AP 心理学(txt+pdf+epub+mobi电子书下载)

作者:时岩玲

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AP 心理学

AP 心理学试读:

本书概述

心理学既研究人的心理,也研究动物的心理,以人的心理现象为主要的研究对象。心理现象包括心理过程和个性心理两部分。心理过程包括认识过程、情绪情感过程和意志过程。认识过程又包括感觉、知觉、记忆、想象、思维等心理过程。个性心理分为个性倾向性和个性心理特征。个性倾向性包括需要、动机、兴趣等,个性心理特征包括能力、气质和性格。本书将以专题形式讲解以下内容:

1.History and Approaches:心理学的历史及不同的观点和学说。

2.Research Methods:用不同的方法采集科学信息和如何分析这些信息。

3.Biological Bases of Behavior:理解心理过程和人行为之间的关系。

4.Sensation and Perception:通过感官和刺激,动物(人)进行的一系列心理活动。

5.States of Consciousness:重在了解大脑活动和意识之间的不同。

6.Learning:学习是一种行为,理解人如何通过不同的感官经验和经历来学习。

7.Cognition:认知这一章旨在让初学者理解大脑能够将不同的感觉信息转换成不同类型的信息。

8.Motivation and Emotion:动机和情绪,将探索生理和社会因素如何促进典型的和极端的人类行为。

9.Developmental Psychology:发育心理学一章将介绍大脑的发育过程,以及不同经历对大脑发育的影响。

10. Personality:介绍人格理论,特别是弗洛伊德的人格理论。

11. Intelligence:介绍智力的相关理论,智力的影响因素以及如何检测智力。

12. Psychological Disorders:介绍如何判定心理障碍,心理障碍的类型及造成各类型心理障碍的学说。

13. Treatment of Psychological Disorders:介绍治疗心理障碍的方法。

14. Social Psychology:社会心理学一章主要介绍态度与行为的关系,影响个人行为的因素等。

本书还列出了AP心理学考试大纲的具体要求,并为考生讲解了如何解答选择题目和自由论答题目。本书精选了50道选择题,供考生学习参考,并为考生整理了心理学常用词汇。本书每一章都有知识概论和AP心理学考试大纲针对该章的主要考点及考试比例,力图为读者提供准确的一手资料。希望读者从中汲取营养,有所收获。Chapter 1 History and Approaches第一章 心理学历史和学派SUMMARY OF THIS CHAPTER

History and Approaches (2%~4%)

Psychology has evolved markedly since its inception as a discipline in 1879. There have been significant changes in the theories that psychologists use to explain behavior and mental processes. In addition, the methodology of psychological research has expanded to include a diversity of approaches to data gathering.

AP students in psychology should be able to do the following:

a) Recognize how philosophical and physiological perspectives shaped the development of psychological thought.

b) Describe and compare different theoretical approaches to explaining behavior:

ⅰ. Structuralism, functionalism, and behaviorism in the early years;

ⅱ. Gestalt, psychoanalytic/psychodynamic, and humanism emerging later;

ⅲ. Evolutionary, biological, cognitive, and biopsychosocial as more contemporary approaches.

c) Recognize the strengths and limitations of applying theories to explain behavior.

d) Distinguish the different domains of psychology (e.g., biological, clinical, cognitive, counseling, developmental, educational, experimental, human factors, industrial–organizational, personality, psychometric, social).

e) Identify major historical figures in psychology (e.g., Mary Whiton Calkins, Charles Darwin, Dorothea Dix, Sigmund Freud, G. Stanley Hall, William James, Ivan Pavlov, Jean Piaget, Carl Rogers, B. F. Skinner, Margaret Floy Washburn, John B. Watson, Wilhelm Wundt).Edited from AP psychology description by the College Board

本章重点介绍两个方面的内容,其一是心理学派,其二是心理学观点。重点掌握学派理论及其代表人物。了解各心理学观点对人行为的解释和心理学的研究对象。1. HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 心理学历史

心理学派主要分为五大学派,见Fig 1.1:(1)内省(introspection);(2)完形心理学(gestalt psychology);(3)心理分析(psychoanalysis);(4)行为主义(behaviorism);(5)多元观点(multiple perspectives)。

Fig 1.1 Five main waves of theories

(1) Wave one—Introspection 学派之一——内省

Introspective theories were important in establishing the science of psychology, but they do not significantly influence current psychological thinking. 内省理论对建立心理学科学来说是很重要的,但未能显著影响现代心理思维。

1) Structuralism 结构主义

The idea that the mind operates by combining subjective emotions and objective sensations. 主张意识通过主观情感和客观感觉共同起作用。

Structuralism is the analysis of the mind in terms of its basic elements.

Exam tip: Wilhelm Wundt set up the first psychological laboratory at Leipzig, Germany. He created theory of structuralism and published the principles of psychology.

2) Functionalism 机能心理学

The idea that psychologists study the functions of consciousness rather than its structure.

Exam tip: William James created functionalism, its tradition endures in two modern-day fields: cognitive psychology which studies mental processes and evolutionary psychology which emphasizes the adaptiveness of behavior.

(2) Wave two—Gestalt psychology 学派之二——完形心理学/格式塔心理学

Gestalt psychology tried to examine a person's total experience because the way we experience the world is more than just an accumulation of various perceptual experiences.

Gestalt theorists demonstrated that the whole experience is often more than just the sum of the parts of the experience. 完形心理学家论证了整体经历往往大于部分经历的总和。

Max Wertheimer argued against dividing human thought and behavior into discrete structures. 完形心理学家Max Wertheimer 反对将人的思想和行为割裂为离散的结构。

(3) Wave three—Psychoanalysis 学派之三——精神分析

Psychoanalysis examines the unconscious mind through dream analysis, word association, and other psychoanalytic techniques to understand human thought and behavior truly. 精神分析学派为了真实地理解人的思想和行为,通过梦的解析、词汇联想和其他的精神分析技术来检测潜意识。

Defense mechanism: psychological techniques that help us cope with anxiety and the pain of traumatic experiences. 防御机制:一种帮助我们处理焦虑和创伤性经历带来的痛苦的心理技术。

Sigmund Freud revolutionized psychology with his psychoanalytic theory. Freud believed he discovered the unconscious mind; this hidden part of us builds up over the years through repression. Sigmund Freud 的精神分析理论是革命性的心理学学说。他坚信发现了潜意识,隐藏在我们内心的潜意识是由于受到长期的压抑而建立起来的。

Exam tip: Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory has been criticized for being unscientific and creating unverifiable theories.

(4) Wave four—Behaviorism 学派之四——行为主义

Behaviorists maintained that psychologists should look at only behavior and causes of behavior— stimuli and responses— and not concern themselves with describing elements of consciousness. 行为心理学家坚持认为心理学家应该只关注行为和引起行为的原因——刺激和反应,不应该关注意识本身的描述元素。

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov's research was devoted to the investigation of the conditioned reflex and the study of the brain. His 'conditioning' model had an enormous influence on western behavioral psychology.

1) John B. Watson studied Ivan Petrovich Pavlov's conditioned reflex theory and declared that psychology must limit itself to observable phenomena, not unobservable concepts like the unconscious mind. John B. Watson 研究了Ivan Petrovich Pavlov 的条件反射理论,表明心理学必须局限于观察到的现象,而不应该涉及像潜意识这样的不可观察的概念。

2) B. F. Skinner expanded the basic ideas of behaviorism to include the idea of reinforcement—environmental stimuli that either encourage or discourage certain responses. B.F. Skinner 将行为主义的基本理念扩大,将强化理念——即环境刺激鼓励或不鼓励某种反应包含在内。

(5) Wave five—Multiple perspectives 学派之五—— 多元观点

Psychologists look at thought and behavior from multiple perspectives. 心理学家从多元观点来看待思想和行为。2. PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES 心理学观点

当代心理学观点可以分为七大类。如Fig 1.2所示:

Fig 1.2 Seven main psychological perspectives

Psychologists use various perspectives in their work depending on which point of view fits best with the explanation. In the future, some perspectives might be combined or new perspectives might emerge as research continues.

(1) Humanistic perspective 人本主义观点

Humanists believe that we choose most of our behaviors and these choices are guided by physiological, emotional, or spiritual needs. 人本主义心理学家认为我们的大部分行为是自己选择的,而且这些选择受到生理、情感和精神方面需求的引导。

Representative people: Abraham Harold Maslow and Carl Ransom Rogers.

代表人物:Abraham Harold Maslow 和Carl Ransom Rogers。

(2) Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic perspective 精神分析/心理动力观点

Psychologists believed that the unconscious mind controls much of our thought and action. Psychoanalytic perspective thought that to understand human thought and behavior, we must examine our unconscious mind through dream analysis, word association, and other psychoanalytic therapy techniques. 精神分析学家认为潜意识控制我们的思想和行为。精神分析观点认为要理解人的思想和行为,我们必须通过梦分析、词汇联想和其他的精神分析治疗技术来考察我们的潜意识。

(3) Biopsychological (or neuroscience) perspective 生物心理学(或神经科学)观点

Biopsychologists explain human thought and behavior strictly in terms of biological processes. Human cognition and reactions might be caused by effects of our genes, hormones, and neurotransmitters in the brain or by a combination of all three. 生物心理学家严格依据生物学过程来解释人的思想和行为。人的认知和反应可能是因为我们的基因、激素和大脑神经递质的作用或者是三者共同作用而造成的。

(4) Evolutionary(or Darwinian) perspective 进化(或达尔文学说)观点

Evolutionary psychologists examine human thoughts and actions in terms of natural selection. 进化心理学家根据自然选择理论考察人的思想和行为。

(5) Behavioral perspective 行为观点

Behaviorists explain human thought and behavior in terms of conditioning. 行为学家根据条件作用解释人的思想和行为。

(6) Cognitive perspective 认知观点

Cognitive psychologists examine human thought and behavior in terms of how we interpret, process, and remember environmental events. 认知心理学家根据我们如何解释、处理和记忆周围事件来考察人的思想和行为。

(7) Sociocultural (or Social-cultural) perspective 社会文化观点

Social-cultural psychologists look at how our thoughts and behaviors vary from people living in other cultures. 社会文化心理学家着眼于我们的思想和行为是怎样不同于生活在其他文化中的人们的。

The Table 1.1 below is the overview of the major perspective on human behavior.Table 1.1 Comparison of seven major perspectives on human behavior

续前表Chapter 2 Research Methods第二章 研究方法SUMMARY OF THIS CHAPTER

Research Methods (8%~10%)

Psychology is an empirical discipline. Psychologists develop knowledge by doing research. Research provides guidance for psychologists who develop theories to explain behavior and who apply theories to solve problems in behavior.

AP students in psychology should be able to do the following:

a) Differentiate types of research (e.g., experiments, correlational studies, survey research, naturalistic observations, case studies) with regard to purpose, strengths, and weaknesses.

b) Describe how research design drives the reasonable conclusions that can be drawn (e.g., experiments are useful for determining cause and effect; the use of experimental controls reduces alternative explanations).

c) Identify independent, dependent, confounding, and control variables in experimental designs.

d) Distinguish between random assignment of participants to conditions in experiments and random selection of participants, primarily in correlational studies and surveys.

e) Predict the validity of behavioral explanations based on the quality of research design(e.g., confounding variables limit confidence in research conclusions).

f) Distinguish the purposes of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

g) Apply basic descriptive statistical concepts, including interpreting and constructing graphs and calculating simple descriptive statistics (e.g., measures of central tendency, standard deviation).

h) Discuss the value of reliance on operational definitions and measurement in behavioral research.

i) Identify how ethical issues inform and constrain research practices.

j) Describe how ethical and legal guidelines protect research participants and promote sound ethical practice.Edited from AP psychology description by the College Board1. RESEARCH METHODS 研究方法

研究方法主要有五种,如Fig 2.1所示,包括:

观察法(naturalistic observation)、相关法(correlational method)、调查法(survey),实验法(experimental method)、个案法(case studies),以及其他方法。

Fig 2.1 Five main research methods

(1) Research 研究

1) Applied research 应用研究:Psychologists conduct research in order to solve practical problems. 心理学家为了解决实际问题进行的研究。

2) Basic research 基础研究:Explores questions that are of interest to psychologists but are not intended to have immediate, real-world applications. 心理学家研究感兴趣的课题,但是不会立竿见影地应用到现实生活中。

Hindsight bias: The tendency upon hearing about research findings to think that they knew it all along. 事后诸葛亮:利用听说到的研究结果来想象他们原本一直都了解某件事。

(2) Terminology 术语

1) Hypotheses and variables 假设检验和变量

a. 假设检验(hypotheses)又叫作统计假设检验,是一种基本的统计推断形式,也是数理统计学的一个重要的分支,用来判断样本与样本、样本与总体的差异是由抽样误差引起还是本质差别造成的。其基本原理是先对总体的特征作出某种假设,然后通过抽样研究的统计推理,对此假设应该被拒绝还是接受作出推断。

b. 变量是统计学研究对象的特征,在数量标志中,不变的数量标志称为常量或参数,可变的数量标志称为变量。由可变数量标志构造的各种指标也称为变量。它可以是定性的,也可以是定量的。一个定量变量要么是离散的,要么是连续的。社会科学中研究变量的关系,通常把一个变量称为自变量(独立变量independent variable),另一个变量称为因变量(依赖变量)(dependent variable)。变量包括各种数量标志和全部统计指标,都是以数值形式表示的,但不包括品质标志。

a) Dependent variable: the factor that is measured by the experimenter and that may be influenced by the independent variable. 因变量:实验测量的因素,可能受自变量影响。

b) Independent variable: the factor that is manipulated or controlled by the experimenter. 自变量:由实验者设定或控制的因素。

2) Validity and reliability 有效性和可靠性

Research is valid, it is accurate. 研究有效,表示它是精确的。

Research is reliable, it is consistent, and it can be replicated. 研究可靠,表示它是一致的,可以被重复。

3) Sampling 抽样

抽样也叫作取样,是从欲研究的全部样品中抽取一部分样品单位作为研究对象。其基本要求是要保证所抽取的样品单位对全部样品具有充分的代表性。抽样的目的是根据被抽取样品单位的分析、研究结果来估计和推断全部样品特性,这是科学实验、质量检验、社会调查普遍采用的一种经济有效的统计学方法。

a. Participants 参与者,研究对象

b. Sampling 抽样

c. Population 种群

d. Representative 代表性

e. Random selection 随机选择

f. Stratified sampling 分层抽样(Choose a random subsample. 抽样时,将总体分成互不交叉的层,然后按照一定的比例,从各层中独立抽取一定数量的个体,得到所需样本,这样的抽样方法为分层抽样)

(3) Experimental method 实验法

实验法是在控制条件下对某种心理现象进行观察的方法。在实验中,研究者可以积极干预被试者的活动,创造某种条件使某种心理现象得以产生并重复出现。实验法可以分为两种:实验室实验、自然实验。实验法的优点在于,可揭示因果关系,可重复,可检验,数量化指标明确。不足之处在于,在实验中容易产生主试效应和被试效应,研究者的期待和态度等心理状态的波动可能会对实验产生影响,同时被试者意识到自己正在接受实验,也可能干扰实验结果的客观性。

Types of experiments 实验类型

a. Laboratory experiments 室内实验:Conducted in a lab, a highly controlled environment. 在实验室进行,环境受到严格控制。实验室实验是借助专门实验设备,在对实验条件进行严格控制的情况下实施的。而自然实验也叫现象实验,虽然也对实验条件进行适当的控制,但往往是在人们正常学习和工作的情境中进行的,即实验情景更符合现实。

b. Field experiments 现场实验:conducted out in the wild, more realistic. 在户外进行,更真实。

2) Terms 有关术语

a. Confounding variables 混淆变量:any difference between the experimental and control conditions, except for the independent variable, that might affect the dependent variable. 即实验条件与控制条件之间的差异因素,是一种不能影响自变量,可能影响到因变量的一种可变因素。

b. Assignment 分配:the process by which participants are put into a group, experimental or control. 指参与者被分到实验组或者对照组的过程。

Random assignment: each participant has an equal chance of being placed into any group. 随机分配:指每个参与者被分配到任何组的机会均等。The benefit of random assignment is that it limits the effect of participant-relevant confounding variable. 随机分配的好处是可以限制与参与者相关混淆变量的效应。

c. Group matching 匹配组设计:a method used to ensure that the experimental and control groups are equivalent on some criterion. 匹配组设计就是对全部被试者进行预备测验,测验的性质与正式实验的性质是类似的,或者是相关的,然后按某些标准均匀地形成组。

d. Situation-relevant confounding variables:情境相关混淆变量。

Confounding variables: Any difference between the experimental and control conditions, except for the independent variable, that might affect the dependent variable.

e. Controls 对照:一般进行某种实验以阐明一定因子对一个对象的影响和处理效应或意义时,除了对实验所要求研究因子或操作处理外,其他因素都保持一致,并把实验结果进行比较,这种处理方式称为对照处理。

f. Experimenter bias (experimenter expectancy effects) 实验者偏向:the unconscious tendency for researchers to treat members of the experimental and control groups differently to increase the chance of confirming their hypothesis. (也叫作实验者期望效应:是指研究者在潜意识中倾向于对实验组和对照组作不同处理,以提高他们假设的确认几率。)

g. Double-blind procedure 双盲程序:both the participant and experimenter are kept blind as to which experimental condition the participant is in. 不对参与者和实验者公开实验条件。

Note: Double-blinds minimize participant placebo effects and experimenter expectancy effects.

h. Single blind 单盲程序:only the participants do not know to which group they have been assigned. 只有参与者不知道被分到哪一组。

Note: Single blind minimizes the effect of demand characteristics and participant bias.

i. Demand characteristics 需求特征:cues about the purpose of the study. 是对研究目的的暗示。

j. Social desirability 社会期望:one response bias, the tendency to try to give politically correct answers. 是一种反应偏向,趋向于给出政治上的正确回答。

k. Experimental group 实验组:the one that gets the treatment operationalized in the independent variable. 有自变量相应处理的组。

l. Control group 对照组:The one is not exposed to the treatment or receives a zero-level of independent variable. As a basis for comparison. 没有自变量的组,用于对照、比较。

m. Hawthorne effect 霍桑效应:the tendency of some people to work harder and perform better when they are participants in an experiment. Individuals may change their behavior due to the attention they are receiving from researchers rather than because of any manipulation of independent variables. 当人们参与实验时,会趋向于做得更好。

n. Placebo effect 安慰剂效应:People receiving a treatment show a change in behavior because of their expectations, not because the treatment itself had any specific benefit to people. Placebo method is one method of control. 人们在实验中因为自身的期望而改变行为,不是因为实验处理本身的任何特殊作用。

Placebo method: the method to separate physiological effects from psychological effects by giving the control group substitutes for things used in the experimental group.

o. Counterbalancing: the order of conditions is varied so that no condition has an overall advantage relative to the others. 均衡化,补偿效应:实验条件顺序多样化,各条件相对于其他条件均没有整体优势。

(4) Correlational method 相关法

相关法是指通过测量来发现事物之间关系的方法。相关是指两个事件、两个变量之间存在一致而有序的关系。相关法的优点在于:能表明相关的存在;可进行预测;可用于实验室、临床或自然状态下的研究。相关法的缺点在于:难以进行控制;相关可能是巧合;不能证实因果关系。Correlation: a relationship between two variables without ascribing cause. 事物之间的相关强度和方向通常用相关系数来表达,分为正相关、负相关和无相关。

1) Positive correlation:正相关

一种变量的增加伴随着另一种变量的增加,或一种变量的减少伴随着另一种变量的减少。

The presence of one thing predicts the presence of the other. (+/+)

2) Negative correlation:负相关

一种变量的增加伴随着另一种变量的减少。

The presence of one thing predicts the absence of the other. (+/-)

3) No correlation:无相关

无相关即没有上述两种关系。

(5) Survey 调查法

调查法:是以大家所了解、所关心的问题为范围,预先拟就问题,让受调查者自由表达其态度或意见的一种方法。在使用调查法时应注意:第一,取样要有代表性,避免抽样偏差;第二,被试者的反应会受到社会赞许性的影响。调查法虽然运用较容易,收集数据比较快,但是它也有如下一些不足:一是不够严谨;二是不能揭示因果关系,受研究者的主观性影响较大。In survey research, information about a topic is obtained by administering questionnaires or interviews to many people. 调查中,通过对许多人实施问卷调查或者采访得到某个主题的信息。

(6) Naturalistic observation 自然观察

The researcher observes behavior as it occurs in a natural setting, and attempts to avoid influencing that behavior. 研究者观察参与者在自然状态下的行为,并试图避免对这些行为的影响。

(7) Case studies 个案研究

个案研究法(case study method)也叫作案例研究法,或者叫个案历史法,是追踪研究某一个体或团体行为的一种方法,指对某一个体、某一群体或某一组织在较长时间里连续进行调查,从而研究其行为发展变化的全过程。An in-depth analysis of an individual, group, or event. To get a full, detailed picture of one participant or a small group of participants. 个案研究法要求对某个人或少数几个人进行深入而详尽的观察和研究,以发现影响某种行为和心理现象的原因。由于个案法限于使用少数案例,研究的结果可能只适合个别情况,因此推广运用时必须持谨慎的态度。

Advantages: it allows researchers to get the richest possible picture of what they are studying.

Disadvantages: the focus on a single individual or small group means that the findings cannot be generalized to a larger population.

Table 2.1 below summarizes key features of the research methods, as well as some limitations of experiments.Table 2.1 An overview of research methods

续前表2. STATISTICS 统计学

(1) Descriptive statistics 描述统计学

描述统计学(descriptive statistics)是研究如何取得反映客观现象的数据,并通过图表形式对所搜集的数据进行加工处理以及显示,进而通过综合概括与分析得出反映客观现象的规律性和数量特征的一门学科。Descriptive statistics is to describe the characteristics of a set (distribution) of data. 描述统计学是用来描述一组数据或数据分布特征的统计学分支。

(2) Terms 相关术语

1) Frequency distribution 频率分布

频率分布的Y轴一般代表频率,X轴表示需要表达频率的自变量类型。一般把频率分布分为两种:频率多边形和柱状图。

a. Frequency polygons 频率多边形(line graphs)

频率多边形可显示一个连续变量的总体频率分布。用一点在一个间隔的中点标记观察量的大小。用一条直线连接一系列同类点。

b. Histograms 直方图

直方图(histogram)又称柱状图(bar graphs)、质量分布图,由一系列高度不等的纵向条纹或线段表示数据分布的情况。一般用横轴表示数据类型,纵轴表示分布情况。

2) Central tendency 集中趋势

在统计学中集中趋势(central tendency)是指一组数据向某一中心值靠拢的程度,它反映了一组数据中心点的位置所在。集中趋势测度就是寻找数据水平的代表值或中心值。一般来说,低层次数据的集中趋势测度值适用于高层次的测量数据,能够揭示总体中众多个观察值所围绕与集中的中心;而高层次数据的集中趋势测度值并不适用于低层次的测量数据。

Measures of central tendency:集中趋势量。

平均值、中位数和众数都是反映数据集中趋势的统计量。

a. Mean: the arithmetic average of a set of scores 平均值:某个变量所有取值的算术平均数。

b. Median: the point that divides a distribution of scores in half when those scores are arranged in order from lowest to highest (or from highest to lowest). The central score in the distribution. 中位数:将总体数据的各个数值按大小顺序排列,居于中间位置的变量。中位数将所有的数据等分成两半,两端的数据个数相同。

中位数取决于它在数列中的位置,不受极端值的影响,因此可以用它表示总体的一般水平。同时,中位数比算术平均数具有更好的稳定性。

c. Mode: the most frequently occurring score in a distribution. Appears most frequently. 众数:总体数据中出现次数最多的变量。

3) Extreme scores (outliers)离群值,异常值

离群值(outlier)是指在数据中有一个或几个数值与其他数值相比差异较大。生物学实验中经常会出现离群值的情况,这种情况究竟是随机涨落引起的,还是某些确定因素造成的,有时难以判断。如果处理不好将会引起较大的系统误差。

4) Symmetrical distribution(Normal distribution)对称分布,正态分布

正态分布(normal distribution)又名高斯分布(Gaussian distribution)。它是一种概率分布,也称“常态分布”。正态分布的概率密度函数曲线呈钟形,因此人们又经常称之为钟形曲线。正态曲线呈钟形,两头低,中间高,左右对称,曲线与横轴间的面积总和等于1。

5) Skewed distribution 偏态分布,不对称分布

偏态分布是指频数分布不对称,集中位置偏向一侧。偏态分布只有满足一定的条件(如样本例数够大等)才可以看做近似正态分布。它有两个特点:一是左右不对称(即所谓偏态);二是当样本增大时,其均数趋向正态分布。频数分布有正态分布和偏态分布之分。正态分布是指多数频数集中在中央位置,两端的频数分布大致对称。

偏态分布又可分为正偏态分布和负偏态分布两种类型:

a. Positively skewed distribution 正偏态分布

如果频数分布的高峰向左偏移,长尾向右侧延伸(即集中位置偏向数值小的一侧),称为正偏态分布,也称右偏态分布。

b. Negatively skewed distribution 负偏态分布

如果频数分布的高峰向右偏移,长尾向左延伸(即集中位置偏向数值大的一侧)则称为负偏态分布,也称左偏态分布。

Figure shown below (Fig 2.2) are the examples of frequency distribution.

Fig 2.2 types of frequency distribution

Figures shown below (Fig 2.3) are the parameters-mean, median and mode.

Fig 2.3 the parameters of the frequency distribution

6) Measures of variation 变异量数

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