职称英语考试历年真题详解及全真模拟试卷(综合类)(txt+pdf+epub+mobi电子书下载)

作者:全国职称英语考试命题研究中心

出版社:人民邮电出版社

格式: AZW3, DOCX, EPUB, MOBI, PDF, TXT

职称英语考试历年真题详解及全真模拟试卷(综合类)

职称英语考试历年真题详解及全真模拟试卷(综合类)试读:

前言

全国专业技术人员职称外语等级统一考试是由人力资源和社会保障部组织实施的一项国家级外语考试。考试遵循“严格要求、实事求是、公平公正、平等对待、逐步提高”的原则,根据外语在不同专业领域活动中的应用特点,结合专业技术人员掌握和使用外语的实际情况,对申报不同级别专业技术职务的人员的外语水平提出了不同的要求。

职称外语统一考试由人力资源和社会保障部统筹规划、指导并确定合格标准。考试的考务工作的组织与实施由人力资源和社会保障部人事考试中心负责。考试每年举行一次,考试时间一般安排在每年3月中旬。考试设英语、日语、俄语、德语、法语和西班牙语6个语种,每个语种分为A、  B.C三个等级。其中,英语划分为综合类、理工类、卫生类3个专业类别。其他语种不分专业类别。考试主要测试专业技术人员阅读理解外文专业基础文献的能力。报考人员可根据自己所从事的专业工作,任选一个语种及有关类别参加考试。

为了更好地帮助考生复习,赢取高分,我们分析了近几年考题中的考点、难点、重点及命题思路,倾力推出《职称英语考试历年真题详解及全真模拟试卷(综合类)》。本书由2010年、2011年、2012年和2013年的A级、B级和C级12套考试真题试卷以及A级、B级和C级6套全真模拟试卷组成。

本套丛书特点如下:

一、一线专家教授倾力合作,作者阵容强大,内容权威

本书由来自北京大学、清华大学和中国人民大学的命题研究专家,以及一线辅导教师共同编写而成。其中涉及的每一道试题,既反映了考试大纲对考生基础知识、能力和水平的要求,又蕴涵着命题的指导思想、命题基本原则和命题趋势。因此,对照考试大纲分析、研究这些试题,考生不仅可以了解职称英语考试的全貌,而且可以方便地了解有关试题和信息,从中发现规律,归纳出各部分内容的重点、难点,精通常考的题型,进一步把握考试的特点及命题的思路和规律,从而轻松应考,轻取高分。

二、再现近4年真题,全面展现题型特点、热点

职称英语考试历年考试真题是具有代表性的经典复习题目,因此,研习历年考试真题是考生复习备考中必不可少的关键环节,也是考生掌握考试动态,赢得高分的最佳捷径。本书收录了近4年的考试真题,详解命题规律,诠释高频考点、热点、难点,帮助考生有针对性地复习,从而提升应试能力。

三、注重实际操作演练,全程预测,系统预测

本书提供了6套全真模拟试题,全面收录考试热点,预测了2014年考试的方向,涵盖了近年考试的热点。每套试卷都有详细的答案和解析,考生可以利用本书中的模拟试卷进行考前模拟实战训练,检验自己的复习成果,及时进行查缺补漏。

由于时间有限,疏漏之处在所难免,还望广大考生和读者批评指正。编者

2013年职称英语等级考试真题(综合类C级)

第1部分:词汇选项(第1~15题,每题1分,共15分)

下面每个句子中均有1个词或者短语划有底横线,请为每处划线部分确定1个意义最为接近的选项。

1. It seems incredible that he had been there a week already.

A. right  B. obvious  C. unclear  D. unbelievable

2. We found shelter from the rain under the tree.

A. defense  B. protection  C. standing  D. room

3. The frame needs to be strong enough to support the engine.

A. structure  B. bottom  C. surface  D. top

4. The odd thing was that he didn't recognize me.

A. real  B. whole  C. same  D. strange

5. The performance was pretty impressive.

A. completely  B. very  C. beautifully  D. equally

6. I tried to detach myself from the reality of these terrible events.

A. bring  B. separate  C. put  D. set

7. I have little information as regards her fitness for the post.

A. at  B. with  C. from  D. about

8. I grabbed his arm and made him turn to look at me.

A. threw  B. seized  C. broke  D. stretched

9. He was tempted by the high salary offered by the company.

A. taught  B. attracted  C. kept  D. changed

10. This was an unexceptionally brutal attack.

A. cruel  B. open  C. sudden  D. direct

11. "There is no other choice," she said in a harsh voice.

A. firm  B. soft  C. deep  D. unkind

12. She came across three children sleeping under a bridge.

A. passed by  B. took a notice of  C. woke up  D. found by chance

13. Traffic reaches its rush hour between 8:00 and 9:00 in the morning.

A. border  B. goal  C. level  D. peak

14. We have to change the public's perception that money is everything.

A. sight  B. belief  C. interest  D. pressure

15. She gets aggressive when she is drunk.

A. worried  B. sleepy  C. offensive  D. anxious第2部分:阅读判断(第16~22题,每题1分,共7分)

下面的短文后列出了7个句子,请根据短文的内容对每个句子作出判断;如果该句提供的是正确信息,请选择A;如果该句提供的是错误信息,请选择B;如果该句的信息文中没有提及,请选择C。Kicking the habit

What is a bad habit? The most definition is that it is something that we do regularly,almost without thinking about it,and which has some sort of negative consequence. This consequence could affect those around us,or it could affect us personally. Those who deny having bad habits are probably lying. Bad habits are part of what makes us human.

Many early habits,like sucking out thumb,are broken when we are very young. We are either told to stop doing it by our parents,or we consciously or subconsciously observe that others do not have the same habit,and we gradually grow out of it. It is when we intentionally or unintentionally pick up new habits in our later childhood or early adulthood that it becomes a problem. Unless we can break that habit early on,it becomes a part of our life,and becomes "programmed" into our brain.

A recent study of human memory suggests that no matter how hard we try to change our habits,it is the old ways that tend to win,especially in situations where we are rushed,stressed or overworked. Habits that we thought we had got rid of can suddenly come back. During the study program,the researchers showed a group of volunteers several pictures,and gave them words to associate with them. They then showed the volunteers the same picture again,and gave them new words to associate with them.

A few days later,the volunteers were given a test. The researchers showed them the pictures,and told them to respond with one of the words they had been given for each one. It came as no surprise that their answers were split between the first set of words and second. Two weeks later,they were given the same test again. This time,most of them only gave the first set of words. They appeared to have completely forgotten the second set.

The study confirms that the responses we learn first are those that remain strongest over time. We may try to change our ways,but after a while,the response that comes to mind first is usually the first one we learned. The more that response is used,the more automatic it becomes and the harder it becomes to respond in any other ways.

Even when we try to put new,good habits into practice,those previously learned habits remain stronger in more automatic,unconscious forms of memory.

16. B.ys usually develop bad habits when they are very young.

A. Right  B. Wrong  C. Not mentioned

17. We can only break bad habits if others tell us to do.

A. Right  B. Wrong  C. Not mentioned

18. Bad habits may return when we are under pressure.

A. Right  B. Wrong  C. Not mentioned

19. Researchers were surprised by the answer that the volunteers gave in the first test.

A. Right  B. Wrong  C. Not mentioned

20. The volunteers found the test more difficult when they did it the second time.

A. Right  B. Wrong  C. Not mentioned

21. The study suggests that it is more difficult to respond to what we learn first.

A. Right  B. Wrong  C. Not mentioned

22. If we develop bad habits early in life,they are harder to get rid of.

A. Right  B. Wrong  C. Not mentioned第3部分:概括大意与完成句子(第23~30题,每题1分,共8分)

下面的短文后有2项测试任务:(1)第23~26题要求从所给的6个选项中为第1~4段每段选择1个最佳标题:(2)第27~30题要求从所给的6个选项中为每个句子确定1个最佳选项。Pedestrians Only

1. The concept of traffic-free shopping areas goes back a long time. D.ring the Middle Ages,traffic-free shopping areas were built in Middle Eastern countries to allow people to shop in comfort and,more importantly,safety. As far back as 2,000 years ago,road traffic was banned from central Rome during the day to allow for the free movement of Pedestrians (行人),and was only allowed in at night when shops and markets had been closed for the day. In most other cities,however,pedestrians were forced to share the streets with horses,coaches and,later,with cars and other motorised vehicles.

2. The modern,traffic-free shopping street was born in Europe in the 1960s,when both city populations and car ownership increased rapidly. D.rty gases from cars and the risks involved in crossing the road were beginning to make shopping an unpleasant and dangerous experience. Many believed the time was right for experimenting with car-free streets,and shopping areas seemed the best place to start.

3. At first,there was resistance from shopkeepers. They believed that such a move would be bad for business. They argued that people would avoid streets if they were unable to get to them in their cars. When the first streets in Europe were closed to traffic,there were even noisy demonstrations,as many shopkeepers predicted they would lose customers.

4. However,research carried out afterwards in several European cities revealed some unexpected statistics. In Munich,Cologne and Hamburg,visitors to shopping areas increased by 50 percent. On C.penhagen's main shopping street, shopkeepers reported sales increases of 25-40 percent. Shopkeepers in Minneapolis,the USA,were so impressed when they learnt this that they even offered to pay for the construction and maintenance costs of their own traffic-free streets.

5. With the arrival of the traffic-free shopping street,many shops,especially those selling things like clothes,food and smaller luxury items,prospered. Unfortunately,it wasn't good news for everyone,as shops selling furniture and larger electrical appliances(电器)actually saw their sales drop. Many of these were forced to move elsewhere,away from the city centre.

23. Paragraph 1______.

24. Paragraph 2______.

25. Paragraph 3______.

26. Paragraph 4______.

A. Facing protest from shop owners  B. An experiment that went wrong

C. Increase in sales and customers  D. Popularity of online shopping

E. A need for change  F. An idea from ancient history

27. Traffic-free shopping streets first developed in______.

28. In the 1960s,dirty gases from cars made shopping ______.

29. Shopkeepers mistakenly believed that car-free streets would keep away ______.

30. The arrival of the traffic-free shopping street made many______ lose their business.

A. furniture sellers  B. a bad experience

C. Middle Eastern countries  D. customers

E. North America  F. pedestrians第4部分:阅读理解(第31~45题,每题3分,共45分)

下面有3篇短文,每篇短文后有5道题。请根据短文内容,为每题确定1个最佳选项。第1篇 An Expensive Mistake

Is there water on the planet Mars? Is there life on Mars? Was there over life on Mars? Scientists from NASA wanted to know the answers to these questions. They built a Spacecraft to travel around Mars and get information. The spacecraft was called the Mars Climate Orbiter.

The Mars Climate Orbiter left for Mars in December 1998. The trip took nine and a half months. At first, everything was fine. However,when the Orbiter got near Mars,something terrible happened. The spacecraft didn't go to the right place. It went too close to Mars. It was too hot for the Orbiter there. The spacecraft couldn't function correctly. Suddenly,it stopped sending messages to NASA. The Orbiter was lost.

How could this terrible thing happen? How did the orbiter get closer to Mars than the scientists planned? Finally,they found the answer. Two teams of scientists worked together on the Orbiter. One team was in England,and one team was in the United States. There were many similarities in the way they worked,but there was one important difference: The teams used different guidelines for measuring things. The United States Team used the metric system(公制). The other team used English system.

Because they used different systems,the scientists made a mathematical mistake. The orbiter's orbit (the shape and pattern of its path) around Mars was not correct. The Scientists put the Orbiter on the wrong path. The Orbiter got too close and too hot,and it stopped functioning.

Why didn't anybody see the mistake before it was too late? Many things contributed to the problem. One thing was that NASA scientists and mathematicians were working on two other spacecrafts at the same time. This was a challenge,and they were very tired from working long hours.

The Mars Climate Orbiter cost $94 million to build. It also cost a lot of money to try to find the lost Orbiter in space. In addition,NASA's research on the cause of the problem was very expensive. This wasn't the first time that two different measurement systems caused mistakes in scientific projects. However,the Mars Climate Orbiter was definitely the most expensive mistake of all!

31. NASA built the Mars Climate Orbiter to get information about.

A. The size of Mars.  B. Possible life on Mars.

C. The shape of Mars.  D. The atmosphere of Mars.

32. How long did it take the Orbiter to get close to Mars?

A. One year.  B. Less than one year.

C. About two and a half years.  D. More than three years.

33. When did the Orbiter's problem begin?

A. Right after it left for Mars.  B. Right after it landed on Mars.

C. When it got near Mars.  D. When it returned to Earth.

34. What caused the Orbiter's problem?

A. Scientists used wrong guidelines of mathematics.

B. Scientists used wrong building materials.

C. Scientists used different operating systems.

D. Scientists used different measurement systems.

35. Why didn't NASA scientists identify the problem before the Orbiter left for Mars?

A. They didn't know the English system.  B. They were sure of the success of the trip.

C. They were tired from working long hours.  D. They didn't get enough research funding.第2篇 The D.velopment of Ballet

Ballet is a dance form that has a long history. The fact that it survives to this day shows that it has adjusted as times have changed.

Ballet began in the royal courts during the Renaissance. At that time it became common for kings and queens,as well as other nobility,to participate in pageants that included music,poetry,and dance. As these entertainments moved from the Italian courts to the French ones,court ladies began participating in them. Though their long dresses prevented much movement,they were able to perform elaborate walking patterns. It was not until the 1600s that women dancers shortened their skirts,changed to flat shoes,and began doing some of the leaps and turns performed by men.

It was also in the 1600s that professional ballet began. King Louis XIV of France,himself a devoted dancer,founded the Royal Academy of Dance. The five basic feet positions from which all ballet steps begin were finalized. In the late1700s another important change occurred. Ballet began to tell a story on its own. It was no longer simply dance to be performed between acts of plays. Elaborate wigs and costumes were eliminated. By the early 1800s dancers learned to rise on their toes to make it appear that they were floating.

Classical ballet as we know it today was influenced primarily by Russian dancing. The Russians remained interested in ballet when it declined in other European countries in the mid -1800s. One of the most influential figures of the early 20th century was Sergei Diaghilev. His dance company,the Ballets Russes,brought a new energy and excitement to ballet. One of his chief assistants,George Balanchine,went on to found the New York City Ballet in 1948 and to influence new generations of dancers.

36. This passage deals mainly with

A. famous names in ballet.  B. how ballet has developed.

C. Russian ballet.  D. why ballet is no longer popular.

37. The word "pageants" in Paragraph 2 means

A. big shows.  B. dances.  C. instructions.  D. royal courts.

38. Professional ballet was first performed in

A. France.  B. Italy.  C. Russia.  D. America.

39. Who had an important influence on early ballet?

A. Balanchine.  B. Antoinette.  C.  Diaghilev.  D. Louis XIV.

40. We can conclude from this passage that ballet

A. is a dying art.  B. will continue to change.

C. is currently performed only in Russia.  D. is often performed by dancers with little training第3篇 Operation Migration

If you look up at the sky in the early fall in the northern part of North America,you may see groups of birds. These birds are flying south to places where they can find food and warmth for the winter. They are migrating(迁徙). The young birds usually learn to migrate from their parents. They follow their parents south. In one unusual case,however,the young birds are following something very different. These birds are young whooping cranes, and they are following an airplane!

The whooping crane is the largest bird that is native to North America. These birds almost disappeared in the 1800s. By 1941,there were only about 20 cranes alive. In the 1970s,people were worried that these creatures were in danger of disappearing completely. As a result,the United States identified whooping cranes as an endangered species that they needed to protect.

Some researchers tried to help. They began to breed whooping cranes in special parks to increase the number of birds. This plan was successful. There were a lot of new baby birds. As the birds became older,the researchers wanted to return them to nature. However,there was a problem: These young birds did not know how to migrate. They needed human help.

In 2001,some people had a creative idea. They formed an organization called Operation Migration. This group decided to use very light airplanes,instead of birds,to lead the young whooping cranes on their first trip south. They painted each airplane to look like a whooping crane. Even the pilots wore special clothing to make them look like cranes. The cranes began to trust the airplanes,and the plan worked.

Today,planes still lead birds across approximately 1,200 miles(1,931 kilometers),from the United States-Canadian border to the Gulf of Mexico. They leave the birds at different sites. If a trip is successful,the birds can travel on their own in the future. Then,when these birds become parents,they will teach their young to migrate. The people of Operation Migration think this is the only way to maintain the whooping crane population.

Operation Migration works with several other organizations and government institutes. Together,they assist hundreds of cranes each year. However,some experts predict that soon,this won't be necessary. Thanks to Operation Migration and its partners,the crane population will continue to migrate. Hopefully, they won't need human help anymore.

41. Whooping cranes migrate in winter to

A. find warmth and food  B. raise baby whooping cranes

C. get human help  D. lay eggs

42. Whooping cranes are native to

A. North America  B. Mexico

C. South America  D. the Persian Gulf

43. Operation Migration aims to

A. teach adult cranes how to fly  B. breed cranes in special parks

C. lead young cranes on their first trip south  D. transport cranes to the North

44. The distance covered by the young whooping cranes on their trip south is

A.120 miles  B. 1931 miles  C.1200 miles  D.2000 miles

45. If operation Migration is successful, whooping cranes will

A. learn to migrate on their own  B. follow airplanes south every year

C. live in Canada all year round  D. be unable to fly back第5部分:补全短文(第46~50题,每题2分,共10分)

下面的短文有5处空白,短文后有6个句子,其中5个取自短文,请根据短文内容将其分别放回原有位置,以恢复文章原貌。A Doctor in the House

Brushing your teeth twice a day should keep the dentist away. But if a group of scientific researchers have their wish,it will make the rest of your body healthy too. 46 It is one of many gadgets (小装置) proposed by engineers and doctors at the Center for Future Health in New York ― others include a pair of glasses that help to jog your memory,and a home camera designed to check for cancer.

The devices seem fanciful,but the basic principles are simple. The gadgets should make it easy for people to detect illness long before it strikes and so seek treatment far earlier than normal. 47 In the long run,the technology may even prevent illness by encouraging us to lead healthier lives.

Intelligent bandages(绷带) are a good example. Powerful sensors within the bandage could quickly identify tiny amounts of bacteria in a wound and determine which antibiotics (抗生素) would work best.48

Socks are long overdue for a makeover. In the future they will be able to automatically detect the amount of pressure in your foot and alert you when an ulcer (溃疡) is coming up.

All the projects should have far-reaching implications,but the biggest single development is a melanoma (黑瘤) monitor designed to give early warnings of cancer. 49 If a problem is found,the system would advise you to get a check-up at your doctor's surgery.

If all this sounds troublesome,then help is at hand. 50 A standard computer would be able to understand your voice and answer questions about your symptoms in plain English and in a way which would calm your nerves.

A. Experts are also working on a "digital doctor",complete with a comforting bedside manner.

B. Instead of relying on hi-tech hospitals,the emphasis is shifted to the home and easy-to-use gadgets.

C. The cut could then be treated instantly,so avoiding possible complications.

D. That is going to be the difficult part.

E. The device could be used to take a picture of your body each week,then compare it with previous images.

F. A toothbrush that checks blood sugar and bacteria while you brush is currently in development in USA.第6部分:完形填空(第51~65题,每题1分,共15分)

下面的短文有15处空白,请根据短文内容为每处空白确定1个最佳选项。Global Warming

Few people now question the reality of global warming and its effects on the world's climate. Many scientists put the______(51) for recent natural disasters on the increase______(52) the world's temperatures and are convinced______(53),more than ever before,the Earth is at______(54) from the forces of the wind,rain and sun. According to______(55),global warming is making extreme ; weather events,______(56) as hurricanes and droughts,even more______(57) and causing sea levels all around the world to______(58).

Environmental groups are______(59) pressure on governments to take action to reduce the______(60) of carbon dioxide which is given off by factories and power plants,______(61) attacking the problem at its source. They are in______(62) of more money being spent on research into solar,wind and wave energy devices,which could then______(63) existing power stations.

Some scientists,______(64),believe that even if we stopped releasing carbon dioxide and other gases into the atmosphere tomorrow,we would have to wait several hundred years to______(65) the results. Global warming,it seems,is here to stay.

51. A. position  B. practice  C. blame  D. question

52. A. at  B. by  C. in  D. about

53. A. when  B. where  C. what  D. that

54. A. threat  B. danger  C. harm  D. risk

试读结束[说明:试读内容隐藏了图片]

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