2017年全国职称英语等级考试(理工类A级)历年真题及模拟试题详解(txt+pdf+epub+mobi电子书下载)

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2017年全国职称英语等级考试(理工类A级)历年真题及模拟试题详解

2017年全国职称英语等级考试(理工类A级)历年真题及模拟试题详解试读:

视频讲解教师简介

徐翠,北京外国语大学翻译学硕士研究生。学习成绩优异,本科和硕士阶段多次获得一等奖学金、国家励志奖学金、同心光彩助学金等。英语专八成绩优秀,高分通过BEC高级。有丰富的教学经验,在多家教育培训机构讲授新概念、英语专业八级、BEC等多种考试。

授课特点:对考试理解透彻,善于总结考试技巧及答题攻略,对于试题的难点重点把握精准。

第一部分 历年真题及详解

2016年全国职称英语等级考试(理工类A级)真题及详解

第1部分:词汇选项(第l~15题,每题l分,共15分)

下面每个句子中均有1个词或者短语划有底横线,请为每处划线部分确定1个意义最为接近的选项.

1. The revelation of his past led to his resignation.

A. imagination

B. confirmation

C. recall

D. disclosure【答案】D【解析】句意:对他过去的揭露导致了他的辞职。revelation揭发,暴露。 disclosure泄露,揭露。二者意思相近,此处可互相替换,因此选D项。imagination想像,想像力。confirmation证实;证明; 确认。recall召回,唤回;回想。

2. Jensen is a dangerous man, and can be very brutal.

A. careless

B. cruel

C. strong

D. hard【答案】B【解析】句意:Jensen是个危险人物,他可能会很残忍。brutal残忍的;野蛮的;无情的。cruel残酷的,残忍的;无情的。二者意思相近,此处可互相替换,因此选B项。careless粗心的;无忧无虑的;漫不经心的。strong强壮的;强烈的。hard困难的;硬的。

3. You’ll have to sprint if you want to catch the train.

A. jump

B. escape

C. run

D. prepare【答案】C【解析】句意:如果想赶上火车,你必须快点跑。sprint冲刺,全速短跑。run奔跑。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选C项。jump跳;跳过。escape逃跑。prepare准备。

4. We are worried about this fluid situation filled with uncertainty.

A. changeable

B. stable

C. suitable

D. adaptable【答案】A【解析】句意:对于这个充满不确定的不稳定的情况,我们感到担忧。fluid易变的,不固定的;流动的。changeable易变的;可变的。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选A项。stable稳定的。suitable合适的,适当的。adaptable可适应的;有适应能力的。

5. The new garment fits her perfectly.

A. haircut

B. purse

C. clothes

D. necklace【答案】C【解析】句意:新衣服很合适她。garment衣服,服装。clothes衣服,衣物。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选C项。haircut理发;发型;发式。purse钱包。necklace项链。

6. The phobia may have its root in a childhood trauma.

A. fear

B. joy

C. hurt

D. memory【答案】C【解析】句意:恐惧症可能根源于童年受到的精神创伤。trauma创伤(由心理创伤造成精神上的异常);损伤;痛苦经历。hurt“伤害;痛苦”,可指感情上的伤心或痛苦。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选C项。fear害怕。joy喜悦,快乐。memory记忆,记忆力。

7. They have to build canals to irrigate the desert.

A. decorate

B. water

C. change

D. visit【答案】B【解析】句意:他们必须修建沟渠灌溉沙漠。irrigate灌溉。water给……浇水。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选B项。decorate装饰。change改变。visit访问;参观。

8. Her overall language proficiency remains that of a toddler.

A. disabled

B. pupil

C. teenager

D. baby【答案】D【解析】句意:她整体的语言能力还停留在初学的幼儿水平。toddler学步的幼儿。baby婴儿。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选D项。disabled残废的,有缺陷的。pupil学生。teenager青少年。

9. The coastal area has very mild winter, but the central plains remain extremely cold.

A. warm

B. severe

C. hard

D. dry【答案】A【解析】句意:沿海地区冬天气温温暖,但是中部平原地区却极度寒冷。mild温暖的;温柔的。warm温暖的。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选A项。severe严峻的,严厉的。hard困难的,硬的。dry干的。

10.The details of the costume were totally authentic.

A. real

B. outstanding

C. creative

D. false【答案】A【解析】句意:这件古装的每个小地方都完全真实。authentic真的,真正的。real真的;真实的。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选A项。outstanding杰出的;显著的。creative创造性的,有创造力的。false虚伪的;非法的;假造的。

11.We are aware of the potential problems.

A. global

B. possible

C. ongoing

D. central【答案】B【解析】句意:我们意识到了潜在的问题。potential潜在的,有可能的。possible可能的。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选B项。global全球的。ongoing不间断的,进行的。central中央的,中心的。

12.The idea was quite brilliant.

A. positive

B. clever

C. key

D. original【答案】B【解析】句意:这个主意相当巧妙。brilliant聪明的;杰出的。clever 聪明的,灵巧的。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选B项。positive积极的;确实的。key关键的。original原始的;最初的。

13. Stock market price tumbled after rumor of a rise in interest rate.

A. regulated

B. increased

C. fell

D. maintained【答案】C【解析】句意:谣传利率上升之后,股票市场价格猛跌。tumble暴跌;倒塌;跌倒。fall下降,落下;倒下。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选C项。regulate调整;管理;控制。increase增加。maintain维持;维修。

14. The course gives you basic instructions in car maintenance.

A. coaching

B. idea

C. term

D. aspect【答案】A【解析】句意:该课程在汽车维修方面给了我基本的指导。instruction指导,说明。coaching训练,辅导。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选A项。idea主意,想法。term学期;术语。aspect方面。

15. All houses within 100 metres of the seas are at risk of flooding.

A. in danger

B. out of control

C. between equals

D. in particular【答案】A【解析】句意:距海100米内的所有房屋都有遭受洪水泛滥的危险。at the risk of处于风险中,冒着……的危险。in danger of处于危险中,有……的危险。二者意思相近,此处可相互替换,因此选A项。out of control失去控制。in particular尤其,特别。

第2部分:阅读判断(第16~22题,每题l分,共7分)

下面的短文后列出了7个句子,请根据短文的内容对每个句子做出判断:如果该句提供的是正确信息,请选择A;如果该句提供的是错误信息,请选择B;如果该句的信息文中没有提及,请选择C。The Greatest of Victorian Engineers

In the hundred years up to 1860, the work of a small group of construction engineers carried forward the enormous social and economic change that we associate with the Industrial Revolution in Britain. The most important of these engineers was Isambard Kingdom Brunel, whose work in shipping, bridge-building, and railway construction, to name just three fields, both challenged and motivated his colleagues. He was the driving force behind a number of the hugely ambitious projects, some of which resulted in works which are still in use today.

The son of an engineer, Brunel apprenticed with his father at an early age on the building of the Thames Tunnel. At the age of just twenty, he became engineer in charge of the project. This impressive plan to bore under the Thames twice suffered two major disasters when the river broke through into the tunnel when the second breach(决口) occurred in 1872, Brunel was seriously injured during rescue operation and further work was halted.

While recovering from his injuries, Brunel entered a design competition for a new bridge over the Avon Gorge near Clifton. The original judge of the competition was Thomas Telford, a leading civil engineer of his day, who rejected all entries to the competition in favor of his own design. After considerable scandal, a second contest was held and Brunel's design was accepted. For reasons of funding, however, exacerbated (加剧) by social unrest in Bristol, the project was abandoned in 1843 with only the towers completed. After Brunel’s death, it was decided to begin work on it again, partly so that the bridge could form a fitting memorial to the great engineer. The entire structure was finally completed in 1864. Today, the well-known Clifton Suspension Bridge is a symbol of Bristol, just as the Opera House is of Sydney. Originally intended only for horse-drawn traffic, the bridge now bears over four million motor vehicles a year.

16. Brunel was an important airplane engineer in Britain during the Industrial Revolution.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

17. Brunel was involved less in railway construction than in other engineering fields.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

18. Brunel worked only on shipping, bridge-building and railway construction.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

19. Brunel work was largely ignored by his colleagues.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

20. Some projects Brunel contributed to are still in use today.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

21. Brunel became an apprentice with his father when he was very young.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

22. The Thames Tunnel project was more difficult than any previous projects undertaken in Britain.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned【答案与解析】

16.C  点睛文章第一段对Brunel进行了简单的介绍,第一段第二句提到了“Isambard Kingdom Brunel, whose work in shipping, bridge-building, and railway construction”但是并没有提及他是否是飞机领域的工程师,因此选C项。

17.C  点睛第一段第二句提到了Brunel是铁道建筑方面的工程师,但是并没有进行各领域之间的对比,因此选C项。

18.B  定位根据关键词shipping、bridge-building 和railway construction定位到第一段第二句。

点睛根据第一段第二句中的“to name just three fields”可知,除了文章所列举出来的,Brunel应该还涉及其他工程领域,因此本题选B项。

19.B  点睛根据第一段第二句“Isambard Kingdom Brunel, whose work…both challenged and motivated his colleagues”可知,题干与原文表述不符,因此选B项。

20.A  定位根据关键词in use today定位至第一段最后一句。

点睛根据第一段最后一句“He was the driving force behind a number of the hugely ambitious projects, some of which resulted in works are still in use today.”可知,Brunel推动了许多项目的进行,而且有一些工程建筑仍然在使用,因此本题选A项。

21.A  定位根据关键词an apprentice和his father定位到第二段第一句。

点睛根据第二段第一句中的“Brunel apprenticed with his father at an early age”可知,Brunel年轻时候就师从自己的父亲学习工程,因此选A项。

22.C  点睛文章第二段提到了Thames Tunnel工程。文章中并未涉及Thames Tunnel工程与其他工程项目的对比,因此本题选C项。【全文翻译】维多利亚时期最伟大的工程师

1860年之前的几百年里,一小部分建筑工程师的工作推进了英国工业革命时期的社会和经济的巨变,而其中最重要的一位工程师是Isambard Kingdom Brunel。在船舶、桥梁、铁路建设领域(这里只列举这三个领域),Brunel挑战并激励着他的同行。他是许多大型的雄心勃勃的项目背后的驱动力,其中一些项目的成果今天仍在使用。

Brunel年轻的时候就在工程师父亲下面当学徒,建造泰晤士河隧道。仅仅20岁时,他成为了负责这个项目的工程师。1872年,泰晤士河再次发生决口,河水冲进隧道,在泰晤士河下面钻孔这一了不起的计划因此两度遭受巨大灾难。Brunel在抢救行动中受伤严重,该项目的下一步工作中止。

当从伤病中恢复,Brunel参加了一项设计比赛,在克利夫顿附近的埃文峡谷上修建一座新的桥梁。一开始,比赛的评委是当时占领导地位的土木工程师Thomas Telford,他拒绝了所有的参赛作品,只支持自己的设计。在巨大的丑闻发生之后,举行了第二次比赛,这一次Brunel的设计被接受。但是由于资金问题,再加上布里斯托尔的社会动荡,1843该项目被放弃,仅仅完成了塔的修建工作。Brunel去世后,该项目重新启动,其中部分原因在于以该桥梁的形式纪念这位伟大的工程师。整个建筑于1864终于完成。今天,著名的克利夫顿悬索桥大桥是布里斯托尔的象征,正如悉尼歌剧院是悉尼的象征一样。该桥原本只是为了让马车通行,而今天,该桥每年通行的汽车超过四百万辆。

第3部分:概括大意和完成句子(第23~30题,每题l分,共8分)

下面的短文后有2项测试任务:(1)第23~26题要求从所给的6个选项中为第1~4段每段选择1个最佳标题;(2)第27~30题要求从所给的6个选项中为每个句子确定1个最佳选项。Geothermal (地热) Energy

1. Since heat naturally moves from hotter regions to cooler ones, the heat from the earth's center flows outwards towards the surface. In this way, it transfers to the next layer of rock. If the temperature is high enough, some of this rock melts and forms magma (岩浆). The magma ascends in its turn towards the earth's surface. It often remains well below the earth's surface, creating vast areas of hot rock. In such regions, there are deep cracks, which allow rainwater to descend underground. Some of the heated rainwater travels back up to the earth's surface where it will appear as a hot spring. However, if this ascending hot water reaches a layer of impermeable (不可渗透的) rock, it remains trapped, forming a geothermal reservoir. If geothermal reservoirs are close enough to the surface, they can be reached by drilling wells. Hot water and steam shoot up the wells naturally, and can be used to produce electricity in geothermal power plants.

2. A few geothermal power plants depend on dry-steam reservoirs which produce steam but little or no water. In these cases, the steam is piped up directly to provide the power to spin a turbine generator. The first geothermal power plant, constructed at Lardarello in Italy, was of this type, and is still producing electricity today.

3. Most currently operating geothermal power plants are either "flash" steam plants or binary (双重的) plants. Flash plants produce mainly hot water ranging in temperature from 300° to 700° Fahrenheit. This water is passed through one or two separators where released from the pressure of the underground reservoir, it “flashes” or boils into steam. Again, the force of this steam provides the energy to spin the turbine and produce electricity. The geothermal water and steam are then reinjected directly back down into the earth to maintain the volume and pressure of the reservoir. Gradually they will be reheated and can then be used again.

4. A reservoir with temperatures below 300° Fahrenheit is not hot enough to flash steam but it can still be used to generate electricity in a binary fluid. The steam from this is used to power the turbines. As in the flash steam plant, the geothermal water is recycled back into the reservoir.A. Recyclable water and steam B. Binary plants C. Flash steam plants D. Generation of electricity E. Origin of geothermal energy F.  Dry steam plants

23.Paragraph 1 _____

24.Paragraph 2 _____

25.Paragraph 3 _____

26.Paragraph 4 _____

27. A geothermal reservoir is formed when hot water is trapped under _____.

28. A dry-steam reservoir produces steam with _____.

29. Flash plants produce hot water through _____.

30. In a binary plant, the heat of the geothermal water can be converted into _____.A. hot springs B. impermeable rock C. little or no water D. turbine operator E. one or two separators F. the energy to turn a turbine【答案与解析】

23.E  本段主要介绍地热能的产生过程,是由雨水流到地下,遇地热变成热水无法喷出而形成的。E项“地热能的起源”与本段意思相符,故选E项。

24.F  本段主要介绍利用干蒸汽发电的工厂。F项“干蒸汽发电厂”与本段意思相符,故选F项。

25.C  本段主要介绍注水蒸汽发电站,现今最常见的就是注水发电和双循环发电。C项“注水蒸汽发电站”与本段意思相符,故选C项。

26.B  本段主要介绍低于300华氏度的水库如何通过双循环发电站来发电。B项“双循环发电站”能很好地概括本段内容,故选B项。

27.B  定位根据关键词trapped可定位至第一段倒数第三句。

点睛文章第一段倒数第三句提到,如果向上的热水碰到不可渗透的岩石,就会被困住,形成地热水库。B项impermeable rock“不可渗透的岩石”与该句意思相符,故选B项。

28.C  定位根据题干定位至第二段第一句。

点睛文章第二段第一句提到,干蒸汽水库产生的水量很少甚至没有。C项little or no water“很少或没有水”与该句意思相符,故选C项。

29.E  定位根据题干定位至第三段第三句。

点睛文章第三段第三句提到,产生的水会通过一到两个分离器。E项one or two separators“一到两个分离器”与该句意思相符,故选E项。

30.F  定位根据关键词binary可定位至第四段第一、二句话。

点睛文章第四段第一句提到,温度不够的水可以用在双循环液体中,第二句话提到,这样产生的蒸汽可以推动涡轮。F项the energy to turn a turbine“推动涡轮的能量”与该句意思相符,故选F项。【全文翻译】地热能

 1.因为热量自发地从热的区域向凉爽的区域移动,所以地球中心的热量向外朝着地表流动。像这样,热量沿着一层一层岩石传递。如果温度足够高,有些岩石会熔化而形成岩浆。岩浆开始向上朝着地表移动。最后通常会停留在地表以下,形成大面积的热岩石。在一些地区,地面裂缝很深,雨水可以顺着流到地下。有些经过热岩石加热的雨水会流回到地表形成温泉。然而若这些雨水碰到不可渗透的岩石,就会被困住,形成地热水库。若这些水库离地表足够近,人们可以通过钻井达到。热水和热蒸汽自然喷出,可被用作地热能发电站发电。

2.有些地热发电厂依靠干蒸汽水库发电,干蒸汽水库里面的蒸汽带着少量的水甚至没有水。在这样的情况下,蒸汽直接由管道输送来供给能量推动涡旋发动机。第一所地热发电厂,建于意大利的拉尔代雷洛,就是这种类型,直到今天仍在发电。

3.现在,大多数运转的地热发电站都是注水发电和双循环发电。注水发电会产生温度在300到700华氏度之间的热水。这些水由于地下水库的压力而释放,经过一两道分离器,并且会“在一瞬间”沸腾形成蒸汽。然后,这些蒸汽提供能量来旋转涡轮发电。这些地热水和蒸汽重新注入地壳岩石,维持水库的水量和压力。慢慢地它们会被重新加热,再次被利用。

4.水库水温低于300华氏度不够热,无法“在一瞬间”产生蒸汽,但仍可以以两相流的形式被用于发电。由此产生的蒸汽用于驱动涡轮。像注水发电站一样,地热水会循环回到水库。

第4部分:阅读理解(第31~45题,每题3分,共45分)

  下面有3篇短文,每篇短文后有5道题。请根据短文内容,为每题确定l个最佳选项。第一篇  Sports Star Yao Ming

If Yao Ming is not the biggest sports star in the world, he is almost certainly the tallest. At 2.26m, he is the tallest player in the National Basketball Association (NBA) and holds the record as the most towering Olympian ever to compete in the Game.

But what really stands out about the giant center is his celebrity (名气). Few, if any, Chinese athletes are as well-known as Yao Ming around the world. People across the globe are fascinated with Yao, not only for his basketball prowess (杰出的才能) but also for being a symbol of international commerce.

When Yao joined the Houston Rockets as the No. 1 pick in the 2002 NBA draft he was the first international player ever to be selected first. His assets on the court are clear enough—no NBA player of his size has ever possessed his mobility, so he is a handful (难对付的人) for opponents on either end of the court. But what makes Yao invaluable to the Rockets organization is his role as a global citizen and as a bridge to millions of potential basketball fans in China.

When it was announced in February that Yao would miss the rest of the NBA season and possibly the Olympics with a stress fracture (骨折) in his left foot, a collective shudder spread across China. After considerable debate and discussion, Yao opted to get his foot surgically treated in an operation that placed several tiny screws across the bone, to offer his overburdened foot more support. The surgery was a success, and though the estimated four-month recovery period will leave him little time to prepare with Team China,Yao has vowed to be ready for the Beijing Olympics.

Yao wrapped up a 10-day trip to China, where he underwent a series of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments, hoping to accelerate his recovery process. Western experts are generally skeptical of TCM’s benefits, although new research from the University of Rochester suggests that a certain compound derived from shellfish may indeed stimulate bone repair.“There is no reason to dismiss TCM,” Yao told a press conference in Beijing. “It’s been used in our country for thousands of years. I don’t think that it’s short on science.”

31. The word “towering” in Paragraph 1 means _____.

A. large

B. fat

C. tall

D. great

32. Opponents find it very difficult to control Yao Ming because of his _____.

A. assault

B. mobility

C. defense

D. celebrity

33. Yao Ming had to undergo a series of TCM treatments because _____.

A. he wanted to make a more rapid recovery

B. his right foot had been hurting

C. the surgical operation had been a failure

D. he couldn't afford all the medical expenses

34. Which statement about Yao Ming is NOT true?

A. He is an NBA player.

B. He fractured his left foot.

C. He missed the Athens Olympics.

D. He is an international figure.

35. In general, the Western experts’ attitude towards TCM is _____.

A. indifferent

B. positive

C. doubtful

D. negative【答案与解析】31. The word “towering” in 31. 第一段中“towering”一词Paragraph 1 means _____.的意思是____。A. large B. fat C. tall D. greatA. 大的 B. 胖的 C. 高的 D. 伟大的

31.C  点睛文章第一段第一句提到了姚明是最高的。因此第二句中“towering”应该继续指姚明在身高方面的记录,因此本题选C项。towering耸立的;高大的。32. Opponents find it very difficult to 32. 对手发现很难控制姚control Yao Ming because of his 明,因为他的____。_____.A. assault B. mobility C. defense D. A. 攻击 B. 移动性 C. 防御 celebrityD. 名气

32.B  定位根据关键词opponents和difficult to control定位到第三段第二句。

点睛根据第三段第二句中的“no NBA player of his size has ever possessed his mobility”,可知,由于姚明身材高大且移动迅速,他很难对付。因此本题选B项。

避错文章第二段提到了姚明的名气,但是这并不是他很难对付的原因,因此D项不符合题意。A项和C项文中没有提及,因此排除。33. Yao Ming had to undergo a series of 33. 姚明必须经受一系TCM treatments because _____.列的中医药治疗,因为____。A. he wanted to make a more rapid A. 他想更快地恢复 B. recovery B. his right foot had been 他的右脚已经受伤 C. hurting C. the surgical operation had 手术失败 D. 他不能支been a failure D. he couldn't afford all the 付医药费medical expenses

33.A  定位根据关键词a series of TCM treatment定位到最后两段。

点睛根据倒数第二段第一句中的“hoping to accelerate his recovery process”可知,姚明之所以接受中医药治疗是为了快速恢复,因此本题选A项。

避错文章第四段只提到了他的左脚受伤,并且提到了手术成功了,因此B项和C项明显错误。D项文中没有提及,因此排除。34. Which statement about Yao 34. 关于姚明,哪项表述不正Ming is NOT true?确?A. He is an NBA player. B. He A. 他是一名NBA球员。 B. 他的fractured his left foot. C. He 左脚骨折。 C. 他错过了雅典奥missed the Athens Olympics. D. 运会。 D. 他是一名国际人物。He is an international figure.

34.C  点睛文章第一段第二句就介绍了姚明是NBA中最高的一名球员,因此A项表述正确。根据文章第二段可知,姚明名气大,是国际商务的一个象征,因此D项与原文表述相符。文章第四段第一句提到了姚明左脚骨折,因此B项表述正确。第四段只提到姚明有可能错过奥运会,并且根据第四段最后一句可知,这里指的是北京奥运会,因此C项表述明显错误。因此本题选C项。35. In general, the Western 35. 总体上而言,西方专家对中experts’ attitude towards TCM is 医药的态度是____。_____.A. indifferent B. positive C. A. 冷漠的 B. 积极的 C. 怀疑的 doubtful D. negativeD. 消极的

35.C  定位根据关键词western experts’ attitude和TCM定位到最后两段。

点睛根据倒数第二段最后一句可知,“Western experts are generally skeptical of TCM’s benefits”,skeptical意思为“怀疑的”,因此本题选C项。【全文翻译】体育明星姚明

如果姚明不是世界上最大的体育明星,那他几乎肯定是最高的。身高2.26米,他是美国国家篮球协会(NBA)最高的球员,并且是参加奥林匹克比赛的选手中最高身高的记录保持者。 

但是这位巨人真正突出的是他的名气。很少有中国运动员,如果有的话,和姚明一样在全世界有名。全球的人们都对姚明着迷,不仅是因为他的篮球技术杰出,也因为他是国际商务的一个象征。 

当姚明在2002年NBA选秀中作为状元加入休斯敦火箭队时,他是第一个被选为状元的国际球员。他在场上的价值显而易见——没有NBA球员像他一样身材高大却移动迅速,所以整个篮球场上攻防两端他都是一个难以对付的对手。但是姚明对火箭队不可估量的作用在于他作为全球公民的角色,以及他成为一座桥梁,连接着数百万的潜在中国篮球迷和一座连接着数百万潜在的中国篮球迷的桥梁的角色。

在2月份,当宣布姚明由于左脚压力骨折而将错过NBA剩下的赛季,而且还有可能错过奥林匹克时,整个中国无不震惊。在大量的辩论和讨论后,姚明选择在脚上动一个手术,放置几个小螺丝穿过骨头,从而给他不堪重负的脚更多的支撑。手术是成功的,虽然预计的四个月的恢复期给他留下不多的时间来与中国队磨合,姚明已经誓言要为北京奥运会做好准备。

姚明结束了一个为期10天的中国之行,在那里他接受了一系列的中医药治疗,希望能加速他的康复过程。西方专家普遍对中药的益处表示怀疑,尽管罗切斯特大学的新研究表明,某些来自贝壳类的化合物确实能刺激骨修复。“没有理由不用中医药,”姚明在北京的一个新闻发布会上说。“在我们国家中医药已经有几千年的历史了。我认为它并不缺乏科学。”第二篇  Deforestation and Desertification (沙漠化)

The Sahel zone lies between the Sahara desert and the fertile savannahs (热带大草原) of northern Nigeria and South Sudan. The word sahel comes from Arabic and means marginal or transitional, and this is a good description of these semi-arid (半干旱) lands, which occupy much of the Western African countries of Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Chad.

Unfortunately, over the last century the Sahara desert has steadily crept southwards eating into once productive Sahel lands. United Nations surveys show that over 70 percent of the dry land in agriculture use in Africa has deteriorated over the last 30 years. Droughts have become more severe, the most recent lasting over twenty years in parts of the Sahel region. The same process of desertification is taking place across southern Africa as the Kalahari desert advances into Botswana and parts of South Africa.

One of the major causes of this desert advance is poor agricultural land use, driven by the pressures of increasing population. Overgrazing—keeping too many farm animals on the land—means that grasses and other plants cannot recover, and scarce water supplies are exhausted. Over cultivation—trying to grow too many crops on poor land—results in the soil becoming even less fertile and drier, and beginning to break up. Soil erosion (侵蚀) follows, and the land turns into desert.

Another cause of desertification is loss of tree cover. Trees are cut down for use as fuel and to clear land for agricultural use. Tree roots help to bind the soil together, to conserve moisture, and to provide a habitat for other plants and animals. When trees are cut down, the soil begins to dry and loosen, wind and rain erosion increase, other plant species die, and eventually the fertile top soil may be almost entirely lost, leaving only bare rock and dust.

The effects of loss of topsoil and increased drought are irreversible. They are, however, preventable. Careful conservation of tree cover and sustainable agricultural land use have been shown to halt deterioration of soils and lessen the effects of shortage of rainfall. One project in Kita in south-west Mali funded by UNDP has involved local communities in sustainable management of forest, while at the same time providing a viable (有活力的) agricultural economy. This may be a model for similar projects in other West African countries.

36.The Sahel zone is an area which ___.

A. is covered with sand and grass

B. has a long history

C. occupies much of South Nigeria

D. belongs to Sudan

37. What is the situation about the desertification in Africa?

A. The deserts are replaced with grasslands.

B. The deserts are expanding.

C. The deserts are moving northwards.

D. The deserts are being deserted.

38. The word “deteriorated” in paragraph 2 means _____.

A. deepened

B. suffered

C. slipped

试读结束[说明:试读内容隐藏了图片]

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