应意识到男士很可能会道出其致电的目的。男士随后所说的“We need some supplies for our design office.”正是辨析该题正确答案的依据。

第四种情况是备选项均由“By”引出:问题可能考查做某事的方法。

第五种情况是备选项均为名词或名词短语:问题可能考查对话中出现的某一具体信息。如果名词或名词短语概括性较强,也可能考查对话的主旨。

A)Declining health.

B)Lack of attention.

C)Loss of motivation.

D)Improper behavior.

…yet they rated the students who had received eight hours or less as having the most trouble recalling all the material,learning new lessons and completing high-quality work.Teachers also reported that these students had more difficulty paying attention.

Q:According to the experiment,what problem can insufficient sleep cause in students?

2006年12月四级真题第一篇短文听力中,第二题的四个备选项均为名词短语,如上文所述,可能考查对话中出现的某一具体信息。锁定每个选项当中的关键词,听音时重点关注短文中是否出现与之相关的信息。通过听前预判捕捉细节,根据所听到的信息,不难发现本文讨论的是学生缺乏睡眠导致注意力不集中的问题,答案为B)。

第六种情况是备选项均为“介词+地点名词”:问题可能询问对话中提到的关于地点的具体信息,也可能询问对话发生在哪里。

第七种情况是备选项均为表示时间的词:问题可能询问某事发生的时间。(2)辨人物或事物

一组备选项均以“It”开头,说明听音重点为某一事物;一组备选项均以“They”开头,说明听音重点可能为某些人,也可能为某些(类)事物。(3)辨男女

一组备选项以He、She、The man或者The woman开头,说明听音重点是男士或女士。(4)找相同

当一组备选项中的两个选项形似时,可以将这两项所述内容作为听音重点,答案可能为其一。

A)It is used by more people than English.

B)It is more difficult to learn than English.

C)It will be as commonly used as English.

D)It will eventually become a world language.

W:Hi Leo,why do you say English would become the world language?

M:Well.For one thing,it's so commonly used,the only language that is used by more people is Chinese.

Q:What does the man say about Chinese?

在2015年12月第一套四级真题第一篇长对话中,第一题的四个备选项中A)和C)两个选项形似,分别为“It is used by more people than English”和“It will be as commonly used as English”。锁定这两个选项之后,能大概推断出本题考查的可能是某种语言和英语的使用频率进行比较,在听音时重点关注相关信息即可。男士所说的“it's so commonly used,the only language that is used by more people is Chinese.”正是辨析该题正确答案的依据。(5)找不同

当一组备选项的两个选项表意相反或对立时,可以将这两项所述内容作为听音重点,答案可能为其一。

A)Participate in group discussions.

B)Take turns to make presentations.

C)Listen to the teacher's explanation.

D)Answer the teacher's questions.

W:Yes,we do.And in the first part of the lesson,the first half hour,the man who runs the class will go through some particular part of the car,and we'll learn about it…

Q:What do the people who attend the class do in the first part of the lesson?

C)选项强调“听”,D)选项强调“说”,两者语义对立,答案很可能在这两项中。果然,对话中女士说在课程的前半部分老师会对汽车进行讲解,他们则听取和学习。C)选项正确。

2.边听边记,关注细节

做好听前预判,考生即可有重点、有倾向性地开始听音。然而,在具体的听力播放中,我们仍需关注以下细节:(1)逻辑关系要关注

表示转折、因果或条件等的连词向来都是听音重点,它们的出现往往伴随着新信息的产生,且引出的内容多为说话者想要强调的地方。而此类典型的连词有but、however、because、since、unless和if等。(2)一问一答多领悟

既然是对话,就可能涉及问答。面对问答式的对话内容,有两点需要注意:一是弦外之音;二是“复式回答”。弦外之音,顾名思义,回答者不会直接给出答案,而是通过反问、双重否定等形式间接作答。“复式回答”是指答语为“词(组)+句子”的形式,即后一句才是对答案的详细解释。考生要作出正确的推断。

3.纵向浏览,横向发散

在听力开始前,充分利用选项会使听音变得轻松又容易。浏览已知选项,推断问题的内容和大意,为听音时充分获取信息做准备。(1)纵向浏览:一篇长对话或短文会有3~4个问题,而每个问题各有四个备选项,所谓的“纵向浏览”就是要求考生在听音前通读这12~16个备选项,提取重复信息或关键词,预判短文的大概内容。(2)横向发散:指在进行整体预测之后,分析各问题的四个备选项。四、听力技巧分析之细节题

细节题是听力考题中占比最大的题型。一般来说,遇到此类问题,只要听懂原文的考点就应该能答对题目。

在题目中,经常考察的细节包括时间、地点、主要人物、事件、各类数字等,提问的问题一般为:wh-question形式。

该题型要求考生听到文中出现时间、数字时一定要特别敏感,及时做好笔记;注意因果连词(如:because、so、due to等)和转折连词(如but、however、though等)引导的句子,因为这些地方往往就是考点。

很多学生在听细节时有个误区,就是觉得所有细节都可能考,所以在听的时候关注的细节太多,以至于舍本逐末。其实,考题往往考查一些重要细节,并非面面俱到。可见,学会在听的时候抓住重要细节十分重要。那么,听时重点关注哪些细节呢?如下几个方面值得特别注意:(一)举例处

对于文章中举例处的考法有很多,比如问所举例子的具体内容、例子的作用等。在听到举例的时候要关注举例的上下文,说话的人为什么要举这个例子,要证明什么,表明什么观点、态度,还有例子本身说了哪些内容。

为了抓住举例细节,在听的时候就要注意听标志举例的关键词,比如:For example、like、for instance、in this case、in another case、take the case of、on this occasion等。听到这些关键词时,就应该知道接下来是在举例,要对其特别关注了。(二)定义处

听力考题中经常会出现对某一术语的定义或对某一词语的解释。标志下定义的关键词有:it refers to、that is、that means、which means、this is to say、in other words、in another words等。(三)因果关系处

因果关系是听力经常考查的内容。在听原因细节时,要注意什么是因,什么是果。注意英语中对因果的表达方式不同,诸如:so、therefore、consequently、as a consequence、for this purpose、result in、lead to表示前因后果。而result from、stem from、originate from、spring from、arise out of则表示前果后因。(四)结尾处

结尾往往会出考题,所以一定要注意。以本节篇章听力第一篇为例,其最后一题的信息就出现在结尾处。

如果文中听到了表示结尾的词,例如:to sum up、to conclude、in conclusion、in summary、to summarize等,则更要提高注意力。(五)提及数字、地点、人物的地方

听到数字、地点、人物时,要学会用简略的方法做笔记,而且只要自己做的笔记自己可以看懂就好了,比如可以用缩写、数字、单词的开头等,在同时出现两个以上数字、地点、人物时,注意记录的内容自己可以识别。听到数字、地点、人物时注意它们所代表的内容、所指的内容以及有同类内容时它们的区别。(六)相似或者对比处

当听到的内容有相似地方或者对比的关系时,要特别注意这个细节。很可能会在后来的细节题中考察他们的关系。表示相似的表达有:like、similar、resemblance、to resemble、similarity。表示对比的表达有:in contrast with、whereas、on the contrary、different from、on the other hand等。(七)时间状语处

短文中经常会叙述什么时间发生了什么事情或描述某人某事在某个时候的状态,这些地方经常成为设题点。所以,在听到时间词,或者when、while、as等引导的时间状语从句出现时,则要注意与其相关的信息。

A)Teaching mathematics at a school.

B)Doing research in an institute.

C)Studying for a college degree.

D)Working in a hi-tech company.

本题为2013年6月的大学英语四级听力第30题,题目选项都是ing分词的动词短语。由此可以推测题目可能问到关于某人工作或者学习情况的细节信息。

该题题目为:What was Matty Sallin doing when he created an alarm clock?是一个提问细节信息的题目。原文信息为:“When Matty Sallin was working on a degree in art and technology at university,he got an interesting assignment in the electronics class:Create something for the household.He decided to create an alarm clock.”,显然答案就是时间状语部分的信息。

为了答好细节题,除了如上提到的听音重点之外,还需注意如下几个方面:(1)细节题错误选项的特征

细节题的错误选项通常有以下几个特征:无中生有、答非所问、偷梁换柱。无中生有,指选项中出现了原文根本没有的内容,针对此类选项只要相信自己,认真回顾笔记就应该没有问题。答非所问,是指选项是文中的细节,但是这个细节不是这个问题的答案。针对这种干扰项只要笔记记得有逻辑,把握文章的主线就可以应对。偷梁换柱,指选项好像是文中提到的,但是如果仔细看就会发现意思完全相反或者有些地方表达不准确。这就需要把原文的细节听准确,将选项看准确。(2)不要被原词迷惑

如果看到原词就选的话,那就太草率了。有些考生只是听到了细节中的某个词,至于整句话说的是什么没有听到,又看到自己听到的词刚好在选项中就像抓到救命稻草似的迫不及待地选了,其实结果是很干脆地跳入了陷阱。出题人很喜欢出这样的错误选项,出现了文中的原词,容易迷惑考生。当遇到这种情况的时候一定要注意,仔细分析各个选项然后再选。(3)注意同义替换

和出现原词的选项往往是错误项相反,正确选项的关键词很可能不是原词,这就是出现了单词的同义替换。通常替换的词都是比较常见的,不会有太大的难度,但是需要考生在相对短的时间内能够识别出来,这就要求在平时做题的时候注意对于同义词的补充归纳,能够一眼看出这些词。(4)细节题的问法

细节题的提问方式也是有规律可循的,例如:What happened to    ?What reason is given for     ?According to the     ?How does the speaker describe    ?等。把握住这些出题规律和出题思路,听原文的时候就很好定位了。Part Ⅱ 听力材料分析第一节 文化教育类Section ADirections:In this section,you will hear two news reports.At the end of each news report,you will hear two or three questions.Both the news report and the questions will be spoken only once.After you hear a question,you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A),B),C)and D).Questions 1 to 3 are based on the following news item.

1.A)Electricity shortage.

B)Food shortage.

C)The heavy burden of studies.

D)Overtime exposure to sunlight.

2.A)1 hour.

B)2 hours.

C)3 hours.

D)2.5 hours.

3.A)Students in Southeast Asia have great pressure in study.

B)Genetic factors in visual impairment and blindness.

C)Students in Southeast Asia should spend more time

outdoors.

D)The reason why students in Southeast Asia have pressure.Questions 4 and 5 are based on the following news item.

4.A)How college students can handle their psychological

problems.

B)Why college students are more likely to have stress

problems.

C)Why sufficient sleep is important for college students.

D)How college students can improve their sleep habits.

5.A)It is not easy to improve one's sleep habits.

B)It is not good for students to play video games.

C)Making last-minute preparations for tests may be less

effective than sleeping.

D)Students who are better prepared generally get higher scores

in examinations.Section BDirections:In this section,you will hear two long conversations.At the end of each conversation,you will hear four questions.Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once.After you hear a question,you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A),B),C)and D).Questions 8 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

6.A)It is used by more people than English.

B)It is more difficult to learn than English.

C)It will be as commonly used as English.

D)It will eventually become a world language.

7.A)Its popularity with the common people.

B)The effect of the Industrial Revolution.

C)The influence of the British Empire.

D)Its loan words from many languages.

8.A)It has a growing number of newly coined words.

B)It includes a lot of words from other languages.

C)It is the largest among all languages in the world.

D)It can be easily picked up by overseas travelers.Questions 9 to 12 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

9.A)A year of practical training.

B)A happy childhood.

C)A pleasant neighborhood.

D)A good secondary education.

10.A)He is good at carpentry.

B)He is academically gifted.

C)He should be sent to a private school.

D)He ought to get good vocational training.

11.A)Donwell School.

B)Carlton Abbey.

C)Enderby High.

D)Enderby Comprehensive.

12.A)Find out more about the five schools.

B)Send their children to a better private school.

C)Talk with their children about their decision.

D)Put Keith in a good boarding school.Section CDirections:In this section,you will hear two passages.At the end of each passage,you will hear three or four questions.Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once.After you hear a question,you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A),B),C)and D).Questions 13 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard.

13.A)Monitor students' sleep patterns.

B)Help students concentrate in class.

C)Record students' weekly performance.

D)Ask students to complete a sleep report.

14.A)Declining health.

B)Lack of attention.

C)Loss of motivation.

D)Improper behavior.

15.A)They should make sure their children are always

punctual for school.

B)They should ensure their children grow up in a healthy

environment.

C)They should help their children accomplish high-quality work.

D)They should see to it that their children have adequate sleep.Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.

16.A)Their teachers meet them only in class.

B)Their parents tend to overprotect them.

C)They have little close contact with adults.

D)They rarely read any books about adults.

17.A)Writers and lawyers are brought in to talk to students.

B)Real life cases are simulated for students to learn law.

C)More teacher and writer collaborates are being set up.

D)Opportunities are created for children to become writers.

18.A)Children like to form partnerships with each other.

B)Children are often the best teachers of other children.

C)Paired Learning cultivates the spirit of cooperation.

D)Sixth graders can teach first graders as well as teachers.Section DDirections:In this section,you will hear a recording of lecture or talk followed by three or four questions.The recording will be played only once.After you hear a question,you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A),B),C)and D).Questions 19 to 21 are based on the recording you have just heard.

19.A)The reason why New Zealand children seem to have

better self-control.

B)The relation between children's self-control and their future

success.

C)The health problems of children raised by a single parent.

D)The deciding factor in children's academic performance.

20.A)Children raised by single parents will have a hard time in

their thirties.

B)Those with a criminal record mostly come from single parent

families.

C)Parents must learn to exercise self-control in front of their

children.

D)Lack of self-control in parents is a disadvantage for their

children.

21.A)Self-control can be improved through education.

B)Self-control can improve one's financial situation.

C)Self-control problems may be detected early in children.

D)Self-control problems will diminish as one grows up.Section A

News Report One

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