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I. Explain the following terms. (共7道小题，每题5分，共计35分)
1．Deductive teaching【答案】Deductive teaching is a more traditional form of teaching. In deductive teaching you typically provide information (lecture), share specific examples of the concept or skills being taught, then, allow students to practice the skill being taught. This is a more teacher-centered model of teaching that is rule driven. Some of the positives of this method are that it is time saving and gets to the point of the lesson easily.
2．Positive transfer【答案】Positive transfer is where the two habits share common aspects, such the knowing one will help with learning the other. It may help or facilitate language learning in another later situation, and may occur when both the native language and the target language have the same form.
3．Reflective teaching【答案】A reflective approach to teaching is one in which teachers and student teachers collect data about teaching, examine their attitudes, beliefs, assumptions and teaching practices, and use the information obtained as a basis for critical reflection about teaching.
4．Communicative strategies【答案】Communicative strategies are defined as mutual attempts of two interlocutors to agree on a meaning in situations where requisite meaning strategies do not seem to be shared. From the perspective of error resources, CS is defined as the process of inter-lingual transfer and the context of learning as a learner tries to get a message through to a hearer or reader.
5．Student-centered teaching【答案】Student-centered teaching aims to develop learner autonomy and independence by putting responsibility for the learning path in the hands of students. Student-centered instruction focuses on skills and practices that enable lifelong learning and independent problem-solving. Student-centered teaching emphasizes the learner’s critical role in constructing meaning from new information and prior experience.
Student-centered teaching puts students’ interests first, acknowledging student voice as central to the learning experience. In a student-centered teaching pace, students choose what they will learn, how they will learn, and how they will assess their own learning. This is in contrast to traditional education, also dubbed “teacher-centered learning”, which situates the teacher as the primarily “active” role while students take a more “passive”, receptive role. In a teacher-centered classroom, teachers choose what the students will learn, how the students will learn, and how the students will be assessed on their learning. In contrast, student-centered teaching requires students to be active, responsible participants in their own learning and with their own pace of learning.
6．Cultural awareness【答案】Cultural Awareness is the foundation of communication and it involves the ability of standing back from ourselves and becoming aware of our cultural values, beliefs and perceptions.
7．Context【答案】The relevant constraints of the communicative situation that influence language use, language variation, and discourse summary.
II. Write brief answers to the questions. (共3道小题，每题15分，共计45分)
1．Why do we say that behaviorism of learning was a powerful influence on the development of the audio-lingual approach?【答案】The audio-lingual approach is a method of foreign or second language teaching which emphasizes the teaching of speaking and listening before reading and writing. Behaviorism of learning is the basis of the audio-lingual approach. Behaviorism proposes that learning language is a process of habit formation, which includes three stages: imitation, reinforcement and formation. It processes that certain traits of living things, and in this case humans could be trained through a system of reinfourcement—correct use of a trait would receive positive feedback while incorrect use of that trait would receive negative feedback. Audio-lingual approach follows such process. Students are asked to do lots of drills of speaking and listening and to imitate. And the the habits about language are formed.
2．What is your understanding of the significance of inter-language?【答案】Proposed by Selinker, the concept of inter-language was established as learner’s independent system of the second language, which is neither the native language nor the second language, but a continuum or approximation from one extreme of mother-tongue to the other of the second language. What learners prodece, correct or wrong, are evidence of the approximation from their language to the target language, it is imperfect compare with the target language either. Therefore, inter-language can help learners realize the gap between their own language and the target language.
Inter-language can help language learners and teachers understand the relationship between native language, inter-language and foreign language. The formation of inter-language is affected by both native language and target language, their relationship is more complicated. It seems that inter-language detives from native language and target language, but is inferior to the latter.
Inter-language also sheds lights on latent psychological structure. Relevant behavioral events in a psychology of second-language learning should be made identified with the aid of theoretical constructs which assume the major features of the psychological structure of an adult whenever he attempts to understand SL sentences or to produce them, we assume that there is such a psychological structure and that it is latent in the brain, activitated when one attempts to learn a second language.
On the other hand, inter-language is comparatively independent from native language and with the help of inter-langue, the native language can be predicted and analysed.
3．State briefly the reasons why Error Analysis replaced Contrastive Analysis and the general procedures involved in Error Analysis.【答案】There are some reasons which cause Contrastive Analysis to be replaced. Firstly, there were doubts concerning the ability of CA to predict errors in language learning. It was shown in research that not all errors were caused by the interference by the mother tongue. It is obvious that the psychological and linguistic basis of CA is clearly defective, because it is based on behaviorism and structuralism. Secondly, there were a number of theoretical criticisms regarding the feasibility of comparing languages and the methodology of contrastive attacked by Chomsky and others. And the terms “stimulus”, “response”, “reinforcement” were rejected as an inadequate explanation of language learning. In addition to this, there were objections to the validity of equationg difference with difficulty on the one hand and difficulty with error on the other. Thirdly, there were doubts about whether CA had any practical worth to language teaching. CA studies concentrated largely on grammatical aspects—the phonological level, the morphemic level and the syntactical level. There is practically little contrastive analysis above the sentence level, let alone the textual or discourse level. In addition, if a majority of learner errors are not caused by interference, then CA is of limited value. However, the main doubt about CA from a pedagogic point of view has arisen from the chaning attitudes to the role of errors in language learning. CA was based on the need to avoid error, but if error is seen as a positive aspect—a necessary developmental process of language learning, then why should we devise a teaching program to prevent it?
The procedure of error analysis consists of the following steps:
(1) Recognition. Dealing with a sentence produced by the language learner, we should first ask whether the sentence is grammatically correct. If the answer is negative, then errors exist. If the answer is positive, then we further check whether the sentence is appropriate in the communicative context. A negative answer indicates a mistake.
(2) Description. If the erroneous sentence is intelligible, we compare it with the correct sentence produced by a native speaker and list the errors and mistakes. If the meaning of the sentence is not clear, we may refer to the learner’s native language to find out what he means and carry out a contrastive analysis. Taking into consideration the use of language in social contexts, we can describe mistakes as well as errors.
(3) Explanation. When an error is recognized and described, we attempt to answer the question “Why did the learner commit this error?” In other words, we make hypothesis about the psychological processes which have caused the learner to commit the error. This will lead us to provide answers to a fundamental question “How do people learn language?”
There are some problems with Error Analysis (Gass and Selinker, 2001). Firstly, it is inadequate to rely on errors to study how L2 is learned. We need to consider errors as well as nonerrors to get the entire picture of a learner’s linguistic behaviour. Secondly, it is difficult to determine what an error is an error of. For example: There are so many Taiwan people live around the lake. We do not know if the error occurs because “who” is omitted after “people” or because “live” is used instead of “living”. Thirdly, error analysis over-stresses production data and fails to account for error avoidance (the learner avoids a particular word or structure.)
III. Write a discussion on each of the following topics (共2道小题，每题20分，共计40分)
1. Balancing form-focused instruction and meaning-focused instruction.【答案】Form and meaning are both important in our language teaching, so balancing form-focused instruction and meaning-focused instruction are so important but challenging for our English teachers.
In the language classroom, teachers should strive to balance form, meaning, and use. Students should understand not only the mechanics of the language, but also the hows, whys, and wheres a particular structure, word, or phrase gets used.
For example, in a lesson on the past perfect tense, students need to learn the sentence structure. The teacher first drills past participles on a variety of verbs (eat/ eaten, swim/ swum, buy/ bought). He then plugs the past participles into the grammar structure, with students then further practicing the material via example sentences and more drills.
However, the class also needs to learn that the past perfect places actions or events in order for the listener or reader. The grammar serves as a marker of when events happened. This is especially needed when the speaker forgets some information and has to backtrack in the story. This is also important when information needs further clarification.
With regards to vocabulary, students must understand the pronunciation of a word. If in a written text, then students must know how to spell a word. Prefixes, suffixes, and roots are also important, especially at the intermediate and advanced levels. Students should be able to breakdown the components of a word to guess at the meaning. Take the following prefixes:
biannual—“bi” means twice, so the new meaning is “twice a year”
distrust—“dis” means not, so the new meaning is “not to trust”
submarine—“sub” means under, so the new meaning is “under water”
With an understanding of prefixes and suffices, students don’t always have to scurry for a dictionary every time they encounter an unknown word. However, students should also learn to readily recognize that the word may be a noun, verb, adjective, or adverb. This is becomes possible by devoting a portion of the lesson to form.
Meaning: This is the mental image/ comprehension that is generated by the grammar or vocabulary. Students connect the grammar structure with the meaning. For example, the past tense signals events in the past, the past perfect signals earlier actions/events in a narrative. Once the teacher has presented the structure, he should talk about the meaning too.
When vocabulary is the focus of the lesson, students connect the form of the word with its meaning. This occurs both at the micro- and macro-levels. At the micro-level, the word stands alone. Students understand the image triggered by a specific word. However, at the macro-level, a word may have a different meaning because of the sentence in which it appears. There is often nuance or some other concept generated. In addition, when someone uses a word, there may be other associated word choices selected or triggered.
2．The concept of learning styles and its implications for foreign language teaching.【答案】Learning styles refer to a range of competing and contested theories that aim to account for differences in individuals’ learning. These theories propose that all people can be classified according to their ‘style’ of learning, although the various theories present differing views on how the styles should be defined and categorised. A common concept is that individuals differ in how they learn.
(1)The Student: The more skilled the student, the less input that should be required by the teacher. Once they have ‘learned to learn’, they now have the tools to solve problems and find information for themselves rather than be spoon fed. The implication for beginners (cognitive/associative stages) would be a more autocratic approach to help them build up a mental encyclopaedia of data (schema theory—Schmidt, 1975). For ‘elite learners’ (autonomous stage) a more democratic or laissez-faire approach may work better for the reasons mentioned above. Motivation is a massive factor in learning that none of the styles I am aware of mention. If you are motivated to achieve something you are far more likely to be successful at it than if you are forced to do it. From a personal point of view this would be anything related to maths! Enjoyment must also be linked to motivation to an extent. If you find an experience inherently enjoyable you are more likely to want to repeat (practice) it i.e. positive reinforcement. This could be one of the most important and overlooked factors. The implication for coaches/teachers would be to make your lessons/sessions enjoyable (but again this may not be to everyone’s taste—some learners may want to be in a more serious environment—there may be links here to different personality types/disorders e.g. perfectionism, OCD, Asperger’s). I would like to point out a distinction between enjoyment and fun here. Fun has implications of running around a playground aimlessly, whereas enjoyment can be serious but still pleasurable—getting the balance right is the tricky part!
(2)The Teacher: group management is undoubtedly a factor. A teacher’s personality may lend itself to them being more authoritarian or more laid-back and charismatic. They may have their own particular style of delivery that rarely or never changes. According to Chelladurai’s (1984, 1990) Multi-Dimensional Theory of Leadership, adaptability is key. The closer that required, preferred and actual leader behaviour is to the group’s preference, then the more likely that successful outcomes and group satisfaction will be achieved. The obvious implication here is that the best coaches/teachers can change their style of delivery and effectively manage each individual in the group rather than being a ‘one trick pony’. A good example of this would be Sir Alex Ferguson. Although he was notorious for giving players the ‘hairdryer’ treatment in the dressing room where he got right into their faces to deliver what could politely be called a ‘firm rebuke’, he generally knew which players needed this and which were more in need of a quiet word and an arm round the shoulder’. However, even the most experienced can get it wrong sometimes as this may have backfired during the incident with David Beckham depending on which version of the story you believe, but it goes to show that nobody is too old to learn a new lesson!
(3)Passion and enthusiasm for the subject are also a must for successful coaches/teachers. There is nothing more uninspiring than someone who looks jaded or uninterested in what they are delivering. On the other hand, a coach/teacher with real passion can act as a real spur to learners. I am sure we can think of coaches/teachers that fall into both categories.
(4)The Subject: this may again link to motivation and enjoyment. The best motivator is success and if you are successful at something you are more likely to enjoy it and repeat that actions. If this continues to be an achievable challenge then it seems likely that you would adhere to this activity. If it became too easy then motivation may decrease due to boredom. If it became persistently too hard (increasing complexity of the skills involved with little mastery), then success (performance curve) would become too infrequent meaning that the learner may drop out. Good goal-setting skills may be vital here for teacher/coach and learner.
(5)The Environment: Resources or lack of may be a factor depending on the activity taking place. Finances may come into this equation. Academies in sport in this country are now populated by middle class children whose parents have the money and resources to buy expensive equipment and ferry their offspring around the country to fulfill fixtures and attend training several ties a week. Time may be another factor. An obvious example of this may be linked to another aspect of the environment—the weather. Footballers in Spain have on average accumulated thousands more hours of practiced by the time they get to 16 than their British counterparts, partly due to lack of facilities and inclement weather in the UK, which may be reflected in their technical/tactical superiority. Group size may be a factor. Type of sport would be an indicator of this. Someone involved in an individual sport (e.g. combat sports, golf, tennis) would by the very nature of the sport, have more time with their coaches/instructors than someone in a team sport (e.g. football, rugby, hockey). This would give them enhanced access to information that may improve their performance, whereas individual support in team sports may be less likely (may be linked to resources as elite sporting organisations would have better access to specialised coaching staff and sport scientists).
IV. Case Analysis (共1道小题，共计30分)
Direction: The following material, which is taken from Senior English for China Teacher’s Book 1B, is used to train students’ listening abilities. Read the tape script and develop one pre-listening activity and two types of while-listening activities. For each activity you develop, please specify the training purpose.
“Throw me something, Mister! Throw me something, Mister!” Thousands of people are waiting for the parade to pass them by and for someone to throw them a cup, some beads, or some candy. Welcome to New Orleans, USA. Welcome to Mardi Gras. Mardi Gras is a holiday celebrated in the South of the U.S. The name of the festival, Mardi Gras, is French and means “Fat Tuesday”. Mardi Gras is celebrated on a Tuesday between February 3 and March 9, always 47 days before Easter Sunday. During Mardi Gras, people like to dress up in colourful and unusual costumes, and of course, watch parades in the streets. The official colours of Mardi Gras are purple, green and gold. Mardi Gras is celebrated for two weeks before Fat Tuesday and people from all over the world come to watch the festival.【答案】
(1) Ask students to talk about what are their favorite western holidays.
(2) Introduce something about Mardi Gras and ask students to predict what can be introduced in the material.
Pre-listening Activity uses top-down method. It aims to introduce background information to help students understand the material.
(1) Listen to the tape and write down some important information.
(2) Listen again and give students some statemates to ask them to justify and to fill some blanks.
The first step aims to train students’ exclusive listening ability