老祖宗的吃饭智慧(txt+pdf+epub+mobi电子书下载)

作者:田永胜

出版社:团结出版社

格式: AZW3, DOCX, EPUB, MOBI, PDF, TXT

老祖宗的吃饭智慧

老祖宗的吃饭智慧试读:

序言一

(美)尼尔·伯纳德博士

It was once thought that longevity was mainly a matter of chance. If you were lucky,you lived for a long time. If you were not so lucky,your life might be shorter. But researchers have found that,in fact,luck has very little to do with our longevity.

人们曾经认为,长寿主要是一种机遇,如果您运气好的话,就可以活得久一点;如果您没有那么幸运,就可能短命。但是,很多研究者已经发现,运气实际上与长寿毫不相关。

Genes play a role in health and longevity,as we now know. But even more important are the effects of lifestyle choices we make on a daily basis,especially our diet choices.

我们现在知道,基因对健康和长寿起着一定的作用。但是,更为重要的是我们每一天都在选择的生活方式,特别是饮食方式。

Research has clearly shown that the foods we eat are decisive. This research was urgently needed,because,in the U.S.,we are struggling to deal with the epidemics of diabetes,heart disease,cancer,hypertension,and obesity that have been caused by our unfortunate dietary habits. An American with diabetes loses more than a decade of life,compared with other Americans. And in recent years,Americans pay more than$120 billion annually for the medical costs related to diabetes. Adding the personal and financial costs of other diet-related diseases,it is clear that our diet habits are killing us.

研究已经清楚地表明,食物对健康与长寿有决定性的作用。这种研究是当代迫切需要的,因为在美国,我们疲于应对因不幸的饮食习惯造成的糖尿病、心脏病、癌症、高血压、肥胖症等疾病的流行。与一个健康的美国人相比,一个患有糖尿病的美国人寿命会减少10年以上。近年来,美国人每年花在治疗糖尿病上的医疗费用就超过1200亿美元,再加上其他与饮食相关疾病造成的个人损失和财务支出,显而易见,这种饮食习惯正在把我们置于死地。

At the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine in Washington,DC,our research team found that a diet change can improve and sometimes even reverse type 2 diabetes. Other researchers have shown that healthy eating habits can reverse heart disease. Foods play major roles in cancer risk,as well.

在位于华盛顿的医师负责行医委员会,我们的研究团队发现,改变饮食能够改善甚至逆转2型糖尿病。其他的研究者的工作已经证实,健康的饮食习惯能逆转心脏病。食物在降低癌症危险方面同样起到非常重要的作用。

The foods that been shown to work these wonders are surprisingly simple. Vegetables,fruits,whole grains,and legumes provide the nutrition our bodies need,while helping us avoid cholesterol and unhealthful fats. Throughout China,traditional cuisines have made use of these nutritious staples.

能够发挥这些神奇功能的食物令人惊讶的简单:蔬菜、水果、全谷物和豆类能够提供我们身体所需要的营养,同时帮我们远离胆固醇和不健康的脂肪。中国的传统美食就充分利用了这些营养食物。

However,in recent decades,a new phenomenon has begun. Fast-food chains have cropped up in many cities and towns,and western eating habits have invaded. Meat and dairy products have become much more popular. And the result has been an emergence of the very diseases that have long plagued the U.S. and other western countries.

然而,最近几十年来,中国出现一种新的现象,快餐连锁店在许多城市和城镇大量出现。西方式饮食习惯已经入侵,肉类和奶制品更加流行。其结果是中国涌现出那些已经长期困扰美国和其他西方国家的很多疾病。

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,beef consumption in China will increase by 1.5 million tons within the next decade. Per capita milk consumption has increased tenfold since 1980. The fat and cholesterol that come from these foods are padding waistlines and clogging arteries.

根据联合国粮农组织的资料,在下一个十年,中国牛肉的消费量将增加150万吨。自1980年以来,人均牛奶消费量已经增加十倍。这些食物中的脂肪和胆固醇正在增加人们的腰围、堵塞他们的血管。

Cardiovascular disease is now the leading cause of death in China. More than 92 million adults have diabetes,and another 150 million adults have prediabetes. These epidemics,which are the direct result of the influx of meat and dairy products into the diet,will burden the nation as never before.

目前,心脏病是导致中国人死亡的主要原因。超过9200万成年人患有糖尿病,其他1.5亿成年人处于糖尿病前期。这些流行病就是大量摄入肉类和奶制品直接造成的,将给这个国家造成前所未有的负担。

This book answers these problems. It not only shows what causes health problems.

It also shows you,step by step,how to take advantage of age-old traditional foods,along with the findings of 21st-century research,in order to conquer health challenges and live a longer,healthier,and more productive life.

本书给出了解决这些问题的答案。它不仅指出造成健康问题的原因,还一步一步地告诉您如何利用中国历史悠久的传统食物,再加上21世纪的最新研究成果,征服我们的健康所面临的挑战,拥有一个更加长寿、健康和有益的人生。

It is not so hard to do,and the results can be spectacular. With simple steps,we can give our families and our communities the very best of health.

这样做并不难,而且结果会非常显著。通过这些简单的步骤,我们就能够给我们的家庭和社区带来最好的健康。

尼尔·伯纳德(Neal Barnard),医学博士,担任美国医师委员会的主席,也是资深营养研究专家,著有多本素食方面的书籍,影响非常大。

序言二

(美)威尔·塔特尔博士

With every passing day,we are learning more about the beneficial effects of eating vegetables,fruits,and whole grains,and the damaging effects of confining and killing animals for food. This book summarizes these discoveries so that we can live more healthy and productive lives,and contribute to a more harmonious world.

随着时光的流逝,我们越来越了解到吃蔬菜、水果和全谷物的益处,同时也认识到囚禁和虐杀动物作为食物的危害。本书总结了这些发现,以便让我们能够过一种更加健康和充实的生活,同时有助于建立一个更加和谐的世界。

Personally,I am grateful to the wisdom teachings I discovered many years ago that came from the ancient Chinese Buddhist and Taoist traditions. Besides advocating simplicity,kindness,humility,and harmonizing ourselves with the larger world of nature,they taught me the importance of eating a plant-based diet. As a vegan of more than 30 years now,I feel my life and my destiny have been improved immeasurably by these ancient teachings advocating vegetarian living.

就我个人而言,我很感激多年前就学到的中国古代佛教和道教传统的智慧。佛教和道教除了倡导简单、善良、谦虚、人与自然和谐之外,还教导我吃植物性饮食的重要性。我自己成为严格素食者已经超过30年了,我感觉自己的生活和命运因这些提倡素食生活的古代宗教而发生了很大改善。

Physical health,psychological health,spiritual health,cultural health,and ecological health are all interconnected. When we pay for and eat foods from animals,we act in cruel and heartless ways not only toward the animals,but also toward the people who have to do the terrible work of killing animals all day,and to those who go hungry because we are feeding valuable grain to pigs,chickens,cows,and farmed fish so that we can eat meat,eggs,fish,and dairy products. These poor animals are inefficient converters of grain into animal protein,saturated fat,and cholesterol,and create terrible pollution problems that lead to climate destabilization and species extinction as we cut down forests,overfish the oceans,and pollute and waste water in order to grow feedstock. And then,to compound these problems,eating meat and dairy products is the driving force behind the many diseases that cause us misery,such as heart disease,diabetes,osteoporosis,arthritis,kidney disease,obesity and many forms of cancer.

身体健康、心理健康、精神健康、文化健康和生态健康都是息息相关的。当我们消费动物性食物时,我们不光在残忍无情地对待动物,还在残忍无情地对待那些每天不得不从事杀害动物这种可怕工作的人们,也在残忍无情地对待那些忍饥挨饿的人们,因为我们为了吃到肉、鱼、蛋、奶产品,把宝贵的粮食都拿去饲养猪、鸡、牛、鱼,使这些可怜的动物成为把谷物变成动物性蛋白质、饱和脂肪和胆固醇的低效转换器。由于我们砍伐森林、过度捕捞、污染海洋和浪费水资源来饲养动物,造成可怕的污染问题,导致气候失调和物种灭绝。除了这些问题以外,食用肉类和奶制品直接导致很多令我们痛苦的疾病,包括心脏病、糖尿病、骨质疏松症、关节炎、肾脏疾病、肥胖症和多种癌症等。

By hardening our hearts to the suffering of the birds,mammals,fish,and other people we harm for food,we also harden our arteries and cut our lives short. As this book demonstrates so well,being kind to others benefits not only them but ourselves as well.

当我们面对鸟类、哺乳动物、鱼类的痛苦而铁石心肠的时候,我们也造成自己的动脉硬化和寿命减少。这本书很好地说明了,善待其他众生不仅有利于它们,也利于我们自己。

There is nothing more important for us as human beings today to understand than the wisdom that is in this book. Although it has ancient roots,we must rediscover it today because institutions and interests that profit from disease,devastation,and oppression are suppressing it.

今天,对我们人类来说,没有什么比理解这本书中蕴涵的智慧更重要了。尽管这种智慧由来已久,我们今天必须重新发现它,因为那些从疾病、毁灭和压迫中获利的机构和利益团体在压制这种智慧。

Each one of us can stop being part of the problem,and become part of the solution! Thank you for reading,contemplating,and acting on the understanding conveyed in these pages. You can help yourself and all of us. We are all interrelated.

我们每个人都可以不再是产生这个问题的一员,而成为解决这个问题的一员!感谢您阅读、思考,并根据本书传播的信息行动起来。您可以帮助您自己和我们所有人。因为我们都是息息相关的。

威尔·塔特尔(Will Tuttle),哲学博士,著有《世界和平饮食:为灵性健康与和谐社会而食》,美国钢琴家、作曲家、教育家。

序言三

(美)乔纳森·贝尔科姆博士

When people hear me talk about animals and their behaviors,they ask me: “Do you eat meat?” I reply: “I used to.” I ate animals until I was 25 years old. I was by then only vaguely familiar with the way animals are treated to produce the meat we buy conveniently wrapped in plastic at the supermarket. But as I learned about their cruel treatment on factory farms,their appalling journey to the slaughterhouse,and the horror of slaughter,I realized I could not reconcile these things with my love of animals. So I stopped eating them.

当人们听到我谈论动物及其行为时,他们就问我:“你吃肉吗?”我回答:“我以前吃肉。”25岁以前我一直是个肉食者。那时,我只是模糊地知道人们用动物来生产肉食,并用塑料袋包装好放在超市方便我们购买。但是,当我了解到动物在工厂化养殖的农场中受到的残酷虐待、运送到屠宰场途中骇人听闻的遭遇以及恐怖的屠宰过程之后,我意识到我无法容忍我所喜爱的动物们遭受这些待遇。于是,我停止吃肉了。,

I also get asked: “But you drink milk,don t you?” Again,I ,once did. But it,s now been 22 years since I last nursed from a cow s udder.(In truth,I never got on my hands and knees and latched ,onto a cow s teat,but if that sounds bizarre,then so should the idea of drinking breast secretions from another species. Humans are ,the only species to do this.)Not only is cow s milk unnatural and unhealthy for a human,it is also cruel to the cow and her baby,,,because we don t share the cow s milk with the calf. We take it all. Standard dairy practice is to separate the calf from its mother within an hour of birth. Cows cherish their babies like all mothers do. They will bellow for days to be reunited with their abducted loved-one. Sometimes the calf is placed in a neighboring stall where the cow can hear and smell her baby but cannot reach it to lick and nurse it. Male calves are often sold for veal production,where they are typically chained by the neck in a 22 inch wide stall,fed a poor diet,and denied exercise just to make their flesh pale and soft before being slaughtered. Female calves may also go to veal,or they might be raised to repeat the cycle as dairy cows. After being successively impregnated by artificial insemination,giving birth,and then having her babies taken away,the dairy cow—probably lame,and now physically and emotionally exhausted—is “rewarded” for her hardships by being sent to the slaughterhouse.

我也被问到:“但是你喝牛奶,对吗?”同样,我以前确实喝过。但是,自从我最后一次接受母牛的哺乳到现在,已经22年了。(事实上??,我从来没有趴在地上去吸吮奶牛的奶。如果这听起来很离奇,那么,喝另一个物种乳汁的想法也同样怪异。人类是唯一喝其他动物乳汁的物种。)牛奶并不天然,而且,这对母牛和牛犊来说也很残忍,因为我们不是在与小牛分享牛奶,而是拿走了它们的全部。生产乳品的标准做法是,在小牛出生后一小时内将其从母牛身边带走。所有的母牛都爱护小牛,如同人类的母亲疼爱自己的婴儿一般。母牛会连续好几天不停地嚎叫,希望能骨肉团聚。有时小牛被放置在邻近的牛棚,母牛可以听到自己孩子的声音,闻到它的气味,但却不能够舔舐和照看它。而公牛犊则被出售用于生产牛肉,它们通常被放在一个22英寸(55.88厘米)宽的地方,颈部被链条锁住,吃一些很差的食物,被剥夺了所有的活动自由,只是为了让他们在屠宰前的肉色变得苍白而柔软。母牛犊也可能用来生产牛肉,或许会再次重复奶牛的生产循环。在多次人工授精和她的孩子被带走后,奶牛的身体和精神已经极度疲惫不堪,而它们最后得到的“奖励”也是被送到屠宰场。

The story isn’t much different for chickens,pigs,sheep,goats,ducks,turkeys,cats,dogs,bush meat and all the others whose flesh humans around the world eat depending on palate preference. Is there anything wrong with treating animals this way? Of course there is. And the reason is because animals are sentient beings – they feel. They have thoughts and emotions; they remember things; and they have lives that matter to them. Like us,they experience pleasure and joy,happiness and sorrow,and pain and suffering. Science has learned that the animals we raise to eat are no different than we are in these capacities. Their pain is as real and their emotions as intense as that of any other animal,including us. Studies show that young cows get excited when they solve a problem; that sheep recognize fifty or more of their flock-mates two years after they last saw them; that chickens have a vocabulary of thirty calls; that roosters may be virtuous and at times deceptive in wooing a female for a future dalliance; and that factory-farmed pigs—deprived of the opportunity to run and play in the open air—become depressed and pessimistic.

?鸡、猪、绵羊、山羊、鸭、火鸡、猫、狗、丛林野生动物以及其他所有供全世界人类食肉的动物,其遭遇都没有太大区别,人们只是根据他们味觉的喜好加以选择。这样对待动物的方式有什么错误吗?当然有。究其原因,是因为动物是有知觉的:它们能感觉到痛苦,它们有思想和情感,有记忆的能力,它们也有生存的权利。和我们一样,它们能体验喜悦和兴奋、痛苦和苦难。科学研究表明,我们饲养并作为食物的动物,在这些能力上与我们人类没有区别。动物的痛苦是真实存在的,它们的情绪是强烈的,这与其他物种一样,其中包括人类。科学研究表明,当年轻的奶牛解决一个问题时,它会感到兴奋。即使两年多没有见面,绵羊也能够识别50个甚至更多的同伴。鸡的词汇量包括30种鸣叫方式,公鸡有些或许是有道德的,但有时也会为了调戏母鸡而伪装自己;工厂化圈养的猪会因为被剥夺了在露天奔跑和玩乐的机会而变得更沮丧和悲观。

Fortunately,humankind is beginning to realize that we can no longer afford—ethically,ecologically or economically—to treat animals as if they were automatons. In 2000,no region of the United States outlawed any standard agricultural confinement practices. Today,seven U.S. states and the European Union have passed laws banning gestation crates for sows,and several have also outlawed the use of crates to confine veal calves and battery cages for laying hens. A 2010 survey by Context Marketing found that 69% of American consumers will pay more for “ethically produced” foods and that 91% include animal welfare in their criteria for whether something is ethically produced. A New York Times newspaper editorial in 2010 reported that “industrial confinement[of animals] is cruel and senseless and will turn out to be,we hope,a relatively shortlived anomaly in modern farming.” Interest and demand for vegan food is taking hold in America and much of the world.

幸运的是,人类开始认识到,无论从伦理上还是生态或经济方面,都再也无法把动物当做机器一样对待。在2000年,美国没有任何一个地区取缔标准农业囚禁动物的做法。如今,欧盟以及美国的七个州已通过法律,禁止把母猪囚禁在妊娠箱内,有几个州同时也禁止把肉用小牛囚禁在箱子里,禁止把蛋鸡囚禁在层架式鸡笼里。2010年,Context Marketing的一项调查发现,69%的美国消费者愿意多支付“生产方式符合道德”食品的费用,而其中91%的消费者会将动物福利作为标准考量某种食品是否符合道德。2010年纽约时报的一篇社论说“‘动物’被工业监禁是残忍和毫无意义的,我们希望这种现象只是在现代农业中相对短暂的反常现象”。美国和世界上很多地方的人们都开始对严格素食感兴趣并购买严格素食。

The adoption of “Meatless Mondays”has become a worldwide movement,with meat-free days being declared in the USA,Canada,Israel and Belgium. Vegan cookbooks(e.g.,The Kind Diet,Veganomicon,and The Conscious Cook)are on bestseller lists; vegan celebrities are sprouting up all over; and at least two former heads of state,America’s Bill Clinton,and Slovenia’s Janez Drnovsek,follow a vegan diet.“Adding vegetarian and vegan options” recently made the top ten of National Restaurant News’s list of top fifty ways to improve business.

随着美国、加拿大、以色列和比利时先后宣布“无肉日”,“无肉星期一”已经成为一个波及全世界的运动。很多严格素食的烹饪书籍(例如《善良饮食》《纯素烹饪》和《自觉烹饪》)登上畅销书排行榜;世界各地也涌现出很多纯素名人,至少有两个国家的前元首——美国前总统克林顿和斯洛文尼亚前总统亚内兹·德尔诺夫舍克(Janez Drnovsek)——遵循严格素食。最近,“增加素食者和严格素食者的食谱”在全国餐饮业新闻(National Restaurant News)评选的“改善经营业绩的前五十种途径”中入围前十名。

In this book,Yongsheng Tian focuses on the important benefits of a plant-based diet to our own physical and spiritual health. As one of China’s vegan pioneers,Dr. Tian is at the vanguard of a revolution of awareness about the ravages of animal agriculture and the benefits of a cleaner,healthier,more earth-friendly and ethical way of eating. And it isn’t a moment too soon for China as for any other country. China has doubled its meat consumption in the past decade. The Chinese now consume more meat than any other nation,a quarter of the world’s total. But the Chinese are not only hungry for meat,they are also hungry for information. And it is my hope and my belief that the information in this and Yongsheng’s other best-selling books will guide Chinese citizens toward a sustainable and more humane dietary path.

在这本书中,作者田永胜主要论述植物性饮食为主的习惯对我们的身体和精神健康利益攸关。作为中国严格素食主义者的先驱之一,田博士是一个革命前锋,他认识到畜牧业对地球的蹂躏,并提倡更加清洁、更加健康、对地球更友好和道德的饮食方式。现在,中国这么做并不早,任何其他国家这么做都不早。中国的肉类消费量在过去十年增加了一倍。现在,中国人消费的肉占世界肉类消费总量的四分之一,比其他任何国家都多。但是,中国人不但对肉有着很大的需求量,而且他们还急需真实的信息。我希望并且相信在本书以及永胜的其他畅销书中关于肉类有害的信息,将引导中国公民走上一条可持续发展和更人性化的饮食之路。

The benefits of plant-based eating are enormous. Time and again scientific research shows that we live longer,healthier and happier lives when we stop eating animals. People on a plant-based diet are at less risk of heart disease,stroke,cancer(including breast,pancreatic,colorectal,bladder,and prostate cancer),diabetes,obesity,Parkinson’s disease,asthma,impotence,and food poisoning. Vegetarians age more slowly and they can expect to live,on average,several years longer and have significantly happier moods than their omnivorous counterparts.

植物性饮食的好处不可限量。时间和科学研究再次表明,当我们停止食用动物,我们会活得更长寿、更健康、更幸福。采取植物性饮食的人罹患心脏病、中风、癌症(包括乳腺癌、胰腺癌、结肠癌、膀胱癌和前列腺癌)、糖尿病、肥胖病、帕金森氏病、哮喘、阳痿和食物中毒的风险大大减少。与杂食者相比,素食主义者的老化速度要慢很多,他们的平均寿命较长,并有着特别愉悦的情绪。

There is something incredibly empowering about making an immediate,daily difference by the simple,elemental act of how we eat. Anne Frank perhaps said it best: How wonderful it is that nobody need wait a single moment before starting to improve the world. Vegan living is the pinnacle of personal activism for a better world. It is the way of the future,and it begins now. Yongsheng and I invite you to join this vital,rapidly rising global movement.

借由饮食方式这个简单而基本的行为,就会产生一些令人难以置信、立竿见影、与众不同的效果。或许安妮·弗兰克(Anne Frank)的话用在这里最恰当:面对改善世界的使命,所有人都立刻采取行动,这是一件多么美妙的事情!严格素食主义者的生活就是个人为创造更美好世界所作努力的顶峰。它是未来的发展方向,而且它就从现在开始。我和作者永胜邀请您与我们一起努力,加入这个至关重要、迅速崛起的全球性运动之中。

Jonathan Balcombe博士,美国人文社会大学动物研究系主任,著有《欢腾的方舟》(The Exultant Ark,2011)、《第二天性》(Second Nature,2010(、《快乐王国》(Pleasurable Kingdom,2006)等书。

第一章 老祖宗们如是说

中国是举世闻名的世界五大文明古国之一,其余四个古国——古埃及、古巴比伦、古印度、古希腊——曾经辉煌一时的古文明均已中断,惟独只有中国的文明,一直延续下来。可以说,中华文明绵延五千年而没有中断,中华民族繁衍到13亿多的人口,都与中华民族独特的的饮食文化有着直接的关系。

作为中华优秀传统文化的重要组成部分,中国的饮食文化在漫长的发展历程中,具有鲜明的民族个性、强大的包容力和旺盛的生命力,有着深厚的文化积淀、博大精深的内容。从周代共和元年(前841年)起,关于烹饪的著述从未间断过,这是任何其他国家和民族都望尘莫及的。我国古代伟人和医学家们,提出了很好的饮食思想,对于今天的我们,仍然有着非常重要的启迪意义。《尚书》所讲国家大事的“八政”之首就是“食”。《汉书》明确提出:“王者以民为天,而民以食为天。”唐代药王孙思邈非常重视饮食和保健,他在《千金要方》中明确指出:“安身之本,必资于食……不知食宜者,不足以存生也。”《元史·食货志》提出:“国以民为本,民以食为本,衣食以农桑为本。”明代大医学家李时珍更是一针见血地说:“饮食者,人之命脉也。”可以说,饮食不仅对每个人的一生有着决定性的影响,而且对国家和民族的发展都起到重要的影响。

我国历朝都设有专门负责统治者饮食的官吏。周代设家宰,秦置太官,汉设尚食,隋设祠部,唐设膳部,宋设光禄寺,元设侍文院,明设尚食局,清设御膳房。“黎民百姓”开门七件事:柴、米、油、盐、酱、醋、茶,也是围绕着饮食展开的。由于对饮食的注重,促使中国人在闲暇或原料丰富时,就想着变换花样来丰富食膳,从而使中国菜肴的种类繁多,名目更新不断。有灾难时,我们的先人又会尝试开发各种可活命的野菜、野草,如明代朱榆的《救荒本草》一书就以此为目的,开列出414种野莱、野草。因此,中国饮食文化无论在何等险恶的条件下,都在不断的发展。

中国的饮食,除了果腹、营养和医疗功能以外,还有许多特有的文化功能。《礼记·礼运》说:“夫礼之初,始诸饮食。”食礼、酒礼、茶礼等相关礼仪都是由饮食活动引出的,都体现出等级人伦之礼。古代的饮食内容、器具、规模等方面都有严格的等级礼制。从食器的质地、造型、使用到各种宴会的规格、座次、食具的安排,均有明确而严格的规定,都要体现“礼”。如周代天子食宴要有十二鼎,其他诸候依次递减,到普通百姓时,连食肉都受到限制;在家庭内,父子不同席,并且家长的饮食也要比晚辈丰盛一些,从而体现出鲜明的等级性和伦理规范。因此,管仲很早就总结出“仓廪实则知礼节”。可见,饮食在极大程度上丰富和扩充了伦理道德和礼仪的内容。

饮食有四种功能,一是维持生存。俗话说,开门七件事,柴米油盐酱醋茶。食物是维持个体生命存在的重要条件,只有有东西吃,才能生存下去。二是享受生活。什么好吃吃什么,什么没有吃过吃什么,要通过吃喝来享受人生。人生在世,吃穿二字,反映的就是这种观点。三是彰显地位。从春秋战国时期国君的钟鸣鼎食到后来的满清皇室的满汉全席,都体现了达官贵人们高高在上的地位。四是追求健康。这抓住了饮食的本质,摆正了对待饮食的态度,确保了正确的饮食方式。大家想想,通过饮食来享受暂时的口腹之欲或者炫耀自己的地位,是不是一定能够给自己带来健康呢?如果不能的话,两利相权取其重,大家该做如何的选择呢?我认为,饮食的最终目的是健康,最高境界应该以是否有利于健康来指导自己的饮食。因此,我从历代老祖宗们谆谆告诫我们的饮食智慧中,梳理出如下最能够抓住饮食本质、确保国民健康的内容。一、以植物性食物为主

五千年来,谷类、豆、蔬、果等植物性食物就是中华民族饮食的主要原料,肉类仅处辅助地位,主、副食界线分明。这与西方以肉食、面粉、蛋、乳为主而无主副食之分迥然不同。

墨子就明确说过:“古之民未知为饮食时,素食而分处,故圣人作诲,男耕稼树艺,以为民食。其为食也,足以增气充虚,强体适腹而已矣。”(《墨子·辞过》)墨子是公元前五世纪到四世纪的思想家,他说在他之前的古代的人民,就是以素食为生的。“增气”就是补充营养、增加热量、身体有力气;“充虚”就是补充消耗、保证新陈代谢的需要,“强体”就是供给合理的养料以增加体质;“适腹”就是满足口胃、保证食欲、增加吸收机能。即使用现代科学的观点来分析,素食完全可以维持人的生存、促进人的健康。

我们从食物原料方面看,从商周时期,谷类、蔬菜和水果的种类就已经很丰富了。周代“五谷”皆备,当时主要是稷、黍、麦、菽、麻、稻、菰米。稷又称谷子,黍是大黄粘米,麦是大麦,菽是豆类,麻即麻子。南方还有稻;菰米是一种水生植物茭白的种子;蔬菜已有水生、陆生、菌类等数十种;调味品除盐以外,又新增了怡、蜜等甜辅料,用梅、桃煮成的酸酱和谷物发酵而成酸味料以及紫苏、花椒、桂皮等香辛味调料等。更加令人惊奇的是,当时的人们已发明冷藏、香料防腐、醋渍灭菌、乳酸发酵、糖溃等多种保鲜法。春秋后期,已有饺子出现,当时的祖先已开始懂得吃面食、云吞及粉食了。

汉代,在与西域饮食文化的交流过程中,引进石榴、芝麻、葡萄、胡桃(即核桃)、西瓜、甜瓜、黄瓜、菠菜、胡萝卜、茴香、芹菜、胡豆、扁豆、苜蓿、莴笋、大葱、大蒜,还引入一些烹调方法,如炸油饼、芝麻烧饼等,中国饮食文化进入了丰富时期。淮南王刘安发明豆腐,使豆类的营养得到更好的吸收,还可做出多种美味的菜肴。1960年,河南密县发现的汉墓中就有豆腐作坊的石刻。东汉还发明了植物油。

隋唐是中国文化与国势强盛时期,各民族在饮食文化上进一步交流融合,菜肴品种大增,建立不同饮食流派。盛唐时人均粮食五百多公斤,吃法讲求花样翻新,仅馄饨就有二十四种馅,二十四种样式。当时已普及高足桌、椅,加上宴会菜式丰富,饮食形式也由分餐制的一人一套餐具演变为多人围桌合食。

面食成为宋以后北方的主食。王怀隐等编撰的《太平圣惠方》收集了宋以前方书中和流传民间的保健粥食129方,如用“杏仁粥”治疗咳嗽,“酸枣仁粥”治疗失眠等。元代饮食,蒙汉大融合。忽思慧曾撰写《饮膳正要》,介绍了大量关于饮食、烹饪的知识,论证了饮食与健康的关系。

明清时期从海外引进了红薯、玉米、花生、马铃薯等粮食作物,引进了辣椒、番茄、菜豆、甘蓝、向日葵、花菜等蔬菜品种。明代宋诩的《宋氏养生部》对各种食品及茶、酒、果、酱的制作作了极为详细的介绍,仅面制品一项,就介绍了四十多种;“随园老人”袁枚撰写的《随园食单》,仅流行食品就介绍了三千三百二十六种,凸现出明清时期饮食文化的鼎盛。

中国饮食文化以植物性食物为主的特征,在很多老祖宗们的典籍中有明确的记载。如《黄帝内经》有这样一段话:“五谷为养,五果为助,五畜为益,五菜为充,气味合而服之,以补精益气。”仔细分析这一膳食结构,我们会发现,五谷、五果、五菜都是素食,“养”、“助”、“益”、“充”代表每一类食物的营养价值和在膳食中的合理比例。五谷,指的是粮食作物。谷物中所含的营养成分主要是碳水化合物,其次是植物蛋白质,脂肪含量并不高。五果,指的是水果、坚果类食物。水果富含维生素、纤维素、糖类和有机酸等物质,营养丰富,还有助消化。五畜,指的是动物性食物。既然是补益,就不能成为每餐食物中的主角,应以适度为原则,食用过多则会伤及人体。五菜,指的是蔬菜。各种新鲜的蔬菜含有多种微量元素、维生素、纤维素等营养物质,有增食欲、充饥腹、助消化、补营养、防便秘、降血脂、降血糖、防肠癌等作用。《国语·楚语下》记载:“天子食太牢,牛羊豕三牲俱全,诸侯食牛,卿食羊,大夫食豕,士食鱼炙,庶人食菜。”这表明天子、诸侯、卿大夫和士可以吃肉类和鱼。但是,周代的《礼记·王制》早就立下规矩说:“诸侯无故不杀牛,大夫无故不杀羊,士无故不杀犬豕,平民无故不食珍。”这也说明,即使贵为诸侯,也不能随便杀牛来吃肉,大夫没有特别的理由不能杀羊吃,士没有特别的理由不能狗、猪吃。他们很多时候,还是以植物性食物为主的。

历代老祖宗们也明确指出吃肉多会危害健康。如《黄帝内经》说:“膏梁之变,足生大丁。”多吃肥肉和细粮,能够让人长疔疮。《韩非子·杨权》指出:“夫香美脆味,厚酒肥肉,甘口而疾形。”大块吃肉大碗喝酒,虽然吃喝的时候很爽口,但是却会让人生病。《吕氏春秋·本生》篇提出:“肥肉厚酒,务以自强,命之曰烂肠之食。”经常大块吃肉大碗喝酒,这样的饮食就是烂肠子的饮食啊。老祖宗们已经明确告诉我们,喝酒吃肉过多,有损健康,甚至会带来不幸的后果。2010年夏天,我到长沙出差,顺便参观了湖南博物馆,里面保存着1972年长沙马王堆汉墓出土的一具保存2100多年的完整女尸。经过临床医学检验表明,死者生前患有冠心病、多发性胆石症,以及全身性动脉粥样硬化症、血吸虫病等多种病变。其中,冠心病、全身性动脉粥样硬化症就与吃肉过度有关。这一大量吃肉而死于“富贵病”的事例,也说明老祖宗们关于吃肉多危害健康的观点的确是正确的。

魏晋时期“竹林七贤”之一的嵇康在所著《养生论》中将南北饮食习俗不同对寿命长短的影响作了比较,他说:“关中土地,俗好俭啬,厨膳佳馐,不过菹酱而已,其人少病而寿;江南岭表,其处饶足,海陆鲑肴,无所不备,土俗多疾,而人早夭。”他通过比较关中和江南、岭南人们的饮食差别得出结论说:关中民风比较简朴,所以,厨房里的好吃的,也不过是腌咸菜之类的,结果,那里的人民生病很少而且长寿;而江南岭南,土地肥沃,水里的海鲜,陆地上的各种动植物全有,无所不备,结果当地的民众多病,而且寿命比较短,很多人早夭。

唐朝药王孙思邈强调“善养性者常须少食肉,多食饭”。善于养生者就要少吃肉多吃饭。元代医家朱丹溪的《茹谈论》也说:“少食肉食,多食谷菽菜果,自然冲和之味。”元代忽思慧在《饮膳正要》中说:“妊娠所忌:食兔肉,令子无声缺唇。食山羊肉,令子多疾。食鸡子、干鱼,令子多疮。食桑椹、鸭子,令子倒生。食雀肉,饮酒,令子心淫情乱,罔顾羞耻。食鸡肉、糯米,令子生寸白虫。食雀肉、豆酱,令子面生黯。食鳖肉,令子项短。食驴肉,令子延月。食冰浆,

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