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版权信息COPYRIGHT INFORMATION书名：欧亚学刊(新4辑)作者：余太山 李锦绣排版：吱吱出版社：商务印书馆出版时间：2016-10-01ISBN：9787100126632本书由商务印书馆有限公司授权北京当当科文电子商务有限公司制作与发行。— · 版权所有 侵权必究 · —論 文Fire-steels in Eastern and Western EurasiaHayashi Toshio1. Introductionth
In Hungary we find fire-steels with flints among remains of the 7 - th8 centuries. The most popular type of fire-steels has a shape with a triangular bulge at the center and two horns at each of the two ends. In some cases the bulge is big but the horns are small: Type I (Fig.1). In other cases the bulge is small but the horns are long and curl upwards: 1Type II (Fig.2). These types of fire-steels were widely spread in Central, Eastern, and Northern Europe, including Russia and the Ukraine.Fig.1: Type I (Baranya) Fig.2: Type II (Baranya)thth
During the same period, the 7 - 8 centuries, fire-steels with flints also appeared in Japan. The most popular type has a shape with a triangular bulge in the center and two horns at each end. In some cases a bulge is big but the horns are very small or non-existent: Type I (Fig.3). In other cases horns are big and curl upwards: Type II (Fig.4). 2 Most of fire-steels of Japan have a small hole on top of the bulge. These types were spread not only in Japan but also in the Maritime Province of Russia, though the fire-steels found in Maritime Province have no hole.Fig.3: Type I (Chiba) Fig.4: Type II (Chiba)
Is this just a coincidence or not? In this paper I will investigate the origins of various types of fire-steels and their distribution in Eurasia.2. First Mention of Fire-steels in Japanese Historical Sources
There are several opinions concerning when fire-steels first appeared in Japan. Some scholars think that the fire-steel appeared in ththththe 5 century CE (Ogawa 1979), while others date it to the 6-7 centuries (Takashima 1985; Tsurumi 1999) or the second half of the thth7- 8 centuries (Yamada 1989; Seki 2002). The earliest mention of a fire-steel is seen in the Kojiki (Records of Ancient Matters of Japan). During his campaign in Eastern Japan, Prince Yamato Takeru was attacked with fire in Sagamu Province (present-day Kanagawa Prefecture ).Then the Ruler of the land set fire to the moor. So, knowing that he [Yamato Takeru] had been deceived, he opened the mouth of the bag which his aunt, Her Augustness Yamato-hime, had bestowed on him, and saw that inside of it there was a fire-striker. Hereupon he first mowed away the herbage with his august sword, took the fire-striker and struck out fire, and, kindling a counter-fire, burnt [the herbage] and drove back [the other fire], and returned forth, and killed and destroyed all the Rulers of that Land, and forthwith set fire to and burnt them. (Chamberlain 1883: 261-262) [Source 1]
Yamato Takeru was a mythical prince of the Yamato dynasty, so we cannot determine the date of his birth and death. The Kojiki was completed in 712 CE. Therefore, we can confirm that the fire-steel was thin use at the beginning of the 8 century.
According to the “Okura-sho shiki” in the Engishiki, an ancient book of codes and procedures used in national rites and prayers, compiled in 905, Japanese envoys went to China and presented the Tang Emperor with 500 taels of silver, 200 rolls of thick silk fabric called Mizuori no ashiginu, another 200 rolls of thick silk fabric called Mino no ashiginu, […other various kinds of silk and cotton], 10 pieces of ignition crystal, 10 pieces of agate, 10 tools of ignition iron, […and other objects]. [Source 2]
“Ignition crystal” and “agate” must have been used as a “flint” and 3the “ignition iron” must refer to a fire-steel . This historical source, Engishiki, does not mention the date of the Japanese envoys, but envoys from Japan were dispatched to Tang China on about fifteen occasions from 630 until 838. Concerning the date of Japanese envoys, the Chinese encyclopaedic source book, Cefu Yuangui (Prime thTortoise of the Record Bureau), compiled at the beginning of the 11 century , provides interesting information.nd
According to Cefu Yuangui, “in the fourth month of the 22 year 4 of the Kaiyuan era, envoys came from Japan , and presented the emperor with 200 rolls of thick silk fabric called Mino no ashiginu and another 200 rolls of thick silk fabric called Mizuori no ashiginu”. [Source 3] This list of presents must show a selection and therefore probably did not include sets of flints and a fire-steel. A set of flints and a fire-steel would have been an article like the thick silk fabric known in Japan but unknown in China.
These historical sources show that flint and fire-steel sets were thrare at the beginning of the 8 century in Japan.3. Fire-steels Found at Archaeological Sites in Japanth
Some archaeologists have dated the early fire-steels to the 6 - th7 centuries, but the excavated state of them is problematical. I will give an example. Dwelling No.63 at the Morita site in Ibaraki Prefecture where a triangular “fire-steel” was found that was dated to ththe 6 century, but this “fire-steel” might have belonged to a later dwelling. Moreover, this “fire-steel” has a simple triangular shape and has neither horns nor a small hole. Therefore this unearthed article may not be a fire-steel and should be dated to a later period (Seki 2002: 130).
From Barrow No.060 at Matsumukaisaku in Chiba Prefecture, a Type II fire-steel (Fig.4) was found and was dated to the middle of the th7 century. However, the findspot of this fire-steel was uncertain, and it may have come from the dromos or the ditch in front of the stone chamber, not from chamber itself (Tsurumi 1999: 49). Consequently, it is unclear whether the fire-steel was contemporary with the burial chamber (Seki 2002: 131).
Two more fire-steels were recovered from the barrows of Tochigi thand Saitama Prefectures, dated to the 7 century (Fig.5) (8.1×2.0×th0.4cm) and the second half of the 7 century (Fig.6) (7.8×2.7×0.5cm), 5respectively (Tsurumi 1999: 61-62). The two barrows were destroyed by robbers and it is unclear whether the fire-steels were contemporary with the burials (Seki 2002: 131). A Type II fire-steel was recovered from Dwelling No.027B at the Hibiri-nishi site, Abiko City, Chiba thPrefecture, and has been dated to the first half of the 7 century (Fig.7) (5.1×1.6×0.3cm) (Tsurumi 1999: 48), but this could also have come from a dwelling belonging to a later time (Seki 2002: 131).Fig.5 Fig.6 Fig.7thth
In the 8 - 9 centuries we can establish the existence of fire-steels, especially in the Kanto Region: Chiba, Tochigi, Ibaraki, Saitama, and Kanagawa Prefectures (See Figs.3, 8-15).678Fig.8 Fig.9 Fig.10 91011Fig.11 Fig.12 Fig.13 121314Fig.14 Fig.15 Fig.16
Most of the earliest fire-steels in Japan have been found at dwelling sites, while some of them were found at burial sites. All were found in the Kanto Region.th
Dating from around the 10 century, fire-steels have been found from dwellings as well as sites of worship throughout Japan, with the ththexception of Hokkaido. Picture scrolls of the 12 - 14 centuries show various persons with a bag for a fire-steel and flint suspended from their belts (Fig.17) or with a sword on the left side (Fig.18) (Seki 2002: 139).1516Fig.17 Fig.18 4. Earliest Fire-steels in Europe
The earliest type of fire-steels in Europe had a shape like an ndthelongated plate, and they are dated to the 2 - 5 centuries (Fig.19) (Голубева 1965: 257) or earlier. Elongated fire-steels have been recovered from the burials of the Roman Imperial Period belonging to the Lipica and Przeworsk Cultures in Poland (Kokowski 1985) (Fig.20) and in Germany (Fig.21). According to Kokowski’s study, fire-steels have been found at 94 burial complexes of which 66 burial complexes were accompanied by weapons and only four were female burials th(Kokowski 1985: 124). In the 5 century an elongated fire-steel with a bigger loop appeared. (Fig.22)17181920Fig.19 Fig.20 Fig.21 Fig.22 th
In the 6 century an elongated fire-steel had two loops on either end (Fig.23). This fire-steel from Eichstetten Grab 54 was found in a bag with two pieces of flint, a knife, scissors, and a razor on man’s right side (Fig.24).2122Fig.23 Fig.24 thth
In the 6 - 7 centuries there appeared a new type of fire-steel: trianglar with two horns. This type of fire-steel was widely spread from the Rhine Basin (Fig.25-27) to Eastern Europe (Fig.17, 28). Almost at the same time a small triangular fire-steel with bigger and longer horns also appeared (Fig.29, 30).232425Fig.25 Fig.26 Fig.27 262728Fig.28 Fig.29 Fig.30
Is it possible that an elongated fire-steel with two loops had been changed into a triangular fire-steel with two horns? I cannot for the moment decide whether this is plausible or not.
A small triangular fire-steel with longer horns had been widely spread not only in Eastern Europe, but also in Northern Europe (Fig.31) and furthermore in Russia (Fig.31). B. A. Kolchin considered 29that this type of fire-steel, the “kalach”—shaped fire-steel , was the earliest in Novgorod and that it was made until the beginning of the th3012 century but he did not mention the date of the first appearance (Fig.32). (Колчин 1959: 103)3132Fig.31 Fig.32 5. Earliest Fire-steels in Central Asia and Siberia
Was there any relationship between the triangular fire-steels with horns of Europe and of Japan? Now I will make a brief survey of the earliest fire-steels of Central Asia and Siberia(Fig.33).Fig.33Chronological table of types of fire-steels (Колчни1959).th
Finds of fire-steels before the 10 century are very rare. The thearliest fire-steel from Western Siberia (Fig.34) was dated to the 10 - th12 centuries (Седов и др. 1987). The fire-steel colleted by the Museum of Mangistau Provincial Office of Culture in Aktau, Western ththKazakhstan, was dated to the 8 - 10 centuries, but detailed information is unknown (Fig.35). The fire-steel from Kyz-tepe in Southern Uzbekistan (Fig.36) was found on the left thigh bone of a Turkic (?) warrior with a saber, stirrup, and other iron artifacts thth(Кабанов 1963: 238). This burial was dated to the 9 - 10 centuries, or later (Кабанов 1963: 239).333435Fig.34 Fig.35 Fig.36
From a sand drift near Abakan City in the Minusinsk Basin, a fire-ththsteel was found dated to the 11 - 12 centuries (Fig.37) (Худяков 1980: 101). In Buryatia (Transbaikal Region) there have been found several medieval fire-steels from burials but all of them were dated thafter the 10 century (Fig.38). From a burial near Lake Undugun, west of Chita City, a fragment of a fire-steel was found (Fig.39).363738Fig.37 Fig.38 Fig.39 6. Earliest Fire-steels of the Middle Amur and Maritime Province
There have been unearthed comparatively many fire-steels, but thmost of them are dated after the 9 century. The earliest ones dated to thththe 7 - 8 centuries were found at the Troitskii cemetery in the Ivanovka district on the Middle Amur (Fig.40). Most of them were found located at the hip of interred males (Деревянко 1975: 175). E.I. Derevyanko considers that these fire-steels were used by the Mohe ththpeople. The fire-steels dated to the 8 - 9 centuries were found at the Korsakovo cemetery near Khabarovsk City (Fig.41, 42).394041Fig.40 Fig.41 Fig.42
From the Shaiga fortified settelment, north of Nakhodka City, thththere have been found many fire-steels dated to the 12 - 13 centuries (Fig.43, 44). According to E.V. Shavkunov, the Shaiga settlement was constructed by the Jurchen people (Шавкунов 1990).4243Fig.43 Fig.44
It is very interesting that fire-steels of a similar shape appeared in the Kanto Region of Japan and the Khabarovsk Region of the Russian Far East, although there is a small difference: the fire-steels of Maritime Province have no hole on top of the bulge. It is possible that there was a relationship between them, but I have no definite evidence of this.th
In the second half of the 13 century, Yuan military forces attacked Kyushu in Western Japan on two occasions but they were unsuccessful. Since 1980, a Japanese archaeological team has surveyed the sunken warships of the Yuan navy near Takashima in Nagasaki Prefecture and discovered more than 4000 pieces of armor and weapons. In 2013, one of the iron articles was identified as being 44a fire-steel using CT-scan analysis (Figs.45, 46) . This fire-steel was quite similar to the Jurchen fire-steel (Fig.43). The Yuan army included many Korean soldiers, and some of them were probably Jurchens.Fig.45 Fig.467. Concluding Remarksth
At the same time, in the 7 century, fire-steels of a similar shape appeared in Eastern Europe and in the Far East. However, between both regions in Central Asia and Siberia similar fire-steels of such an thearly period, before the 8 century, have never been found. It seems strange that no any types of fire-steels have yet been found in China and Korea. I suspect that fire-steels may have been discarded as unimportant rusty bits of iron.
Otherwise, we can only conclude that similar fire-steels appeared independently in different areas of Eurasia.
At the present time I cannot say whether there is any relationships between the earliest fire-steels of Eastern Europe and Japan. There are too many missing links. We hope that further careful surveys are conducted in these regions to shed further light on the mystery.BibliographyАсеев И.В. и др. 1984. Кочевники Забайкалья в эпоху средневековья. Новосибирск: Наука, Сибирское отделение.Chamberlain, B.H., 1883 (1982) “Ko-ji-ki” or “Records of Ancient Matters”, translated by Basil Hall Chamberlain, Lane, Crawford, 1883. (The Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, v. 10, suppl.) = The Kojiki: Records of Ancient Matters, Tôkyô: Charles E. Tuttle, 1982.Деревянко Е.И. 1975. Мохэские памятники Среднего Амура. Новосибирск: «Наука», Сибирское отделение.Евглевский А.В. и Потемкина Т.М. 2000. Кресала в позднекочевнических погребениях Восточной Евпоры. In: Степи Европы средневеновья. Том 1. Донецк, сс.181-208.Garam E., Kovrig I., Szabó Gy. and Török Gy. 1975. Avar Finds in the Hungarian National Museum, Vol.1, Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó.Голубева Л.А. 1965. К истории пластинчатых огнив Восточной Европы. In: Новое в Советской археологии (МИА No.130), Москва: Издательство «Наука», сс.257-260.Hayashi T. 1994. Fire-steels of Northern Eurasia, East of the Ural Mountains (in Japanese), in Archaeology of Japan and the World, Tokyo: Yuzankaku, pp.352-369.Кабанов Г.К. 1963. Погребение воина в долине р. Кашка Дарья. Советская археология 2: 236-240.Кананин В.А. 1980. Исследования городища Шудья-Кар в верховьях Камы. Краткие сообщения Института археологии, вып.160. сс.92-100.Худяков Ю.С. 1980. Работы Хакасского отряда в 1975 г. In: Источники по археологии Северной Азии (1935-1976 гг.). Новосибирск: «Наука», Сибирское отделение, сс.97-122.Кириллов И.И. 1983. Ундугунская культура железного века в Восточном Забайкалье. In: По следам древних культур Забайкалья. Новосибирск: «Наука», Сибирское отделение, сс.123-138.Kiss A. 1977. Avar Cemeteries in County Baranya, Vol.2, Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó.Kokowski, A. 1985. Die Feuerstahlwerkzeuge der Przeworsk-Kultur. In: Mémoires archéologiques, Lublin: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, pp.109-127.Колчин Б.А. 1959. Железнообрабатывающее ремесло Новгорода Великого. In: Материалы и исследования по археологии СССР, No.65, Москва: Издательство АН СССР, сс.7-120.Крыласова Н.Б. 2007. Хронология кресал Пермского Предуралья. Известия Челябинского научного центра 1 (35): 157-161.Медведев В.Е. 1982. Средневековые памятники острова Уссурийского. Новосибирск: «Наука», Сибирское отделение.—. 1991. Корсаковский могильник: хронология и материалы. Новосибирск: «Наука», Сибирское отделение.Nishinippon Shimbun, 2014. 3 January, p.1.Ogawa T. 1979. Discovered Ironware: Fire-steel (in Japanese). In: Aomori Prefectural Board of Education, ed. Excavation Report of the Site Furudate of the Village Ikarigaseki, Aomori.Oomura, K. 2005. Fire-steel unearthed from Akabane-nizu B Site, Chigasaki City, Kanagawa Prefecture (in Japanese). in The Society of Studies of Ancient Sagami, ed. Treatises of Ancient Sagami, pp.143-148.Плетнева С.А., ред. 1981. Степи Евразии в эпоху средневековья (Археология СССР). Москва: «Наука».Седов В.В. и др., ред. 1987. Финно-угры и балты в эпоху средневековья (Археология СССР). Москва: «Наука».Seki, Y. 2002. Fire-steels found in Saitama Prefecture (in Japanese). Saitama Kouko 37: 117-138.Шавкунов Э.В. 1990. Культура чжурчжэней-удигэ XII-XIII вв. и проблема происхождения тунгусских народов Дальнего Востока. Москва: «Наука».Shibusawa K. 1984. Lives of Common People Seen from Picture Scrolls (in Japanese). Vol.I (new edition), Tokyo: Heibonsha.Shiratori A. 2005. “Compilation and Feature of Fire-making-tools Unearthed in Chiba Prefecture” (in Japanese). Research Bulletin (Center for Cultural Properties of Chiba), 24: 333-361.Takashima Y. 1985. Tools of Fire (in Japanese). Tokyo, Kashiwa Shoten.Tsurumi S. 1999. Discussing Fire-making Tools (in Japanese), in Journal of Archaeological Society of Ibaraki Prefecture 11: 47-76.— 2005. Short Study of Openwork Fire-steel, in Archaeology of Ancient Eastern Japan, Tokyo: Keiyuusha, pp.666-679.Yamada K. 1989. On Fire-steels (in Japanese), in Hyougo Nakao Castle Ruin, Prefectural Board of Education, ed. Kobe, pp.136-161.1 These two fire-steels were found at “Gálfi malom” in Kővágószöllös, County thBaranya, Hungary. They are dated to the late Avar period, ca. 8 century (Kiss 1977: 66-67, Pl.XXIII).2 These two were found in Chiba Prefecture, Eastern Japan. The left one (6.8×th1.7×0.3cm) is dated to the second quarter of the 8 century and the right one (7.6thth×2.6×0.58cm) to the 7 -8 centuries (Shiratori 2005: 345, 348, 349).3 Agate pieces had been often used as flints in Japan (Tsurumi 1999: 48; Shiratori 2005: 351).4 According to the Japanese record, the envoys left Japan in 733.5 Fig.5: Barrow No.3 of Iizuka, Oyama City, Tochigi Prefecture. Fig.6: Barrow No.1 of Kashima, Kawamoto Town, Saitama Prefecture.6 Dwelling No.2 of Tokyo-dou Minami site, Tokorozawa City, Saitama thPrefecture, 5.4×3.5cm, the second quarter of the 8 century (Seki 2002). Quartz as flint was recovered from the cover soil of this dwelling.7 Dwelling No.4 of Kurokaito site, Fujimi City, Saitama Prefecture, 8.9×2.5cm, thsecond quarter of the 8 century (Seki 2002).8 Dwelling No.97 of Furuido-Shougenzuka site, Kodama Town, Saitama thPrefecture, 5.9×2.0cm, second quarter of the 8 century (Seki 2002).9 Dwelling No.93 of Arakawazuke site, Hasuda City, Saitama Prefecture, 5.2×th3.0cm, second quarter of the 8 century (Seki 2002).10 Dwelling No.5 of Azumanoue site, Tokorozawa City, Saitama Prefecture, 8.1×thth2.6cm, middle of the 8 - middle of the 9 century (Seki 2002).11 Dwelling No.181B of Takedanisihanawa site, Hitachinaka City, Ibaraki ththPrefecture, 7.0×2.5×0.5cm, second half of the 8 - early 9 centuries (Tsurumi 1999).12 Dwelling No.3 of Akabane-nizu site, Chigasaki City, Kanagawa Prefecture, 6.8thth×2.4×0.25-0.45cm, end of the 8 - early 9 centuries (Oomura 2005).13 Dwelling No.61 of Kamata site, Tsukuba-mirai City, Ibaraki Prefecture, 8.1×3.0th×0.5cm, second half of the 8 century (Tsurumi 2005).14 Dwelling No.193 of Kumanoyama site, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki Prefecture, 7.9×th3.3×0.4cm, middle of the 9 century (Tsurumi 2005).15 The man who holds an umbrella for a police official hangs a bag for a fire-making set (No.7) from a belt on his left side (From: Ban Dainagon Ekotoba) (Shibusawa 1984).16 The man who plays an ear-pulling game hangs a bag for a fire-making set (No.9) from a sword on his left side (From: Choujuu Giga) (Shibusawa 1984).17 The fortified settlement of Ogubskoe, Zhukov Raion, Kaluga Oblast’, ndthsouthwest of Moscow, Russia, ca.13.8cm, 2 - 5 centuries (Голубева 1965).rdth18 Mingfen/Miętkie, Woj. Warmińsko-mazurskie, Northern Poland, 3 - 4 centuries, Neues Museum, Berlin.th19 Southwestern Germany, 4 century, Museum für Ur- und Frühgeschichte, Freiburg.th20 Herzebrock-Clarholz, Northwestern Germany, 5 century, Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde, Band 8, S.th21 Grab 54, Eichstetten, Southwestern Germany, 6 century, Konstanz Archaeology Museum.22 Plan of Grab 54, Eichstetten.th23 Grab 99, Dittigheim, Tauberbischofsheim, 6 century, Landesmuseum thWürttemberg, Stuttgart. I suppose this dating is possibly too early. The 7 century is more convincing.th24 Tombe 212, Illkirch, Strasbourg, Rhine Basin, middle of the 7 century, Musée Archéologique de Strasbourg.