格式: AZW3, DOCX, EPUB, MOBI, PDF, TXT
Part O e: Proof Reading
The following sentences contain some errors. Copy and edit them on your answer sheet. (1.5×10)
1．An important information I got from her is our teacher’s new marriage.
2．She had a lot of difficulty with the long vowel /ei/, so I taught her how to pronounce.
3．The tutor asked the pupils: “How to write an essay on your mother?”
4．The volleyball players of our department went through very tough training for a whole semester and finally win the championship of the university.
5．I felt frustrated and wondered why my English wasn’t improved even after having watched many movies and read many books.
6．The news of the H1N1 flu worried the headmaster, but another news was upbeat: so far, everyone in his school was healthy.
7．All of us in the class would like to become a teacher in the future.
8．In high school, we had to take many classes, Chinese, English, physics, chemistry, mathematics and history and so on.
9．The students found it dissatisfied that their hard work was not rewarded or recognized.
10．The university attaches great importance to teacher’s research and publications.【答案与解析】
4．a: the（the whole修饰单数名词，表示“整个”。）
6．another/\ news: piece of（another之后只能接单数可数名词，不可以加不可数名词。）
7．All: Each（由于宾语是a teacher，因此主语应该是each of us。）
8．classes: courses（后文“Chinese, English”等都属于课程，对应的单词是course而不是class。）
Part Two: Vocabulary and Reading
Directions: Read the passage below and then answer the questions that follow.
The Archaic Smile
Francis Henry Taylor
1）Fifty years ago archaic sculpture was known only as a curious phenomenon. It was assumed that all primitive peoples made statues in much the same spirit in which children made mud pies. No one but archaeologists—antiquarians and numismatists they were Called then—bothered to look at numismatists they were called these barbaric efforts in stone and clay. Archaic sculpture is an art belonging to that period of man’s religious development when the idea was as big and important as the forms which symbolized it. Moral values and concepts had not yet become established and confusion existed between objects of reality and the world of the spirit. The rational and irrational were merged together and responded to physical and mental stimuli. Strange and occult powers were ascribed to rocks and trees, to events and natural phenomena. There was no part of material existence that was not bounded by taboo and superstition. Chance was completely unknown, as was the concept of nature as a thing apart; reality was a mystical experience and every action determined by participation rather than by natural law.
2）The art world today is divided into two camps—those who wish to preserve the ageless and guiding principles of humanism, and these who seek to find in art an expression of their own groping with the mechanical determinism of the present day. The humanities today are understood by the masses as that residue of human experience which has proved to be of no practical value whatever in the ordinary conduct of contemporary life, whereas the sciences, bereft of philosophical or speculative significance, appear to offer the answer to every maiden’s prayer.
3）The gulf lying between the artist and his public is wide and deep; it is the mere serious because it has lasted now for nearly a century. Thus the thoughts provoked by this inquiry should not be considered a polemic for or against contemporary art, but rather as an attempt to explore the terrain and climate in which the artist works today—for at best the painter and the sculptor are merely representative of their time and their environment.
4）The modern movement is not a theory; it is a condition. It is a condition arising out of a series of historical facts and consequences which center on the dignity of man—his position in the universe, his search for truth, and his constant desire to render truth in sensible form so that other men may grasp its meaning and its beauty.
5）Artists and laymen have become the victims of the scientific world they have created, and in their common fear for the future have lost contact with one another. The crisis in the arts is nothing more or less than the crisis of the human race. How far, one may ask, can the artist be held responsible for the society of which he is a product? Are we to assume that he has sold his birthright for a mess of psychic and mechanistic pottage? No, nor can we lay the blame for unintelligibility alone upon the failure of the artist to continue the traditions of craftsmanship of the old masters.
6）Toynbee has offered a partial explanation: The prevailing tendency to abandon our artistic traditions is not the result of technical incompetence; it is the deliberate abandonment of a style which is losing its appeal to arising generation because this generation is ceasing to cultivate its aesthetic sensibilities, on the traditional Western lines. Our abandonment of our traditional artistic technique is manifestly the consequence of some kind of spiritual breakdown in our Western Civilization; and the cause of this breakdown evidently cannot be found in the phenomenon which is one of the subsequent symptoms.
7）The problem today is not so much that of a lack of single conviction, but the multiplicity of convictions with which the creative artist is confronted.
8）In the rapidly expanding, secularized world in which we live, where neither the Bible nor Bulfinch’s Age of Fable seems to play any useful role and where one person’s gods appear to be as good as the next person’s, it becomes imperative that there be a return, if not to the gods of our fathers themselves, to some unifying principle in which the twentieth-century man of many faiths can find the comfort of authority. For the artist has ever required authority as a framework—a point of departure—for his own experience.
9）The artist today has become the favorite whipping boy in a struggle between the intelligible and the unintelligible. Since he is supposed to be the custodian of the ineffable thing called beauty, he is blamed if he does not jealously conserve it without change, and equally blamed if he tries to place it within the context of the world in which he lives.
10）Having accepted modern art as something which, while they never understood it, they nevertheless vaguely approved, the people, after three score years and ten of being told to like it, have begun to wonder whether they are not "being had." They are accustomed to daily accounts of world crises in the press and on the air. These are the stuff of which ordinary experiences are made, and in so far as the artist deals with them objectively the public is willing to admit his right to express his opinions and even to find, if he can, some beauty in them. But where the artist and layman part company is in the realm of the subjective: interpretation, representation or non-representation as the ease may be, the psychology of color and the myriad emotional and intellectual connotations with which every contemporary work is filled.
11）The issue of our generation is not so much one of principle as it is one of the degree of communicability versus incommunicability. And, while no sensible person would wish to turn back the clock, there are many who might wish to read its face without having to take its works apart.
12）The question is no longer one of technique or taste, but revolves again about the venerable problem of reality. Obscured by the conquest of material existence in the nineteenth century, philosophy has again reappeared as the champion of those new freedoms of conscience and opinion which have resulted in the liberation of the individual Mart has misinterpreted his own researches into the modern world of science as the answer to ultimate cause and purpose. He has become, indeed, the arbiter of his own fate, but he has not yet learned that the cosmic is distinguished from the comic by only a single consonant.
13）More recently another technical problem of the modern world has had its impact upon the artist—time is now conceived as a kind of fourth dimension projecting itself through space. Its impact has been a by-product of Einstein’s theory of relativity and of the investigations in nuclear physics. Time and space are shown to be no longer absolute. Art, therefore, might conceivably become the illustration of energy rather than the illustration of form; the artist is thus presented with another reality or absolute as potential electricity or atomic power.
14）The history of art is a visual record of the philosophical concepts which have engrossed creative thinkers of each age. In their works the artists leave behind them both the history of their personal reactions and an accurate barometric reading of their intellectual climate. Recognition is instantaneous and universal. It does not require any act of intuition or special gifts of birth or education to experience it. Anyone who looks at a picture, a statue, or the architecture of a building, learns instinctively and immediately something of the world which produced it. What will the art of today tell the spectator of tomorrow?
15）If we accept the definition of art as the rendering of truth in sensible form, and truth the interpretation of human experience, it is obvious that a work of art is essentially communicative. It must mean something to someone other than the person who created it—in fact, and more important still, it can mean the same thing or several different things to a number of persons. But meaning it must have.
16）Not until the second quarter of the twentieth century was the essential communicability of art ever denied. Communication has been common to all the great racial traditions and, once established, can take any variety of expressions. It is unlimited in content or subject matter, free to adopt any style or technique. The one and only quality denied a work of art throughout the ages is privacy. Unless participation is allowed the spectator, it becomes a hopeless riddle and ceases to be a work of art at all.
17）If the artist is obligated to communicate his meaning, the public in return should bear in mind that they are no less obligated to make an effort to understand what the artist is attempting to say to them. The message of art is not necessarily a simple message or an easy one; and it is quite legitimate that a painting or a statue be meaningless to persons at one level of education and yet be clear and explicit to those at another level, who are particularly trained to understand it. In the sciences, in the social sciences, and in the humanities there is a general acceptance of the fact that certain studies are reserved for the higher intellect. Unfortunately, this is not true in the arts.
18）Despair appears to be perhaps the most familiar trademark of the contemporary artist despair springing not so much from a sense of hopelessness as from his echoing and engulfing loneliness. The adjustment to society and to the life and people about him, which was the very quality which in the past brought the artist into direct and intimate contact with his audience, seems to have slipped away from him, and he is creating in a vacuum. With the essential communication of his work denied him, he automatically falls back upon himself and those aspects of his inner life which, prior to the advent of abnormal psychology, were seldom exposed to view. Yet he cannot be content to mirror his own soul. It must reveal the torment and the particular revolt of the moment to which the artist feels obliged to subscribe. This revolt has ceased, however, to be an indignant protest against the sins of the past and of the present, but has become instead a sort of generator of perpetual motion. Where we once had “art for art’s sake,” we now have “revolution for revolution’s sake”—an equally sterile end in itself.
19）Individualism, the type of fearless, rugged individualism which despite its many faults created the capitalistic world in which we live, alone can give the artist the confidence which he must have to express his inner thoughts and feelings. And it is neither necessary nor wise for him to align himself with partisan convictions or political ideologies. Academies and societies which veer to the left or to the right, far from being the guardians of an immortal tradition, are merely the tools of pressure groups whose, greatest fear is fear itself.
20）The artists, who too often suffer from an exaggerated sense of timeliness, are really no different from the world in which they live. The fact that they are frightened and insecure, and visionary, in their protests against a society in which they no longer feel at home is one of the inevitable tragedies of a generation which has gone through two world wars and a depression. What they are voicing is the terrible inadequacy of individual man in a mechanistic age, and it does not mean that in doing so they necessarily subscribe to any political or ideological conspiracy. They are merely lonely and frequently despairing men and women who are trying to express in plastic terms their personal and intimate reactions to world phenomena that they are ill-equipped to understand. They fail to see in our present civilization the changeless values which have marked the great pages of history.
21）Perhaps the artist’s unique gift is to see beyond the narrow reality of the moment into the breadth of eternity. This is superbly expressed by the words of the Chinese philosopher Li Po, who wrote and painted at the court of Emperor Ming Huang in the eighth century:
I would not paint a face, a rock nor brooks nor trees,
Mere semblances of things, but something more than these.
I would not play a tune upon the sheng or lute
Something that did not sing meanings that else were mute.
That art is best which to the soul’s range gives no bound.
Something besides the form, something beyond the sound.
22）Progress and catastrophe. The answer lies in our hearts rather than in our intellects. Standing on the threshold of a new and infinitely more productive world from which national and international suicide is separated by only the thinnest and most fragile membrane, we who have derived so much from our inherited civilization are obligated to give it another chance. The artist, then, if he chooses to retain his stature as prophet, must reassert his belief in man.
23）Revelation of the universe is not to be had merely for the asking. It requires humility and faith—faith in man and some acceptance of a divine order more considerable than the petty emotional experiences of man himself. To create, a man must give himself, and if he gives himself, he must believe. Then and only then will his work shine with the contentment of the archaic smile.
A. For the definition given in each item in questions 11 to 20, find a matching word in the specified paragraph. The number given after each definition indicates the paragraph in which the word appears. (1×10)
11．primitive; crude (1)
12．regarded as belonging to; attributed (1)
13．deprived; divested (2)
15．implications: suggested meanings (10)
16．judge; person who decides (12)
17．understood or explained incorrectly (12)
18．completed in a moment; immediate (14)
20．any great or sudden disaster (22)【答案】11. Archaic
B. For the given word in each item in questions 2t to 25, decide which semantic variation best conveys the meaning of the author. The number given after each word indicates the paragraph in which the word appears. (1×5)
21．archaic (1) _____.
A. no longer used in ordinary speech
B. characteristic of an earlier period
C. borrowed from an older usage
22．occult (1) _____.
B. hidden from view
23．polemic (3) _____.
A. person inclined to argue
C. an argument
24．secularized (8) _____.
A. transferred to civil use
B. changed from regular to secular
C. separated from spiritual influence
25．imperative (8) _____.
A. absolutely, necessary, urgent
B. having the nature of authority
C. a command【答案与解析】
25．A 句中的imperative为形容词，it becomes imperative that指的是人们必须要做某件事。
II. Reading comprehension:
A. For questions 26 to 35, choose the best answer. (3×10)
26．To express his inner thoughts and feelings, the artist must base his confidence on _____.
A. engulfing loneliness
B. abnormal psychology
C. true patriotism
D. rugged individualism
E. ideal democracy
27．The artist’s unique gift is to _____.
A. paint the semblances of things as in a face m” rock or tree
B. see beyond the narrow reality of the moment
C. portray reality in proper form and sound
D. yield to pressure groups and be independent of any tradition
E. align himself with partisan convictions or political ideologies
28．In order for the artist to retain his traditional stature as a prophet he must _____.
A. reassert his belief in man
B. search his own emotional experiences
C. avoid the stereotype of the archaic smile
D. strike out independently of any inheritance or tradition
E. search his intellect and not his heart
29．In the secularized world in which we live, 20th-century man finds it imperative imperative to return to _____.
A. some unifying principle and authoritative synthesis
B. reflecting basic feelings of simple people
C. subjective interpretation of ordinary experiences
D. emotional and intellectual connotations of the Age of Fable
E. primitive rhythms, sentiments, and feelings
30．The religious and historical setting of archaic sculpture is usually characterized by all of the following qualities except one. Which is the non-characteristic quality?
A. moral values not fully established
B. objects of reality, confused with the world of the spirit
C. every action determined by a natural law
D. rational merged with irrational
E. material existence bound by taboo and superstition
31．The issue to our generation in regard to art is its _____.
A. adherence to principle
B. relation to archaic sculpture
C. strange and occult powers
D. degree of communicability
E. psychology of color
32．A work of art becomes a hopeless riddle and ceases to be art unless _____.
A. digressions and irrelevancies are avoided
B. the importance of spirit and stamina is apparent
C. its message is, of necessity, simple and easy
D. the public can readily understand it
E. participation is allowed the spectator
33．According to the author, if art is defined as a rendering of truth in sensible form, and truth is the interpretation of human experience, it follows that a work of art _____.
A. does not enjoy a scholarly life
B. deserves greater recognition
C. influences opinion
D. can have only one meaning
E. is essentially Communicative
34．The author firmly believes that in relationship to the world in which they live today, artists are _____.
A. failing to express adequately in plastic terms their intimate reactions to world phenomena
B. clearly expressing changeless values
C. voicing the general sense of inadequacy felt by individual man in a mechanistic age
D. merely tools of pressure groups whose greatest fear is fear itself
E. wise to align themselves with partisan convictions and political ideologies
35．One of the major relationships pointed out by author is mat the crisis in the arts is the _____.
A. reflection of mechanical determinism
B. crisis of the human race
C. absence of practical-value
D. crisis in speculative significance
E. crisis of the decline of education【答案与解析】
26．D 第19段第一句说到“Individualism, the type of fearless, rugged individualism…can give the artist the confidence which he must have to express his inner thoughts and feelings.”，因此D项正确。
27．B 根据第21段中“the artist’s unique gift is to see beyond the narrow reality of the moment into the breadth of eternity.”可知B项正确。
28．A 根据第22段最后一句“if he chooses to retain his stature as prophet, must reassert his belief in man”可知A项正确。
29．A 第8段提到“it becomes imperative that there be a return…to some unifying principle in which the twentieth-century man...”，因此A项正确。
30．C 由第1段最后一句“reality was a mystical experience and every action determined by participation rather than by natural law”可知，那个时期人类的活动并不是由自然法则决定，因此C项不是古老雕塑宗教与历史背景的特征。
31．D 第11段中提到“The issue of our generation is not so much one of principle as it is one of the degree of communicability versus incommunicability.”，即我们这一代的问题与其说是原则的问题，不如说是沟通能力程度的问题。
32．E 第16段最后一句说到，“Unless participation is allowed