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所谓复合动词，也就是谓语部分有多个表动作意味的词。本单元涉及到情态动词被动语态和一般动词被动语态。情态动词被动结构为：should/ could + be done，例：
More time should be given to this issue.应该在这个问题上多花些时间。
此外，还应注意被动语态的各种时态，如一般将来时will/shall be＋done；过去将来时would be＋done；现在进行时is/are being done；过去进行时was/were being＋done；现在完成时has/have been＋done；过去完成时had been＋done；将来完成时will/shall have been＋done，例：
Will we be asked to attend the opening ceremony?
The news would be sent to the soldier’s mother as soon as it arrived.
The building is being built now.那座大楼现在正在被建造。（现在进行时）
Supper was being prepared when I arrived home.我到家时，晚饭正在准备。（过去进行时）
Swift progress has also been made in culture and education.
The bridge had been damaged before the World WarⅡ.
The book will have been finished by the end of next month.
1．handicap [5hAndikAp] n. a physical or mental disability身心的缺陷【扩展】handicapped adj. 残疾的，弱智的
2．scratchy [5skrAtFi] adj. making a harsh, scratching noise发刮擦声的：a scratchy record有沙沙声的唱片
3．magnetic[mA^5netik] adj. concerning or produced by magnetism磁的，有磁性的：magnetic head磁头
4．jaywalk [5dVeiwC:k] vi. to cross a street illegally or in a reckless manner不遵守交通规则乱穿马路
5．pedestrian [pe5destriEn] n. a person traveling on foot; a walker行人，步行者
6．zebra crossing 斑马线a place marked with black and white lines where people who are walking can cross a road safely
7．conscientious [7kCnFi5enFEs] adj. a) (of people or conduct) careful to do what one ought to do, and do it as well as one can（指人或行为）认真的，尽责的：a conscientious worker勤勤恳恳的工作人员；b) (of actions) done with great care and attention（指行动）小心谨慎的：This essay is a most conscious piece of work.这篇论文是精雕细刻的工作。
8．hoarse [hC:s] adj. rough or grating in sound嘶哑的：a hoarse cry嘶哑的喊叫
9．shabby [5FAbi] adj. showing signs of wear and tear; threadbare or worn-out破旧的，褴褛的：be shabby in dress衣衫褴褛
10．brochure [brEu5FjuE] n. a small booklet or pamphlet小册子
11．sewage [5sju(:)idV] n. liquid and solid waste carried off in sewers or drains下水道的污物
12．renovate [5renEuveit] vt. restore (esp. old buildings) to good condition修复（尤指旧建筑物），整修：The house has been renovated three years earlier.这所房子三年前就已翻新。
13．map out筹划或安排某事make a plan to do sth.：I like to map out the whole week in advance.我喜欢事先把一周的时间详细计划好。
1．representative [7repri5zentEtiv] adj. typical of a particular group or thing典型的，有代表性的；n. someone who has been chosen to speak, vote, or make decisions for someone else代表：sales representative销售代表；union representative工会代表
2．city-state （古希腊的）城邦an independent state that consists of a city and the surrounding country area, especially in the past
3．feature [5fi:tFE] v. to include or show something as a special or important part of something包含……（作为主要部分或特点），以……为特色：The newspaper featured the story of the event.这份报纸特别报道了那个事件。
4．combat [5kCmbEt] n. fighting, especially during a war战斗，格斗；vt. to try to stop something bad from happening or getting worse抗击，防止：combat crime防止犯罪；combat terrorism与恐怖主义作斗争
5．chariot [5tFAriEt] n. an ancient horse-drawn two-wheeled vehicle used in war, races, and processions.战车
6．shroud [Fraud] n. something that hides or covers something隐蔽物：under a shroud of fog在迷雾的掩护下；vt. to cover or hide something遮蔽，隐藏：The incident has always been shrouded in mystery.那起事故的真相还不清楚。
7．myth [miW] n. an ancient story, especially one invented in order to explain natural or historical events神话，虚构的故事
8．progenitor [prE5dVenitE] n. someone who first thought of an idea先驱；创始人
9．abolish [E5bCliF] vt. to officially end a law, system etc, especially one that has existed for a long time废止，废除（法律、制度、习俗等）：These superstitious practices should be abolished as soon as possible.这些迷信做法应尽早废除。
10．revive [ri5vaiv] vt. to bring something back after it has not been used or has not existed for a period of time使复兴，使恢复：revive the economy 使经济复苏；revive the old customs恢复古老的习俗
11．persist [pE(:)5sist] v. to continue to do something, although this is difficult, or other people oppose it坚持，持续：persist in learning English / the study of English坚持学习英语；persist with sth. 继续努力做某事
12．oversee [5EuvE5si:] v. to watch somebody/something and make sure that a job or an activity is done correctly监督：oversee the implementation of the resolution监督决议的执行
1．rugby [5rQ^bI] n. an outdoor game played by two teams with an egg-shaped ball that you kick or carry橄榄球
2．tremendous [tri5mendEs] adj. extremely large in amount, extent, or degree; enormous巨大的，极大的
3．enthusiasm [in5Wju:ziAzEm] n. great excitement for or interest in a subject or cause热情，狂热，积极性：His enthusiasm breathed new life into the company.他的热情给公司注入了新的生命。
4．intercollegiate [7intE(:)kE5li:dViit] adj. involving or representing two or more colleges院际的
5．luxurious [lQ^5zjuEriEs] adj. supplied with luxuries, very comfortable奢侈的，极舒适的：live in luxurious surroundings生活在奢侈的环境中
6．severe [si5viE] adj. intensely or extremely bad or unpleasant in degree or quality严重的，剧烈的：His costly mistake resulted in severe loss.他的严重的错误导致了重大的损失。
7．tremor [5tremE] n. a shaking or vibrating movement震动，颤动：There was a slight tremor in his voice.他的声音有点颤抖。
8．opponent [E5pEunEnt] n. one that opposes another or others in a battle, contest, controversy, or debate对手，反对者：He beat his opponent in the election.他在选举中击败了对手。
9．reputation [7repju(:)5teiFEn] n. the general estimation in which a person is held by the public.名声，声誉
10．hurl [hE:l] v. to send with great vigor; thrust用力送出，猛推: The young track and field athlete could already hurl the discus 60 yards. 这个年轻的田径运动员已能把铁饼掷60码远。
11．fiercely [`fIEslI] adv. in a fierce manner猛烈地，厉害地：The storm blew fiercely over land and sea.暴风雨猛烈地吹过陆地和海面。
12．visor [5vaizE] n. moving part of a helmet, used to cover and protect the face面甲，面罩
13．pad [pAd] v. to line or stuff with soft material垫以软物
14．naked [5neikid] adj. a) without clothes on裸体的；b) without the usual covering没有通常的遮盖物的：a naked light无灯罩的电灯；c) not disguising无隐蔽的，无掩饰的：the naked truth赤裸裸的现实
15．jersey [5dV\:zI] n. a shirt made of soft material, worn by players of sports运动衫
16．tackle [5tAkl] v. seize and throw down an opponent player, who usually carries the ball擒住，扭倒
17．be addicted to成为习惯而离不开，对……有瘾：She’s addicted to video games, which makes her mother angry at times.她沉迷于电视游戏机，有时会让他妈妈生气。
18．craze [kreiz] n. a short-lived popular fashion; a fad短暂的时尚，流行一时的狂热：Is this interest in health foods just a passing craze?这股健康食品热潮是否转瞬即逝？
19．wholeheartedly [hEul5hB:tidli] adv. without reserve; without reservation 全心全意地：As a party member one must serve the people wholeheartedly.作为一个党员，应该全心全意为人民服务。
20．the offside rules illegally ahead of the ball（足球）越位规则
21．brilliantly [5briljEntli] adj. in an extremely intelligent way辉煌地，灿烂地：Her article brilliantly demolishes his argument.她的文章精辟地批驳了他的论点。
1．candy bar a long, thin, sweet food, usually covered in chocolate（通常裹以巧克力的长条状）糖块；糖棒
2．markedly [mB:kidli] adv. in a clearly noticeable manner显著地，明显地：markedly different显著不同；increased markedly明显增加
3．compensate [5kCmpEnseit] v. to offset; counterbalance抵消；弥补：Nothing can compensate for the loss of time.虚度光阴是无法补偿的。
4．furious [5fjuEriEs] adj. Full of extreme anger狂怒的，极为激烈的：be furious with sb. 对某人大发雷霆；be furious at sth. 因某事狂怒不已【扩展】fury n.狂怒，狂暴
5．readily [5redili] adv. in a cooperative manner; willingly乐意地，欣然：I asked her if she would allow me to interview her, and she readily agreed.我问她是否允许我采访她，她欣然同意了。
6．default [di5fC:lt] v. to fail to pay money that you owe at the right time拖欠（金钱）；to not do something that you are supposed to do, especially that you are legally supposed to do不履行（义务）：The player default in the tournament because of her injury.在这次循环赛中，这位运动员由于受伤而弃权。
7．remedy [5remidi] n. a medicine to cure an illness or pain that is not very serious药物，治疗法：a good remedy for a cold治疗感冒的良药； vt. to deal with a problem or improve a bad situation补救，纠正：remedy a mistake纠正一个错误
8．ineptitude [i5neptitju:d] n. lack of skill不称职；笨拙：He was finally fired after a year of ineptitude. 他不称职地工作一年后终于被解雇了。
9．initiate [i5niFieit] vt. to set going by taking the first step; begin:开始，发起：initiate a reform开始改革；initiate a new course of studies开设一门新课程；initiate a discussion on economics发起一次关于经济学的讨论
10．diagnosis [7daiE^5nEusis] n. the process of discovering exactly what is wrong with someone or something诊断【扩展】diagnose vi. 诊断；判断
11．predominate [pri5dCmineit] vi. to be greater in amount or number than sth./sb. else（在数量上）占优势：In older age groups women predominate because men tend to die younger.在年龄较大的人群中，女性占多数，因为男性的寿命倾向于短些。
12．intramural [7intrE5mjuErEl] adj. existing or carried on within the bounds of an institution, especially a school校内的；内部的：intramural sports校内体育运动
13．incompetent [in5kCmpitEnt] adj. not having the ability or skill to do a job properly不合格的，不胜任的：an incompetent candidate不合格的候选人
14．sideline [5saidlain] n. a line along either of the two sides of a playing court or field, marking its limits边界线；an activity pursued in addition to one’s regular occupation.副业，兼职
15．allegedly [E5ledVIdlI] adv. used when reporting something that people say is true, although it has not been proved据称；据说如此：The traffic accident was allegedly due to negligence.这次车祸据说是由于疏忽造成的。
16．whimsical [5(h)wimzikEl] adj. unusual or strange and often amusing古怪的；异想天开的：a whimsical thought一个荒唐的想法
17．tingle [5tiN^l] vi. a sensation of slight stinging略微的刺痛感
18．articulate [B:5tikjulit] adj. able to talk easily and effectively about things, especially difficult subjects善表达的：an articulate argument清楚有力的论点；an articulate speaker口才好的演讲者
19．sympathetic [7simpE5Wetik] adj. caring and feeling sorry about someone’s problems有同情心的：a sympathetic person富于同情心的人；willing to give approval and support to an aim or plan赞同的：He is sympathetic to the project.他赞成该项计划。
20．insight [5insait] n. a sudden clear understanding of something or part of something, especially a complicated situation or idea洞察，深刻见解：a man of insight有洞察力的人；gain/have an insight into了解，看透
21．signally [5sI^n(E)lI] adv. very noticeably显著地，显眼地：The government has signally failed to deal with the problem.政府显然没有解决这个问题。
22．unimaginative [7Qni5mAdVinEtiv] adj. lacking the ability to think of new or unusual ideas缺乏想象力的；无趣的：Her second husband was a steady, unimaginative, corporate lawyer.她的第二任丈夫是一个沉稳，没什么想象力的公司律师。
23．rigid [5ridVid] adj. very strict and difficult to change僵化的，过于严格的：The new recruits are not used to the rigid disciplines of the army.新兵不习惯于军队的严格纪律。
24．trophy [5trEufi] n. a large object such as a silver cup or plate that someone receives as a prize for winning a competition奖杯；奖牌
25．rhetoric [5retErik] n. language that is used to persuade or influence people, especially language that sounds impressive but is not actually sincere or useful修辞
1．The Games reached their zenith in the 6th and 5th centuries BC：reach the zenith意为“达到顶峰；达到最高点”，相当于peak/ reach the peak。例：His career is now reached its zenith.他的事业现在达到了巅峰时期。
2．….be revived on an international scale：on… scale即“在……规模上；在……范围内”，如：on a large scale大规模地；on a domestic scale在国内。
3．his attempt was not met with much enthusiasm：词组meet with即to get a particular reaction or result，意为“遭受，受到”，如：His comments have met with widespread opposition.他的评论受到了广泛的反对。
1．American football has a reputation for being a brutal and dangerous game：have a reputation for意为“以…出名”，例：have a reputation for laziness/being lazy以懒惰出名。
2．The Americans are addicted to crazes：be addicted to意为“对某事物有强烈兴趣而成为嗜好或消遣的”，例：be addicted to TV soap operas沉迷于电视肥皂剧。be addicted to还可表示“对某事物有瘾”，例：become addicted to tobacco对烟上瘾。
3．When they take something up, they do so wholeheartedly：此处take up指“开始从事某事（尤指职业）”，例：She takes up her duties next week.她下周开始履行职责。
4．…gaining in popularity on baseball：该句释义为become as popular as baseball（注：棒球比赛是美国的“国球赛”）。
1．it is not inevitable that the system will continue to fail other fat boys：inevitable意为“必然的，不可避免的”，the system在这里代指“体育教学制度”。fail sb.即to not do what someone has trusted you to do; let somebody down，意为“辜负”。例：His friend fail him when he needed their help most.他的朋友们在他最需要帮助的时候辜负了他。
2．In six months I took off 105 pounds：词组take off有多层含义：①（飞机）起飞：There was a delay of two hours before the plane took off.飞机起飞推迟了两个小时；②脱下：take the hat off脱帽；③突然成功：The economy took off.经济腾飞。在本句中take off意为“减去（体重）。
3．Yet my physical education teachers…never showed the least interest in my physical problems：show interest in sth.即“对……有兴趣；对……表示关心”，在interest之前加形容词可以表示程度，如：show no interest in没兴趣；show great interest in很感兴趣
4．… tempted me into the personal discoveries…：tempt sb. into 即“引诱某人做某事”，后可接名词或动词的现在分词形式。例：The stand outside displayed various goods to tempt people into buying.外面的摊子摆出各色各样的商品诱使人买。
A visit to a factory is an interesting experience. Take, for example, a biscuit factor. The whole process of biscuit making is done by machinery. But first of all, the Ingredient such as flour, sugar, fat and water, have to be put into a mixing machine by workers. The mixture comes out of the mixing machine in the form of dough, which is pressed into moulds by another machine. Then the dough is given the shape of biscuits. Then the biscuits are taken on a conveyor belt to the oven. As they move through the oven, they are slowly cooked. When they are cool, they have to be taken off the moving belt by workers and packed into boxes. The boxes are weighed, made air-tight and wrapped. Then they are ready to leave the factory.
The paper that is being used each day starts as wood on a three very far from here. The wood is made into paper, which has to be carried by trucks and put into stores. At every step in the process people have to be paid for their work. And money has to be used for buying and repairing the machines, and so on. Of course, profit has to be made, too. Even a very simple...
A: Grandpa, do you know when our Chinese athletes first took part in the Olympic Games?
B: In 1932.
A: Did we ever win any medals?
B: No, never. At the time of the 1932 Games, China had two very good runners, good enough to qualify for the Games. But the government refused to send a national team to participate in the Games. It was not until the last minute that a patriotic general donated enough money to finance the trip for the two runners and their coach.
A: I’m glad they finally went to the Games.
B: Unfortunately, only one of them made it there.
A: What happened to the other one?
B: He was detained by the occupying Japanese soldiers for no reason whatsoever.
A: That’s outrageous! Anyway, did our runner do well?
B: No, he dropped out in the middle of the race due to hasty training.
A: Did the Chinese athletes participate in any other Games before 1949?
B: Yes, our sports delegations were sent to the 1936 and 1948 Games. But they were so short of funds that they were forced to live on a near-starvation diet. They had hardly enough money for the return trip. And both times, their efforts came to nothing.
A: That’s really a shame.
B: So today I am always very excited to see our young athletes winning one medal after another. This is a time of change, a change for the better.
3．C (American football, not to be confused with the football called soccer, is the American national sport. It developed from the British game of rugby.)
Too much food made the writer a fat boy. Although he learned to take jokes about his size, his physical instructors at school had no interest in his physical problems and defaulted in their responsibilities to him. It was not until a decade later that the writer made personal discoveries for himself. Regular jogging and exercising helped him lose weight and increased his self-confidence. From his own personal experience, the writer thinks that something has to be done to stop the physical education system from continuing to fail fat boys.
A. Reference Version:
Vitamins are substances which enable human bodies to develop healthily. Some vitamins are manufactured by the body itself, but most of them are obtained from the food eaten. Since no one type of food contains all the vitamins we need, only a well-balanced diet can provide all the necessary vitamins. We need Vitamin A and we must eat enough green and yellow vegetables, whole milk, butter, eggs and liver to avoid suffering from being “dry-eyed” or from “night-blindness”. Some people don’t like to eat whole-grain cereals, because they don’t taste good. But refined cereals make one feel tired, and cause inflammation of the skin in the mouth and sickly look of the skin. In citrus fruits and green leafy vegetables, we find plenty of Vitamin C, A lack of Vitamin C causes scurvy. To grow up properly, a child must have sunshine to enable the formation of Vitamin D in the body, which the child absorbs from milk, eggs, fish and fish oils. Elderly people should have enough Vitamin E to stop the oxidation of certain fatty substances in the body. However, vitamins are not the only things the body needs. An adequate supply of minerals and other nutrients are also needed.
B. Letter Writing