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Part I. Grammar and Vocabulary
A. Proofreading (total of 10 points, 1 point for each error corrected)
The following paragraphs contain 10 errors. Each indicated line contains ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the paragraph and correct it in the following way:
For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line.
For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a “^” sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.
For an unnecessary word, cross the unnecessary word with a slash “/” and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line.
EXAMPLE【答案与解析】（1） non-surgically →non-surgical（修饰名词“procedures”，应该用形容词，non-surgical非手术的。）（2） 正确（3） in → for（for the most part多半; 就绝大部分而言。固定词组。）（4） life → lives（their后面应用life的复数名词形式lives。）（5） in→ with（with confidence自信地。in confidence秘密地。）（6） burning → burn（burn可作名词，表示“烧伤，灼伤”。）（7） restore→ restores（主语是“reconstructive surgery”，是单数名词，所以谓语动词也应该用单数形式“restores”。）（8） the → a（way在这里第一次提到，表示“以一种……的方式”，这种方式前面没提到，不是特指，不可以用定冠词the。）（9） 去掉a（It is time for sb to do sth. 固定句型。）（10） with → without（综合全文来看，作者认为社区医疗成员应在不带偏见和嫉妒之心的前提下对整容手术的利弊做出衡量。）
B. Choose the word or phrase that can be used to replace the underlined part in each sentence (total of 10 points, 0.5 point for each question).
1．Because noises modulate radiofrequency, radio stations use a band of frequencies to prevent interference with other stations.
2．A fossil is a remnant of a once-living organism.
3．When squashed the stem and leaves of the jewelweed exude a juice that will soothe some skin irritations.
4．The legislative filibuster is a parliamentary tactic designed to delay or prevent action by the majority.
5．Ocean waves can cut imposing cliffs along coastlines.
6．Mergers may be effected to revive or rejuvenate failing businesses by the infusion of new management and personnel.
7．A fable is a didactic tale focused on a single character trail.
A. an authentic
B. a muddied
C. an instructive
D. an old-fashioned【答案】C【解析】句意：寓言是有教育意义的故事，这种故事集中于对单一人物的追踪描述。didactic教导的，教诲的。instructive有教育意义的，有启发性的。authentic真实的，可靠的。old-fashioned旧式的，过时的。
8．The compact dictionaries published in recent years are not as unwieldy as some of the older editions.
9．Author Katherine Sherwood McDowell had a knack for converting almost every experience into marketable prose.
A. an aptitude for
B. an obsession with
C. an alternative to
D. a purpose for【答案】A【解析】句意：作家凯瑟琳·舍伍德·麦克道尔总有本领将他的每次经历写成畅销散文。knack本领；技巧，诀窍。aptitude天资，才能。obsession着迷；困扰。alternative选择。purpose目的
10．South Carolina’s mineral resources are abundant, but not all of them can be lucratively mined.
11．Ravaged by pollution and war, many famous monuments have become eroded and stained.
12．Orioles are arboreal birds, and when they descend to the ground, it is mainly to gather nest materials.
13．Louisa May Alcott’s novel Little Women, which recounts the experiences of the four March sisters during the American Civil war, is largely autobiographical.
14．Fertilizer applied to soil can replace depleted nutrients.
15．Galena, the chief ore of lead, is a brittle mineral with a metallic luster.
16．In Hawaii, endemic birds, such as the omao and the apapane, dwell in the volcanic highlands and tropical rain forests.
17．Biologists have ascertained that specialized cells convert chemical energy into mechanical energy.
18．Pocahonta, a seventeenth century Powhatan Indian, went to the Jamestown colony as her father’s emissary.
19．Neon light is utilized in airport beacons because it can permeate fog.
A. pass through
D. break up【答案】A【解析】句意：霓虹灯可被用作机场的指向标，因为它能穿过雾层。permeate渗入，透过。pass through穿过，通过。transmit传递，传达。suspend悬挂；使中止。break up解散；中断。
20．Alexander Woollcott’s flamboyant personality combined sharpness of wit with sentimentality.
C. Choose the word or phrase that best completes each sentence (total of 10 points, 0.5 point for each question).
1．The form and physiology of leaves vary according to the _____ in which they develop: for example, leaves display a wider range of adaptations to different degrees of light and moisture.
2．Since most, if not all, learning occurs through _____, relating one observation to another, it would be strange indeed if the study of other cultures did not also illuminate the study of our own.
D. repetitions【答案】C【解析】句意：因为大部分学习都是通过比较，即把一个观察现象与另一个联系起来，来进行的，所以如果学习另一种文化，却不能很好的阐明我们自己的文化，这就着实有点太离谱了。根据此空后面解释说明的部分“relating one observation to another”，可推断此处应填C项。
3．He had expected gratitude for his disclosure, but instead he encountered _____ bordering on hostility.
D. indifference【答案】D【解析】句意：他本期望别人会因他（对此事）的揭发而对他深表感谢，但恰恰相反，他受到了冷漠，甚至会引起别人的敌意。通过“but instead”可推断所填词应与“gratitude”表示相反的意思，所以选择D项。indifference冷漠。
4．Although Simpson was ingenious at _____ to appear innovative and spontaneous, beneath the ruse he remained uninspired and rigid in his approach to problem-solving.
D. declining【答案】B【解析】句意：虽然辛普森可以利用计谋来表现地富有创新意识和自然大方，但在他的计谋背后，他处理问题时却总是那么平庸死板，一点也不灵活。根据句首的“although”可推断前后两句是转折关系，后半句说他办事死板，说明他的灵活与创新是伪装的，是用计谋达到的。contrive to以计谋达成。intend to 打算。forbear to忍耐，克制。decline to婉拒。
5．Because modern scientists find the ancient Greek view of the cosmos outdated and irrelevant, they now perceive it as only of _____ interest.
D. superfluous【答案】A【解析】句意：因为现代科学家发现古希腊关于宇宙的观点是过时的、不恰当的，所以他们现在认为它只与历史研究相关。historical 历史的；与历史相关的。intrinsic 本身的，固有的。experimental 实验性的。superfluous多余的。
6．In spite of the increasing _____ of their opinions, the group knew they had to arrive at a consensus so that the award could be presented.
7．Ironically, the proper use of figurative language must be based on the denotative meaning of the words, because it is the failure to recognize this_____ meaning that leads to mixed metaphors and their attendant incongruity.
8．Although any destruction of vitamins caused by food irradiation could be _____ the use of diet supplements, there may be no protection from carcinogens that some fear might be introduced into foods by the process.
A. counterbalanced by
B. attributed to
C. augmented with
D. stimulated by【答案】A【解析】句意：虽然食品辐照引起的维他命损害可以通过摄入膳食补充剂得到弥补，但还没有办法保护人们不受致癌物的侵害，于是对食物的担心便产生了。counterbalance弥补；使平衡。attribute to 归因于。augment扩大，增加。stimulate刺激。
9．Data concerning the effects on a small population of high concentrations of a potentially hazardous chemical are frequently used to _____ the effects on a large population of lower amounts of the same chemical.
10．Early critics of Emily Dickinson’s poetry mistook for simplemindedness the surface of artlessness that in fact she constructed with such _____.
D. cunning【答案】D【解析】句意：早期对艾米莉·狄金森诗歌的批评误把她的朴实看成是头脑简单的，实际上，这是她的匠心独用所在。根据“in fact”可推断，所填词应与“simplemindedness”表示相反的意思。cunning灵巧，熟练；狡猾，奸诈。astonishment惊讶，惊奇。vexation烦恼，苦恼。allusion暗示；隐喻；典故。
11．After a slow sales start early in the year, mobile homes have been gaining favor as _____ to increasingly expensive conventional housing.
A. a reaction
B. an addition
C. an introduction
D. an alternative【答案】D【解析】句意：今年初销售变得缓慢后，拖车住房已成为除价格飞涨的传统住房外人们的另一选择，因而受到人们的喜爱。alternative 供选择的东西。reaction反应。addition 增加的人或物。introduction介绍；引进。
12．Although adolescent maturational and developmental states occur in an orderly sequence, their timing _____ with regard to onset and duration.
13．Psychology has slowly evolved into an _____ scientific discipline that now functions autonomously with the same privileges and responsibilities as other sciences.
14．Noting the murder victim’s flaccid musculature and pear-like figure, she deduced that the unfortunate fellow had earned his living in some _____ occupation.
15．The discovery that, friction excluded, all bodies fall at the same rate is so simple to state and to grasp that there is a tendency to _____ its significance.
D. eliminate【答案】A【解析】句意：忽略摩擦的情况下，所有物体会以同样的速率下落，这一发现非常容易被抓住和阐述，以至于有一种低估它的重要性的趋势。空格填入一个动词，表示对“它的重要性（its significance）”做的动作。so…that…表示因果关系，所以空格填上以后要表达和“非常容易抓住并阐述（simple to state and to grasp）”一致的含义，所以空格应该对“重要性”做负动作，表示“不那么重视”。underrate低估。reassess再评价，再估价。praise表扬。eliminate排除，消除。
16．The painting was larger than it appeared to be, for hanging in a darkened recess of the chapel, it was _____ by the perspective.
17．Because folk art is neither completely rejected nor accepted as an art form by art historians, their final evaluations of it necessarily remain_____.
18．Although economists have traditionally considered the district to be solely an agricultural one, the _____ of the inhabitants’ occupations makes such a classification obsolete.
D. profitability【答案】B【解析】句意：虽然传统上经济学家认为这个区域是单一的农业区，但该地居民职业的多样性使这样的划分显得过时了。句首的“although”暗示前后句是转折关系，因此可推断所填词应与“solely”表示相反的意思。diversity多样性。productivity生产力。 predictability可预测性。profitability有利性。
19．Although specific concerns may determine the intent of a research project, its results are often _____.
20．The notion that a parasite can alter the behavior of a host organism is not mere fiction; indeed, the phenomenon is not even _____.
D. rare【答案】D【解析】句意：寄生虫能改变寄住物的行为的观点不是虚构的，这种现象的确不罕见。“indeed”表明前后句要表达一个意思，“not rare”与“not fiction”表达的意思相似。
Part II. Reading Comprehension
Read each of the following passages. Choose the most appropriate from the four choices to complete the sentence or answer the question. Answer the question or write a summary as is required. (total of 40 points, 2 points for each question).
Notation gave western music a means of written record, but at first only for a kind of music, chant, that was believed to have originated half a millennium and more in the past—to be, effectively, ageless. Early medieval chants sprang from the whole time of eternal sameness, which they so readily convey, and similarly there was no measure of the time within them—the rhythm. Then measure came. And with it came the first identifiable composers and precisely datable works.
Where chant was of a piece with other musical traditions in being self-sufficient melody, working within a modal system, belonging to no creator (but to God) and designed for worship, the new music of the twentieth century opened a distinctively western path. The measuring of time was the beginning not only of rhythmic notation—known, far beyond Europe, to the Indian theorist Sarngadeva in the first half of the thirteenth century—but also of music involving coordination among singers carrying different melodies, of polyphony. This, too, was by no means confined to the wedge of land between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic: the gamelan music of Bali, a tradition independent of Europe, is comparable with early western polyphony in its superposition of different time streams, fast and slow, while the music of many sub-Saharan African peoples often piles up dissimilar rhythmic layers in ways foreign to Europe outside certain special repertories (fourteenth-century song and some music since 1950). But, from the twelfth century to the fifteenth, polyphony in the west gradually moved away from the repetitive structures that were retained on Bali or in central Africa as Europeans discovered how harmony could result in continuous flow.
The source, as of so much in western culture, was a misunderstanding of classical Greek knowledge, again acquired through Boethius. He had nothing to say about harmony in the sense of chords, but he conveyed a Geek satisfaction in the primacy of the octave and the fifth, which medieval musicians took as models of consonance (the euphonious combining notes). Just as essential were dissonant combinations, lacking euphony, for these would intensify the need for consonance. A dissonance placed immediately before a final consonance would produce a firmly conclusive ending—a cadence, such as became an essential of western music. Extending back from the cadence, the forces of harmony, marshaled through relationships between each chord and the next, could amplify the directional sense already present in the melody—the sense of movement towards a resting point on the last note. Thus time measured became time decisively having a goal, and music could emulate the progress in every human soul towards eternity.
Music mirrored, too, how time generally was being told. Guido’s staff notation came roughly when water clocks were reintroduced from Byzantium and Islam, enabling monks to know when a service was due from the level reached by water slowly filling a vessel. Thus reading, whether of a chantbook or a water gauge, substituted for memory and intuition. Exact synchrony between music and time was lost a little when clockwork mechanisms appeared in the mid-thirteenth century, half a century later than the gear-driven music produced at Notre Dame in Paris. However, the perfection of hour-chiming with hour-chiming capabilities, in the astronomical clock made by Richard Wallingford for St. Albans Abbey (1327-36), strikingly coincided with the perfection of rhythmic notation that spread from Paris and gave music its own machinery of time lengths.
Choose the most appropriate from the four choices to answer the question or complete the sentence.
1．Which of the following is the most appropriate title for this passage?
A. The Development of Rhythm
B. Time Measured.
C. Notation and Time
D. Music and Civilization
2．It can be inferred from the passage that before notation appeared _____.
A. music was always renewed and could last only as long as memory
B. music presented people with three times at once: the now in which they heard it, the then in which it was made, and the further then of when the piece was composed
C. polyphony had already been developed to such a degree that different melodies carried by different singers could form a coordinated harmony
D. music mostly was not improvised and was not dated with precision
3．The author would most likely consider Western music and the music of non-Western cultures as_____.
A. respectively revolutionary and conservative
B. equal but distinct
C. both homogeneous and heterogeneous
D. illustrative of advancement and backwardness
4．The passage states that_____.
A. music and civilization complement each other and contradict each other
B. rhythmic notation appeared because human beings could tell time in a new way
C. notation appeared when musical works were no longer anonymous and non-datable
D. the appearance of rhythmic notation manifests a new stage of human beings’ quantitative method of thought【答案与解析】
Write a summary.
5．Summarize the passage in 4 or 5 sentences.【答案】The passage demonstrated how music evolved together with time measure. Early medieval chants originated half a millennium and more in the past had no measure of time within them. The appearance of rhythmic notation and polyphony marked the beginning of time measure. In fact, the development of music reflected how measure of the time developed.
French toys: One could not find a better illustration of the fact that the adult Frenchman sees the child as another self. All the toys one commonly sees are essentially a microcosm of the adult world; they are all reduced copies of human objects, as if in the eyes of the public the child was, all told, nothing but a smaller man, a homunculus to whom must be supplied objects of his own size.
Invented forms are very rare: a few sets of blocks, which appeal to the spirit of do-it-yourself, are the only ones which offer dynamic forms. As for the others, French toys always mean something, and this something is always entirely socialized, constituted by the myths or the techniques of modern adult life: the army, broadcasting, the post office, medicine (miniature instrument-cases, operating theaters for dolls), school, hair styling (driers for permanent-waving), the air force (parachutists), transport (trains, Citroëns, Vedettes, Vespas, petrol stations), science (Martian toys).
The fact that French toys literally prefigure the world of adult functions obviously cannot but prepare the child to accept them all, by constituting for him, even before he can think about it, the alibi of a Nature which has at all times created soldiers, postmen, and Vespas. Toys here reveal the list of all the things the adult does not find unusual: war, bureaucracy, ugliness, Martians, etc. it is not so much, in fact, the imitation which is he sign of an abdication, as its literalness: French toys are like a Jivaro head, in which one recognizes, shrunken to the size of an apple, the wrinkles and hair of an adult. There exist, for instance, dolls which urinate; they have an esophagus, one gives