厦门大学814阅读及英美文学、语言学基础历年考研真题及详解(txt+pdf+epub+mobi电子书下载)

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厦门大学814阅读及英美文学、语言学基础历年考研真题及详解

厦门大学814阅读及英美文学、语言学基础历年考研真题及详解试读:

2003厦门大学417阅读及英美文学、语言学基础考研真题及详解

Part One Reading Comprehension  70分

Directions: Each passage below is followed by questions based on its content. After reading a passage, choose the best answer to each question. And then blacken the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.

Passage 1

The place of the child in society has varied for thousands of years and has been affected by different cultures and religions. In ancient times unwanted children were occasionally abandoned, put to death, exploited, or offered for religious sacrifices, and in any event a large percentage of them didn’t survive their physically hazardous existence to achieve maturity.

In Western civilization within the last few hundred years, there have been many changes in attitude toward the young. In agricultural Europe, and later with the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the children of the poor worked long hours for little or no pay, and there was no public concern for their safety or welfare. Punishment could be brutal and severe, and sometimes-religious passions were expressed violently with a view toward saving the child’s soul.

By the eighteenth century the harsh, deterministic, doctrinaire methods began to show some change. Society slowly accorded children a role of more importance. Books were written expressly for them and gradually laws were passed for their protection.

In the past few decades parents have become more attentive to the needs of their children. Better health care is available and education is no longer reserved for a limited few. With so many now able to go to college, many rearing has swung so far toward permissiveness that many children are growing up alienated from society and with no respect for law or parental authority.

The tendency today is for teachers and parents to emphasize individual responsibility and to stress that educational goals for students should be tailored to their chosen vocations rather than provide a generalized higher education.

1.What does the article say about children?

A. They have always been the hope of mankind.

B. In certain periods of history no one cared about them.

C. In the mid-eighteenth century western attitudes toward children began to change.

D. There were laws barring child labor during the industrial revolution.

2.What does the article say about children in ancient times?

A. They were worshipped as deities.

B. At times they were used as sacrificial offerings.

C. People who didn’t want children usually murdered them.

3.What changes have occurred in the past few decades with regard to the child’s place in society?

A. Child raising has become more permissive.

B. Public health has improved so much through medical advances that children now need no particular health care.

C. Children are becoming more intelligent.

D. Children are becoming more respectful toward their parents.

4.What is the present trend in child discipline and education?

A. to give as many young people as possible a popular generalized college education.

B. To create more regimentation of the individual.

C. to teach children to conform to rigorous rules.

D. to emphasize individual responsibility.【答案与解析】

1.B  细节理解题。根据第二段第二句,在欧洲处于农业社会及工业革命前期时,无人关心孩子们的安全和福利,B正确。根据第三段第一句话可知,到18世纪工业革命命运主义和教条主义论开始有所改变,C选项时间不对,故C错误。

2.B  细节理解题。根据第一段第二句,对于不想要的孩子,他们会把他们作为祭祀品献给宗教事业,故B正确。

3.A  细节辨析题。根据倒数第二段最后一句话,“随着许多人可以上大学,培养孩子的方式也越来越变成放任孩子不管,以至于许多孩子长大后反社会,不把法律和家长的权威放在眼里。”可知,A选项是简化了原文,故选A。

4.D  细节理解题。根据最后一段第一句话中“现在的趋势是强调个体责任”,故D正确。

Passage 2

Many experimental cars have been designed as one-of-a-kind models to be shown privately or presented in auto shows, but never produced for actual sale. One purpose of such cars is to test consumer reaction to the various features shown. They are also the results of inspired as well as innovative ideas developed in the automaker’s workshops. One experimental car, the Firebird by General Motors, had a single stick control system eliminating the conventional steering wheel, brake pedal and accelerator. Moving the stick to the left or fight steered the car in those directions. Pushing forward accelerated the car and pulling back applied the brakes. The control stick was in the center of the front compartment and either the driver or the passenger could operate it.

5.In this paragraph what is meant by an experimental car?

A. A display car that customers can have made to order

B. One that the company will produce in volume the following year

C. A car to suit the tastes of the very wealthy.

D. A car to test public reaction to new features.

6.What was said about the Firebird put out by General Motors?

A. It immediately proved to be immensely popular.

B. It was a car that could be maneuvered with the use of fewer knobs and pedals than conventional cars.

C. It was a new system that was practically foolproof.

D. It gave the driver a sense of security.

7.What do the manufacturers accomplish by making experimental cars?

A. They can test out new design ideas conceived in the engineering department.

B. They are used to deceive their competitors about the direction of their future designs.

C. They are displayed to show people how bizarre in design they may become.

D. They serve to occupy the spare time of design engineers during slack seasons.【答案与解析】

5.D  细节理解题。根据第二句话可知,实验车的目的就是想看看顾客对于新性能的反应,故选D。

6.B  细节理解题。根据第四句话可知,Firebird是一辆实验车,而非系统,该车只用一个杆子操纵,相对于传统汽车而言,省去了刹车和油门,故B正确,C选项错在Firebird不是一个系统,故排除。

7.A  细节理解题。根据第三句话可知,实验车也体现了汽车制造者新的设计想法,故A正确。

Passage 3

One-room schools are part of the heritage of the United States, and the mention of them makes people feel a vague longing for “The way things were.” One-room schools are an endangered species, however. For more than a hundred years, one-room schools have been systematically shut down and their students sent away to centralized schools. As recently as 1930 there were 149,000 one-room schools in the United States. By 1970 there were 1,800. Today, of the nearly 800 remaining one-room schools, more than 350 are in Nebraska. The rest are scattered through a few other states that have on their road maps wide-open spaces between towns.

Now that there are hardly any left, educators are beginning to think that maybe there is something yet to be learned from one-room schools, something that served the pioneers that might serve as well today. Progressive educators have come up with progressive-sounding names like “peer-group teaching” and “multi-age grouping ” for educational procedures that occur naturally in the one-room school. In a one-room school the children teach each other because the teacher is busy part of the time teaching someone else. A fourth grader can work at a fifth-grade level in math and a third-grade level in English without the stigma associated with being left back or the pressures of being skipped ahead. A youngster with a learning disability can find his or her own level without being separated from the other pupils. In larger urban and suburban schools today, this is called “mainstreaming.” A few hours in a small school that has only one classroom and it becomes clear why so many parents feel that one of the advantages of living in Nebraska is that their children have to go to a one-room school.

8.What is the author’s main purpose in the passage?

A. To discuss present-day education in the United States.

B. To mention some advantages of one-room schools.

C. To persuade states to close down one-room schools.

D. To summarize the history of education in the United States.

9.The author implies that many educators and parents today feel that one-room schools_____.

A. are too small

B. put pressure on teachers

C. are too far apart

D. provide a good education

10.According to the passage, why are one-room schools in danger of disappearing?

A. They skip too many children ahead.

B. There are no fourth-grade levels in any of them.

C. There is a trend toward centralization.

D. They all exist in one state.

11.According to the passage, about how many one-room school are there in the United States today?

A. 149,000

B. 1800

C. 800

D. 350

12.In the second paragraph, what is mentioned as a major characteristic of the one-room school system?

A. It causes many children to be left back.

B. It must work in conjunction with an urban school.

C. It does not allow teachers to do any individual teaching.

D. It does not limit learning to one grade level at a time.

13.The attitude of the author toward one-room schools is one of_____.

A. humor

B. indifference

C. commendation

D. anger【答案与解析】

8.B  主旨大意题。第一段介绍单班学校数量的减少,第二段介绍教育者和家长们意识到单板学校教育的好处,故作者旨在介绍单班学校的优势,故选B。

9.D  段落大意题。第二段教育者们思考并借鉴单班学校的教学模式,说明教育者们一定程度上认可单班教学的优势,而第二段最后一句话家长们觉得住在内布拉斯加州的一个好处就是孩子们接受的是单班教育,两者都肯定了单班教育的教学优势,故选D。

10.C  细节理解题。根据第一段第三句话可知,一百多年来孩子们都被送去念集中式学校,故C正确。

11.C  细节理解题。根据第一段倒数第二句可知,留存下来的单班学校有800所,350所在内布拉斯加州,故C正确。

12.D  细节理解题。第二段指出,单班教学就是所有年级都在一起上课,故D正确。

13.C  作者观点题。第二段着重介绍了单班教学的优点,并没有谈及其缺点,故作者持支持观点,选C。

Passage 4

In the past, evolutionary biologists contemplating the absence of wheels in nature agreed that the explanation was not undesirability; wheels would be good for animals, just as they are for us. Animals were prevented from evolving wheels, the biologists reasoned, by the following dilemma: Living cells in an animal’s body are connected to the heart by blood vessels, and to the brain by nerves. Because a rotating joint is essential to a wheel, a wheel made of living cells would twist its artery, vein, and nerve connections at the first revolution, making living wheels impracticable.

However, there is a flaw in the argument that the evolution of wheeled animals was thwarted by the insoluble joint problem. The theory fails to explain why animals have not evolved wheels of dead tissue with no need for arteries and nerves. Countless animals, including us, bear external structures without blood supply or nerves – for example, our hair and fingernails, or the scales, claws, and horns of other animals. Why have rats not evolved bony wheels, similar to roller skates? Paws might be more useful than wheels in some situations, but cat’s claws are retractable; why not retractable wheels? We thus arrive at the serious biological paradox flippantly termed the RRR dilemma: nature’s failure to produce rats with retractable roller skates.

14.Which of the following is the best title for the passage?

A. Evolutionary Biology: New Research Methods

B. How Do Living Joints Function?

C. Wheels for Animals: A Biological Possibility?

D. The Evolutionary History of the Wheel.

15.The passage discusses the evolution of animals in terms of their_____.

A. genetic structures

B. reproductive cycles

C. anatomy

D. behavior

16.The structural material of the wheels discussed in the passage would be similar to that of_____.

A. nerves

B. joints

C. arteries and veins

D. scales and horns

17.The concept of retractable roller skates, mentioned in the last sentence, would be best explained as_____.

A. an evolutionary variation of claws

B. a complex structure of living tissue

C. an example of human intervention in natural development

D. a new discovery by evolutionists【答案与解析】

14.C  主旨大意题。全文讲述的是动物是否能进化出轮子作为身体的一部分,故选C。

15.B  细节辨析题。能否进化出轮子与再生循环系统有关,故选B。其他选项文中没有提到。

16.D  细节理解题。第一段已经说明了由活细胞构成的轮子是不可能的,所以文章主要谈论的是由非活细胞构成的轮子。第二段第三句话举出了由非活细胞构成的组织的例子,其中就包括scales and horns,故选D。

17.A  细节辨析题。第二段倒数第三句反问为什么老鼠不能进化出类似于轮子的结构,倒数第二句反问既然猫的爪子可伸缩,为什么不能有可伸缩的轮子。最后一句将前两句合并后得出结论,是自然演变过程中没能使老鼠进化出可伸缩的轮滑鞋般的轮子,而仅仅是爪子。实际上可伸缩的轮滑鞋般的轮子就是爪子革命性的变体,故选A。全文只是质疑为什么大自然中没有进化出类似轮子的结构,但并没有提到有人类干预,故C错误。

Passage 5

When the persuading and the planning for the Western railroads had finally been completed, the really challenging task remained: the dangerous, sweaty, backbreaking, brawling business of actually building the lines. The men who took it on comprised the most cosmopolitan work crew in American history. They included Civil War veterans and freed slaves, Irish and German immigrants, Mormons and atheists, Shoshonis, Paiutes, Washos, and Chinese.

At the peak of their labors, the work crews laid two to five miles of track a day. The men filled ravines, ran spidery trestles across rives and valleys, and punched holes through mountains. And they did all these jobs largely by their own muscle power.

Flatcars carried rails to within half a mile of the railhead: there the iron was loaded onto carts. An eyewitness described the procedure: “A light car, drawn by a single horse, gallops up to the front with its load rails. Two men seize the end of a rail and start forward, the rest of the gang taking hold by twos until it is clear of the car. They come forward at a run. At the word of command, the rail is dropped in its place, right side up. Less than thirty seconds to a rail for each gang, and so four rails go down to the minute.”

18.Which of the following is the most suitable title for the passage?

A. An Eyewitness Report

B. A Difficult Task

C. The Hiring of a Construction Crew

D. The Railroad and the Civil war

19.According to the passage, in addition to laying railroad track, the work crew did which of the following?

A. Climbed over mountain peaks.

B. Planned railroads.

C. Caught horses.

D. Made tunnels.

20.In second paragraph, the word “they” refer to_____.

A. men

B. valleys

C. mountains

D. jobs

21.Which of the following phrases could be substituted for the phrased “clear of ”(in the third paragraph) without changing the meaning of the sentence?

A. put through

B. visible to

C. away from

D. open to【答案与解析】

18.B  主旨大意题。全文都在讲建铁路的人如何辛苦,故选B。

19.D  细节理解题。第二段第二句提到铁路工人在山中打洞,说的就是挖隧道,故选D。

20.A  细节理解题。第二段最后一句“他们完全靠自己做这些工作”,他们指的就是铁路工人,故选A。

21.C  词义猜测题。be clear of表示“摆脱”,在原文中是指铁轨被工人们从车上拿下来,be away from离开…,符合句意,故选C。

Passage 6

With the show Rodeo, Agnes de Mille had been an innovator in the world of ballet. But with the show Oklahoma, she revolutionized the Broadway stage – brought to an end the dance line routine of high kicks and mechanized movement, and gave in its place dance ad plot smoothly integrated, choreography reinforcing the action. Twenty-five years later, in March, 1968, a New York Time’s article by theater critic Walter Kerr, headed “In the Beginning was Oklahoma!”, stated, “Oklahoma! had a plot. It had to do with whether a boy would succeed in taking a girl to a picnic lunch. At the end of the first half this great issue was still unresolved, so unresolved that its emotional implications had to be danced out at great length in what remains the most exhilarating dancing…ever devised for United States musical comedy stage. ”

The impact of Oklahoma! was instantaneous. The song “Beautiful Morning” sounded out via radios, in restaurants, from cars passing on the highways, in shoeshine parlors. Full skirts of gingham patterns, street shoes made to look like ballet slippers, the ponytail hairdo, were the rage. The play ran for five years and nine weeks in New York City. A traveling road company played it for nine and a half years. It also toured abroad for several years. In 1955 it became a movie. A newly assembled all-star company was sent abroad by the State Department as representative of a part of United States culture.

As for Agnes de Mille, her days of giving recitals and losing $300 to $1,000 each time were over. She became the most sought-after choreographer on Broadway.

22.What is the author’s main purpose in the passage?

A. To explain the background of the song “Beautiful Morning ”

B. to compare Rodeo and Oklahoma!

C. To describe Agnes de Mille’s success with Oklahoma!

D. To discuss the fashions made popular by Oklahoma!

23.The author cites Walter Kerr because he was_____.

A. the composer of the music for Oklahoma!

B. a dancer who performed with Agnes de Mille

C. a critic who praised Agnes de Mille’s choreography

D. the owner of The New York Times

24.In the second paragraph, the expression “were the rage” could best be replaced by_____.

A. created chaos

B. made people crazed

C. made people angry

D. were very popular

25.According to the passage, Oklahoma! was selected by the State Department to be performed abroad because it was_____.

A. considered rather revolutionary

B. representative of an aspect of American life

C. poorly received in New York City

D. an inspiring love story

26.The passage implies that prior or Oklahoma! Agnes de Mille had given recitals that were_____.

A. popular comedy routines

B. financially unsuccessful

C. performed at picnics

D. broadcast over the radio【答案与解析】

22.C  主旨大意题。全文讲的是艾格尼斯·德米尔通过《俄克拉荷马》这个作品革新了百老汇舞台并取得巨大成功的故事,故选C。

23.C  细节理解题。第一段第三句说明Walter Kerr是一个剧评家,他评价《俄克拉荷马》是美国音乐戏剧舞台上最令人愉悦的舞蹈,故选C。

24.C  词义猜测题。be the rage风靡一时,从文章赞扬《俄克拉荷马》这个角度来看,也不会选A、B、C,故选D。

25.B  细节理解题。根据倒数第二段最后一句可知《俄克拉荷马》是作为美国文化的代表而在国外演出的,故选B。

26.B  细节理解题。根据最后一段艾格尼斯·德米尔此前作品造成亏损来看,这些作品经济上并不成功,故选B。

Passage 7

Lichens are a unique group of complex, flowerless plants growing on racks and trees. There are thousands of kinds of lichens, which come in a wide variety of colors. They are composed of algae and fungi which unite to satisfy the needs of the lichens.

The autotrophic green algae produce all their own food through a process called photosynthesis and provide the lichen with nutritional elements. On the other hand, the heterotrophic fungus, which depends on other elements to provide its food, not only absorbs and stores water for the plant, but also helps protect it. This union by which two dissimilar organisms live together is called “symbiosis.”

This sharing enables lichens to resist the most adverse environmental conditions found on earth. They can be found in some very unlikely places such as the polar ice caps as well as tropical zones, in dry areas as well as in wet ones, on mountain peaks and along coastal areas.

The lichen’s strong resistance to its hostile environment and its ability to live in harmony with such environments is one example that humanity should consider in trying to solve its own problems.

27.Which of the following is not true?

A. Lichens are not simple plants.

B. The lichen habitat is limited to the polar ice caps.

C. Lichens can resist a hostile environment.

D. Heterotrophic plants depend on other elements to supply their food.

28.What can be said about autotrophic plants and heterotrophic plants?

A. They produce their food in the same manner.

B. Heterotrophic plants produce all the own food.

C. Autotrophic plants need other elements to supply their food.

D. Their methods of food production are completely different.

29.Which of the following conclusions could be made about lichens?

A. They are found worldwide and are complex plants made up of algae and fungi.

B. They are found worldwide and are simple plants, symbiotic in nature.

C. They are found worldwide and are compound plants made up entirely of algae.

D. Although found worldwide, lichens are found mostly as a simple plant form in the tropics.

30.Which of the following directly relates to algae?

A. It offers protection to lichens.

B. It supplies water for lichens.

C. It supplies its own food.

D. It is dependent on other plants for its food supply.【答案与解析】

27.B  细节理解题。根据倒数第二段,青苔不论是在干还是湿的环境,还是在北极或赤道都可以生长,故B错误。

28.D  细节理解题。根据第二段最后一句用“dissimilar”这个词形容藻类和菌类这两种有机体,dissimilar表示“不同的”,故D正确。

29.A  细节理解题。第一段第一句话指出青苔是长在石头和树上独特的复杂无花群体植物。第二段最后一句话说明青苔是藻类和菌类的结合体,故A正确。

30.C  细节理解题。根据第二段第一句话,藻类自给自足,且为青苔提供营养成分,故知C正确。A、B、D选项是菌类的特点,故排除。

Passage 8

Why save endangered species? For the general public, endangered species appear to be little more than biological oddities. A very different perception is gained from considering the issue of extinction in a wider context. The important point is that many major social advances have been made on the basis of life forms whose worth would never have been perceived in advance. Consider the impact of rubber-producing on contemporary life and industry: approximately two-thirds of the world’s rubber supply comes from rubber-producing plants and is made into objects as diverse as rubber washers and rubber boots.

31.The author’s point is made chiefly by _____.

A. acknowledging the validity of two opposing points of view

B. appealing to the emotions of the audience rather than to their intellects

C. suggesting a useful perspective for viewing the question raised

试读结束[说明:试读内容隐藏了图片]

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