厦门大学211翻译硕士英语[专业硕士]历年考研真题及详解(txt+pdf+epub+mobi电子书下载)

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厦门大学211翻译硕士英语[专业硕士]历年考研真题及详解

厦门大学211翻译硕士英语[专业硕士]历年考研真题及详解试读:

2010年厦门大学211翻译硕士英语考研真题及详解

Part I.  Grammar and Vocabulary

A. Proofreading (total of 10 points, 1 point for each error corrected)

The following paragraphs contain 10 errors. Each indicated line contains ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the paragraph and correct it in the following way:

For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line.

For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a “^” sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.

For an unnecessary word, cross the unnecessary word with a slash “/” and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line.

EXAMPLE【答案与解析】(1) non-surgically →non-surgical(修饰名词“procedures”,应该用形容词,non-surgical非手术的。)(2) 正确(3) in → for(for the most part多半; 就绝大部分而言。固定词组。)(4) life → lives(their后面应用life的复数名词形式lives。)(5) in→ with(with confidence自信地。in confidence秘密地。)(6) burning → burn(burn可作名词,表示“烧伤,灼伤”。)(7) restore→ restores(主语是“reconstructive surgery”,是单数名词,所以谓语动词也应该用单数形式“restores”。)(8) the → a(way在这里第一次提到,表示“以一种……的方式”,这种方式前面没提到,不是特指,不可以用定冠词the。)(9) 去掉a(It is time for sb to do sth. 固定句型。)(10) with → without(综合全文来看,作者认为社区医疗成员应在不带偏见和嫉妒之心的前提下对整容手术的利弊做出衡量。)

B. Choose the word or phrase that can be used to replace the underlined part in each sentence (total of 10 points, 0.5 point for each question).

1.Because noises modulate radiofrequency, radio stations use a band of frequencies to prevent interference with other stations.

A. govern

B. adapt

C. temper

D. renovate【答案】A【解析】句意:噪音改变了无线电频率,电台用频带来防止其他电台的干扰。modulate调整,控制;使变调。govern统治,管理;影响。adapt使适应。temper使缓和,使温和。renovate更新;改善。

2.A fossil is a remnant of a once-living organism.

A. bone

B. solvent

C. picture

D. vestige【答案】D【解析】句意:化石是曾经存活的生物的遗迹。remnant遗迹;残余,剩余。vestige遗迹;残余。solvent溶剂;解决方法。picture图片。

3.When squashed the stem and leaves of the jewelweed exude a juice that will soothe some skin irritations.

A. boiled

B. aged

C. crushed

D. chopped【答案】C【解析】句意:凤仙花受到挤压时,它的茎和叶会流出一种汁液,这种汁液可缓解皮肤过敏症状。squash压扁,挤压。crush压碎,压坏。boil煮熟。age使表老,使(味道)变醇。chop砍;剁碎。

4.The legislative filibuster is a parliamentary tactic designed to delay or prevent action by the majority.

A. tradition

B. rule

C. observance

D. maneuver【答案】D【解析】句意:合法的阻挠手段是用来推迟或阻止多数党采取行动的一种合乎议会法规的策略。tactic策略。maneuver谋略,策略;(部队等的)调动;机动。tradition传统。rule规则,条例。observance遵守;注意,观察。

5.Ocean waves can cut imposing cliffs along coastlines.

A. immobile

B. impermeable

C. impressive

D. imaginative【答案】C【解析】句意:海浪能沿着海岸线切断宏伟的悬崖峭壁。imposing壮观的,气势宏伟的。impressive给人深刻影响的;威严的。immobile不动的,固定的。impermeable不可渗透的。imaginative富于想象的。

6.Mergers may be effected to revive or rejuvenate failing businesses by the infusion of new management and personnel.

A. inspection

B. introduction

C. evaluation

D. concentration【答案】B【解析】句意:通过注入新的管理方式和录用新的员工,企业兼并能够有效地使那些濒临破产的企业恢复活力。infusion注入,灌入。introduction介绍;引进。inspection检查,审视。evaluation评估。concentration集中;专注。

7.A fable is a didactic tale focused on a single character trail.

A. an authentic

B. a muddied

C. an instructive

D. an old-fashioned【答案】C【解析】句意:寓言是有教育意义的故事,这种故事集中于对单一人物的追踪描述。didactic教导的,教诲的。instructive有教育意义的,有启发性的。authentic真实的,可靠的。old-fashioned旧式的,过时的。

8.The compact dictionaries published in recent years are not as unwieldy as some of the older editions.

A. complete

B. tiresome

C. reliable

D. cumbersome【答案】D【解析】句意:最近几年出版的简明字典不像旧版字典那样让人觉得使用起来很不方便。unwieldy不灵便的,使用不便的。cumbersome笨重的;难处理的。complete完整的。tiresome使人疲劳的;烦人的。

9.Author Katherine Sherwood McDowell had a knack for converting almost every experience into marketable prose.

A. an aptitude for

B. an obsession with

C. an alternative to

D. a purpose for【答案】A【解析】句意:作家凯瑟琳·舍伍德·麦克道尔总有本领将他的每次经历写成畅销散文。knack本领;技巧,诀窍。aptitude天资,才能。obsession着迷;困扰。alternative选择。purpose目的

10.South Carolina’s mineral resources are abundant, but not all of them can be lucratively mined.

A. profitably

B. safely

C. easily

D. extensively【答案】A【解析】句意:南卡罗来那州有丰富的矿产资源,但并不是所有对这些资源的开采都是有利可图的。lucratively赚钱地,有利可图地。profitably有利地,有益地。safely安全地。easily容易地。extensively广泛地。

11.Ravaged by pollution and war, many famous monuments have become eroded and stained.

A. discolored

B. dismembered

C. displaced

D. distinctive【答案】A【解析】句意:受到污染和战争的破坏,许多著名的历史遗迹已经被腐蚀或玷污了。stained玷污的;着色的。discolored玷污的;褪色的。dismembered分割的。displace被取代的。distinctive有特色的,特殊的。

12.Orioles are arboreal birds, and when they descend to the ground, it is mainly to gather nest materials.

A. territorial

B. tree-dwelling

C. consummate

D. grumpy【答案】B【解析】句意:黄鹂是一种栖息在树上的鸟,当它们落到地面时,主要是为了采集搭巢的材料。arboreal栖息在树上的。tree-dwelling居于树上的。territorial领土的;地区的。consummate熟练的,技艺高超的。grumpy性情乖戾的。

13.Louisa May Alcott’s novel Little Women, which recounts the experiences of the four March sisters during the American Civil war, is largely autobiographical.

A. praises

B. narrates

C. exaggerates

D. classifies【答案】B【解析】句意:露意莎·梅·奥尔柯特的小说《小妇人》在很大程度上是自传体的,小说叙述了美国内战期间马奇家四姐妹的经历。recount叙述,描述。narrate叙述。praise表扬。exaggerate夸张。classify把……分类。

14.Fertilizer applied to soil can replace depleted nutrients.

A. organic

B. acidic

C. exhausted

D. desirable【答案】C【解析】句意:施于土壤中的废料能代替枯竭的营养素。depleted耗尽的,枯竭的。exhausted耗尽的,用完的。organic有机的;器官的。acidic酸性的。desirable值得向往的。

15.Galena, the chief ore of lead, is a brittle mineral with a metallic luster.

A. hazel

B. dense

C. breakable

D. sparking【答案】C【解析】句意:皮带含有的主要矿物成分是方铅矿,它是一种具有金属光泽的脆性矿物。brittle脆的,易碎的。breakable易破坏的,脆的。hazel淡褐色的。dense密集的。sparking发出火花的,闪光的。

16.In Hawaii, endemic birds, such as the omao and the apapane, dwell in the volcanic highlands and tropical rain forests.

A. alluring

B. aquatic

C. graceful

D. native【答案】D【解析】句意:在夏威夷,像夏威夷鹅口疮和白臀蜜鸟这样的本地鸟都栖息在火山性高地和热带雨林地区。endemic某地特有的。native本地的;天然的。alluring迷人的,吸引人的。aquatic水生的,水栖的。graceful优美的,典雅的。

17.Biologists have ascertained that specialized cells convert chemical energy into mechanical energy.

A. determined

B. argued

C. hypothesized

D. griped【答案】A【解析】句意:生物学家已经确定特化细胞能把化学能转化成机械能。ascertain查明,确定,弄清。determine决定;确定。argue争论;主张。hypothesize假设,假定。grip理解,掌握;紧握。

18.Pocahonta, a seventeenth century Powhatan Indian, went to the Jamestown colony as her father’s emissary.

A. ward

B. attendant

C. messenger

D. translator【答案】C【解析】句意:波卡洪塔斯,一个十七世纪的坡瓦坦印第安人,来到詹姆斯顿殖民地当她父亲的特使。emissary特使,密使。messenger信差,信息源。ward病房,病室。attendant陪从;侍者。translator译员。

19.Neon light is utilized in airport beacons because it can permeate fog.

A. pass through

B. transmit

C. suspend

D. break up【答案】A【解析】句意:霓虹灯可被用作机场的指向标,因为它能穿过雾层。permeate渗入,透过。pass through穿过,通过。transmit传递,传达。suspend悬挂;使中止。break up解散;中断。

20.Alexander Woollcott’s flamboyant personality combined sharpness of wit with sentimentality.

A. devious

B. humorous

C. singular

D. showy【答案】D【解析】句意:亚历山大·伍尔科特喜欢炫耀的个性是睿智与多愁善感的结合体。flamboyant炫耀的,浮夸的。showy炫耀的,浮夸的;引人注目的。devious迂回的;不正直的。humorous幽默的。singular单一的;异常的。

C. Choose the word or phrase that best completes each sentence (total of 10 points, 0.5 point for each question).

1.The form and physiology of leaves vary according to the _____ in which they develop: for example, leaves display a wider range of adaptations to different degrees of light and moisture.

A. relationship

B. sequence

C. patterns

D. environment【答案】D【解析】句意:叶子的形状和生理机能随着它生长环境的变化而变化。例如,叶子会调节自身去适应环境中光度和水分的变化。从所举的有关“light”和“moisture.”的例子中,可推断应填入“light”和“moisture”的上义词“environment”。

2.Since most, if not all, learning occurs through _____, relating one observation to another, it would be strange indeed if the study of other cultures did not also illuminate the study of our own.

A. assumptions

B. experiments

C. comparisons

D. repetitions【答案】C【解析】句意:因为大部分学习都是通过比较,即把一个观察现象与另一个联系起来,来进行的,所以如果学习另一种文化,却不能很好的阐明我们自己的文化,这就着实有点太离谱了。根据此空后面解释说明的部分“relating one observation to another”,可推断此处应填C项。

3.He had expected gratitude for his disclosure, but instead he encountered _____ bordering on hostility.

A. patience

B. discretion

C. ineptitude

D. indifference【答案】D【解析】句意:他本期望别人会因他(对此事)的揭发而对他深表感谢,但恰恰相反,他受到了冷漠,甚至会引起别人的敌意。通过“but instead”可推断所填词应与“gratitude”表示相反的意思,所以选择D项。indifference冷漠。

4.Although Simpson was ingenious at _____ to appear innovative and spontaneous, beneath the ruse he remained uninspired and rigid in his approach to problem-solving.

A. intending

B. contriving

C. forbearing

D. declining【答案】B【解析】句意:虽然辛普森可以利用计谋来表现地富有创新意识和自然大方,但在他的计谋背后,他处理问题时却总是那么平庸死板,一点也不灵活。根据句首的“although”可推断前后两句是转折关系,后半句说他办事死板,说明他的灵活与创新是伪装的,是用计谋达到的。contrive to以计谋达成。intend to 打算。forbear to忍耐,克制。decline to婉拒。

5.Because modern scientists find the ancient Greek view of the cosmos outdated and irrelevant, they now perceive it as only of _____ interest.

A. historical

B. intrinsic

C. experimental

D. superfluous【答案】A【解析】句意:因为现代科学家发现古希腊关于宇宙的观点是过时的、不恰当的,所以他们现在认为它只与历史研究相关。historical 历史的;与历史相关的。intrinsic 本身的,固有的。experimental 实验性的。superfluous多余的。

6.In spite of the increasing _____ of their opinions, the group knew they had to arrive at a consensus so that the award could be presented.

A. impartiality

B. judiciousness

C. polarity

D. consistency【答案】C【解析】句意:虽然他们的观点越来越出现对立面,但这个团队成员都知道他们不得不达成一致意见,以便于能得到这个奖项。polarity极性;对立。impartiality公平,公正。judiciousness贤明,明智。consistency一致性;稳定性。

7.Ironically, the proper use of figurative language must be based on the denotative meaning of the words, because it is the failure to recognize this_____ meaning that leads to mixed metaphors and their attendant incongruity.

A. esoteric

B. literal

C. allusive

D. symbolic【答案】B【解析】句意:比喻句子的合理运用必须基于单词的外延意,这一点极具讽刺意义,因为正是由于没能意识到单词表面的意思才导致繁杂的隐喻以及随之产生的不调和错误。literal字面的。symbolic象征性的。esoteric隐秘的。allusive暗指的;含典故的。

8.Although any destruction of vitamins caused by food irradiation could be _____ the use of diet supplements, there may be no protection from carcinogens that some fear might be introduced into foods by the process.

A. counterbalanced by

B. attributed to

C. augmented with

D. stimulated by【答案】A【解析】句意:虽然食品辐照引起的维他命损害可以通过摄入膳食补充剂得到弥补,但还没有办法保护人们不受致癌物的侵害,于是对食物的担心便产生了。counterbalance弥补;使平衡。attribute to 归因于。augment扩大,增加。stimulate刺激。

9.Data concerning the effects on a small population of high concentrations of a potentially hazardous chemical are frequently used to _____ the effects on a large population of lower amounts of the same chemical.

A. verify

B. redress

C. predict

D. realize【答案】C【解析】句意:潜在的危险性化学药品对高度集中的小种群造成了影响,有关这些影响的数据常常被用来预测同样性质的少量化学药品对大种群造成的影响。predict预测,预知。verify证实,核实。redress纠正;补偿。realize实现。

10.Early critics of Emily Dickinson’s poetry mistook for simplemindedness the surface of artlessness that in fact she constructed with such _____.

A. astonishment

B. vexation

C. allusion

D. cunning【答案】D【解析】句意:早期对艾米莉·狄金森诗歌的批评误把她的朴实看成是头脑简单的,实际上,这是她的匠心独用所在。根据“in fact”可推断,所填词应与“simplemindedness”表示相反的意思。cunning灵巧,熟练;狡猾,奸诈。astonishment惊讶,惊奇。vexation烦恼,苦恼。allusion暗示;隐喻;典故。

11.After a slow sales start early in the year, mobile homes have been gaining favor as _____ to increasingly expensive conventional housing.

A. a reaction

B. an addition

C. an introduction

D. an alternative【答案】D【解析】句意:今年初销售变得缓慢后,拖车住房已成为除价格飞涨的传统住房外人们的另一选择,因而受到人们的喜爱。alternative 供选择的东西。reaction反应。addition 增加的人或物。introduction介绍;引进。

12.Although adolescent maturational and developmental states occur in an orderly sequence, their timing _____ with regard to onset and duration.

A. lasts

B. varies

C. falters

D. accelerates【答案】B【解析】句意:尽管青少年的成熟与发育状态是按照一种有条不紊的顺序发生的,但其时间指控却在起始和延续长度方面各不相同。vary变化,呈多样性。last延续。falter蹒跚;犹豫。accelerate加速,增加。

13.Psychology has slowly evolved into an _____ scientific discipline that now functions autonomously with the same privileges and responsibilities as other sciences.

A. independent

B. unusual

C. outmoded

D. uncontrolled【答案】A【解析】句意:心理学已缓慢地演变成一种独立的、具有科学性的学科,现在可以肃立自护地运作,拥有与其他学科相同的独立地位和责任。independent独立的。unusual不寻常的。outmoded老式的,过时的。uncontrolled不受控制的。

14.Noting the murder victim’s flaccid musculature and pear-like figure, she deduced that the unfortunate fellow had earned his living in some _____ occupation.

A. treacherous

B. ill-paying

C. illegitimate

D. sedentary【答案】D【解析】句意:注意到这个被谋杀的受害人松弛的肌肉的梨形的身材,她推断这个不幸的家伙曾经是一位长期坐着的职业者。sedentary久坐的,固定不动的。treacherous背叛的;不牢靠的。illegitimate非法的。ill-paying报酬低的。

15.The discovery that, friction excluded, all bodies fall at the same rate is so simple to state and to grasp that there is a tendency to _____ its significance.

A. underrate

B. reassess

C. praise

D. eliminate【答案】A【解析】句意:忽略摩擦的情况下,所有物体会以同样的速率下落,这一发现非常容易被抓住和阐述,以至于有一种低估它的重要性的趋势。空格填入一个动词,表示对“它的重要性(its significance)”做的动作。so…that…表示因果关系,所以空格填上以后要表达和“非常容易抓住并阐述(simple to state and to grasp)”一致的含义,所以空格应该对“重要性”做负动作,表示“不那么重视”。underrate低估。reassess再评价,再估价。praise表扬。eliminate排除,消除。

16.The painting was larger than it appeared to be, for hanging in a darkened recess of the chapel, it was _____ by the perspective.

A. improved

B. diminished

C. embellished

D. jeopardized【答案】B【解析】句意:画其实要比看上去大,(只是)因为挂在这样一个黑暗的小教堂休庭里,由于透视效果而被看起来缩小了。diminish减小。improve提高。embellish美化。jeopardize危及,损害。

17.Because folk art is neither completely rejected nor accepted as an art form by art historians, their final evaluations of it necessarily remain_____.

A. arbitrary

B. estimable

C. equivocal

D. orthodox【答案】C【解析】句意:因为民间艺术既没有被艺术历史学家作为一种艺术形式彻底拒绝,也没有被全面接受,所以他们对民间艺术的最终评价必然是模棱两可的。equivocal有歧义的;模棱两可,不确定的。arbitrary随心所欲的。estimable可估计的;值得尊敬的。orthodox正统的。

18.Although economists have traditionally considered the district to be solely an agricultural one, the _____ of the inhabitants’ occupations makes such a classification obsolete.

A. productivity

B. diversity

C. predictability

D. profitability【答案】B【解析】句意:虽然传统上经济学家认为这个区域是单一的农业区,但该地居民职业的多样性使这样的划分显得过时了。句首的“although”暗示前后句是转折关系,因此可推断所填词应与“solely”表示相反的意思。diversity多样性。productivity生产力。 predictability可预测性。profitability有利性。

19.Although specific concerns may determine the intent of a research project, its results are often _____.

A. unanticipated

B. beneficial

C. spectacular

D. specialized【答案】A【解析】句意:虽然具体的关注能决定一个研究课题的意图,但研究的结果常常却是不可预见的。unanticipated不可预见的。beneficial有利的。spectacular壮观的;引人注目的。specialized专门的;专业的。

20.The notion that a parasite can alter the behavior of a host organism is not mere fiction; indeed, the phenomenon is not even _____.

A. observable

B. real

C. comprehended

D. rare【答案】D【解析】句意:寄生虫能改变寄住物的行为的观点不是虚构的,这种现象的确不罕见。“indeed”表明前后句要表达一个意思,“not rare”与“not fiction”表达的意思相似。

Part II.  Reading Comprehension

Read each of the following passages. Choose the most appropriate from the four choices to complete the sentence or answer the question. Answer the question or write a summary as is required. (total of 40 points, 2 points for each question).

Passage A

Notation gave western music a means of written record, but at first only for a kind of music, chant, that was believed to have originated half a millennium and more in the past—to be, effectively, ageless. Early medieval chants sprang from the whole time of eternal sameness, which they so readily convey, and similarly there was no measure of the time within them—the rhythm. Then measure came. And with it came the first identifiable composers and precisely datable works.

Where chant was of a piece with other musical traditions in being self-sufficient melody, working within a modal system, belonging to no creator (but to God) and designed for worship, the new music of the twentieth century opened a distinctively western path. The measuring of time was the beginning not only of rhythmic notation—known, far beyond Europe, to the Indian theorist Sarngadeva in the first half of the thirteenth century—but also of music involving coordination among singers carrying different melodies, of polyphony. This, too, was by no means confined to the wedge of land between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic: the gamelan music of Bali, a tradition independent of Europe, is comparable with early western polyphony in its superposition of different time streams, fast and slow, while the music of many sub-Saharan African peoples often piles up dissimilar rhythmic layers in ways foreign to Europe outside certain special repertories (fourteenth-century song and some music since 1950). But, from the twelfth century to the fifteenth, polyphony in the west gradually moved away from the repetitive structures that were retained on Bali or in central Africa as Europeans discovered how harmony could result in continuous flow.

The source, as of so much in western culture, was a misunderstanding of classical Greek knowledge, again acquired through Boethius. He had nothing to say about harmony in the sense of chords, but he conveyed a Geek satisfaction in the primacy of the octave and the fifth, which medieval musicians took as models of consonance (the euphonious combining notes). Just as essential were dissonant combinations, lacking euphony, for these would intensify the need for consonance. A dissonance placed immediately before a final consonance would produce a firmly conclusive ending—a cadence, such as became an essential of western music. Extending back from the cadence, the forces of harmony, marshaled through relationships between each chord and the next, could amplify the directional sense already present in the melody—the sense of movement towards a resting point on the last note. Thus time measured became time decisively having a goal, and music could emulate the progress in every human soul towards eternity.

Music mirrored, too, how time generally was being told. Guido’s staff notation came roughly when water clocks were reintroduced from Byzantium and Islam, enabling monks to know when a service was due from the level reached by water slowly filling a vessel. Thus reading, whether of a chantbook or a water gauge, substituted for memory and intuition. Exact synchrony between music and time was lost a little when clockwork mechanisms appeared in the mid-thirteenth century, half a century later than the gear-driven music produced at Notre Dame in Paris. However, the perfection of hour-chiming with hour-chiming capabilities, in the astronomical clock made by Richard Wallingford for St. Albans Abbey (1327-36), strikingly coincided with the perfection of rhythmic notation that spread from Paris and gave music its own machinery of time lengths.

Choose the most appropriate from the four choices to answer the question or complete the sentence.

1.Which of the following is the most appropriate title for this passage?

A. The Development of Rhythm

B. Time Measured.

C. Notation and Time

D. Music and Civilization

2.It can be inferred from the passage that before notation appeared _____.

A. music was always renewed and could last only as long as memory

B. music presented people with three times at once: the now in which they heard it, the then in which it was made, and the further then of when the piece was composed

C. polyphony had already been developed to such a degree that different melodies carried by different singers could form a coordinated harmony

D. music mostly was not improvised and was not dated with precision

3.The author would most likely consider Western music and the music of non-Western cultures as_____.

A. respectively revolutionary and conservative

B. equal but distinct

C. both homogeneous and heterogeneous

D. illustrative of advancement and backwardness

4.The passage states that_____.

A. music and civilization complement each other and contradict each other

B. rhythmic notation appeared because human beings could tell time in a new way

C. notation appeared when musical works were no longer anonymous and non-datable

D. the appearance of rhythmic notation manifests a new stage of human beings’ quantitative method of thought【答案与解析】

1.D  本文讲了音乐如何随着历史的演变而不断发展,第二、三。四段揭示了音乐与不同地区、不同历史发展阶段。不同文化之间的关系。所以选项D最合适,揭示了音乐与文明之间的关系。

2.D  第一段最后一句提到,随着拍子的产生,第一批作曲家产生了,第一批可准确确定时间的作品也产生了。据此可推断,在音乐符号产生之间,即在节拍产生之前,音乐不能被即兴创作,也不能被准确记录。所以选项D正确。

3.C  第二段第三句,多声部音乐不仅出现在欧洲,在一些非欧洲地区如巴厘岛和撒哈拉沙漠以南地区也出现了相同的音乐形式,说明西方和非西方音乐有相似性。接着,本段最后一句,作者又指出从十二到十五世纪,欧洲多阴部音乐不再局限于巴厘岛和中非的音乐形式的束缚,变得连续而和谐,说明西方和非西方音乐又有相异性,故选C。

4.D  最后一段最后一句讲到,具有报时装置的钟表的完美运行与韵律符号同时产生。可据此推断,韵律符号的出现表明人类定量思维方式的新阶段,这与D项吻合。

Write a summary.

5.Summarize the passage in 4 or 5 sentences.【答案】The passage demonstrated how music evolved together with time measure. Early medieval chants originated half a millennium and more in the past had no measure of time within them. The appearance of rhythmic notation and polyphony marked the beginning of time measure. In fact, the development of music reflected how measure of the time developed.

Passage B

French toys: One could not find a better illustration of the fact that the adult Frenchman sees the child as another self. All the toys one commonly sees are essentially a microcosm of the adult world; they are all reduced copies of human objects, as if in the eyes of the public the child was, all told, nothing but a smaller man, a homunculus to whom must be supplied objects of his own size.

Invented forms are very rare: a few sets of blocks, which appeal to the spirit of do-it-yourself, are the only ones which offer dynamic forms. As for the others, French toys always mean something, and this something is always entirely socialized, constituted by the myths or the techniques of modern adult life: the army, broadcasting, the post office, medicine (miniature instrument-cases, operating theaters for dolls), school, hair styling (driers for permanent-waving), the air force (parachutists), transport (trains, Citroëns, Vedettes, Vespas, petrol stations), science (Martian toys).

The fact that French toys literally prefigure the world of adult functions obviously cannot but prepare the child to accept them all, by constituting for him, even before he can think about it, the alibi of a Nature which has at all times created soldiers, postmen, and Vespas. Toys here reveal the list of all the things the adult does not find unusual: war, bureaucracy, ugliness, Martians, etc. it is not so much, in fact, the imitation which is he sign of an abdication, as its literalness: French toys are like a Jivaro head, in which one recognizes, shrunken to the size of an apple, the wrinkles and hair of an adult. There exist, for instance, dolls which urinate; they have an esophagus, one gives

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