何兆熊《综合教程(2)》(第2版)学习指南【词汇短语+课文精解+全文翻译+练习答案】(txt+pdf+epub+mobi电子书下载)

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何兆熊《综合教程(2)》(第2版)学习指南【词汇短语+课文精解+全文翻译+练习答案】

何兆熊《综合教程(2)》(第2版)学习指南【词汇短语+课文精解+全文翻译+练习答案】试读:

Unit 1

一、词汇短语

Text I

1.lash [lAF] vi. to hit violently or suddenly突然冲击,猛烈打击:The rain was slashing the windows.雨正急打着窗子。 vt. to whip sth violently鞭打:He slashed the horse cruelly.他狠狠地鞭打那匹马。

2.scoff [skCf] v. to laugh at嘲笑,嘲弄:You are not supposed to scoff at religion.你不应该嘲笑宗教信仰。搭配scoff at意为“嘲笑,嘲弄”。

3.drawstring [`drR:strIN] n. a string or cord that can be pulled tighter or looser to tie up bags拉绳,抽绳:It is a  small bag closing with a drawstring and used especially for carrying loose items.这是一种用拉绳系上的小袋子,用于装零碎物品。

4.illusion [i5lu:VEn] n. a) something that deceives a person by seeming to be real错觉,幻觉,错误观念:The sun appears to go around the earth, but it is an illusion.太阳看起来好像围着地球转,但这是错觉。b) a false fact假象:The mirrors all around the walls give an illusion of greater space.墙的四周都是镜子,给人造成一种空间很大的假象。

5.rumble [5rQmbl] n. 隆隆声:We could tell from the rumble of the thunder that rain was coming.我们从隆隆的雷声就可以知道快要下雨了。 v. make a sound of rumble发出隆隆声:The big guns rumbled in the distance.远处炮火轰鸣。搭配rumble on意为“继续下去”。

6.purgatory [5pE:^EtEri] n. a place or condition of great suffering炼狱,受苦的地方:A beautiful woman is the paradise of eyes and purgatory of purse.漂亮的女人是眼睛的天堂,钱包的炼狱。

7.ultimate [5Qltimit] adj. a) most extreme最大的,极限程度的:The ultimate luxury of the trip was flying in Concorde.这一行程中最大的享受就是乘坐协和式飞机。b) the final最后的,最终的:What is your ultimate goal? 你的最终目的是什么?

8.moral [5mCrEl] adj. concerning principles of right and wrong behavior and the difference between good and evil道德的,道义上的:He had no moral objection on moral ground to his friends amusing themselves.从道义上讲,他并不反对他的朋友们自己消遣消遣。

9.dilemma [di5lemE] n. a situation which one has to make a difficult choice两难的境地,左右为难:She was in a dilemma whether to continue to stay at school or get a job.他正左右为难,不知道该继续上学还是找工作。

10.rip [rip] v. to tear apart quickly and violently猛地扯开,撕裂:The more he tears around, the more liable he is to rip his leg off.他越挣扎越容易把腿折断。 n. a rift or a rapture裂缝,裂口:He sewed up the rip on his sleeve.他缝好了袖口上的裂缝。常见搭配有:rip sth to shreds把…撕成碎片;let rip无拘无束地行事;let things rip任其自然

11.soak [sEuk] v. to (cause to) become wet thoroughly by being in a liquid浸泡:Put some liquid on and let it soak naturally.放入一些液体让他慢慢浸透。搭配soak up意为“吸收,使充满”,例如:If you air your quilt on such a wet day, it will soak up the moisture.如果你在这样的阴天晒被子,被子会吸收湿气。

12.flight [flait] n. a) a set of stairs between one floor and the next楼梯的一段:A flight of steps leads up to the front door.一段阶梯通向前门。b) the plane or vehicle that is making the journey航班,航机:He immediately booked a flight to New York.他立刻定了去纽约的航班。常用搭配有:catch a flight赶上航班;miss the flight误机;a flight of stairs一段楼梯

13.pandemonium [7pAndi5mEunjEm] n. a state of wild and noisy disorder喧嚣,嘈杂,混乱:There were complete pandemonium in the kitchen.厨房里一片狼藉。

14.stairwell [stZEwel] n. the space, going up through all the floors of a building, where the stairs are楼梯井,自动扶梯井道:She frantically fled down the stairwell.她疯狂地沿着楼梯井往下逃。

15.descent [di5sent] n. a) the act or process of going down下降,降下:The descent to base camp took about two days.降落到营地大约需要两天。b) your family origins出身,门第:a woman of royal descent出身皇族的女子c) a path that goes down a slope斜坡,坡路:There is no direct descent from the summit从峰顶没有直接下山的坡路。

16.calf [kB:f] n. the part of back of your leg between knee and ankle小腿肚:He had a cramp in his left calf.他的左小腿肚感到麻木。

17.spasm [5spAzEm] n. a sudden uncontrolled movement of muscles痉挛:Tom’s jaw muscles had gone into spasm.汤姆的下颌肌肉痉挛了。搭配a spasm of laughter意为“一阵笑声”;a spasm of fear意为“(突然地)一阵害怕”。

18.heavyset [`hevI`set] adj. (of people) rather broad and strong-looking体格魁伟的:She is a graying, heavyset woman who seems to have aged beyond her years.她是一个满头灰发,看起来比实际年龄老哦粗壮的女人。

19.stoop [stu:p] v. to bend the upper body forward and down弯腰,俯首:We had to stoop to pass through the entrance.我们不得不弯身以通过这个入口。搭配stoop to意为“屈尊,堕落”,例如:He is too lofty to stoop to vulgar intrigue.他的清高使他还不至于屈就卑俗的勾当。

20.bank [bANk] n. a) arranged close together in a row一排(同类物品),一系列(机器):banks of TV monitors一系列电视监控器;b) a large mass of cloud, mist积云,积雪:a fog bank积云;banks of mist层层雾气

21.butt [bQt] n. a) the buttocks, the part of the body on which a person sits屁股:a baby’s soft little butt婴儿软软的小屁股;b) to be the person or thing that other people often make jokes about笑柄,笑话:He quickly became the butt of everyone’s jokes.他很快成为大家的笑柄。c) the end of a cigarette after most of it has been smoked烟头,烟蒂:He threw the cigarette butt into the astray.他把烟头扔进了烟灰缸。

Text II

1.skyscraper [5skaIskreIpE(r)] n. high buildings摩天大楼:Soon I was stepped into the plush comfort of a skyscraper office.不久之后,我又踏入了一间摩天大厦中的极其舒适的办公室。

2.hijack [5haidVAk] v. a) to take control of an airplane or other vehicle during a journey, especially using violence劫车,劫机:The plane was hijacked soon after it took off.那架飞机起飞后不久被劫持了。b) to take control of something and use it for your own purposes操纵(会议等):Some people think the party has been hijacked by right-wing extremists.一些人认为该政党已被右翼极端分子所操纵。

3.investigate [in5vesti^eit] v. to observe or inquire in detail, examine systematically调查,研究:The police are investigating the murder.警察在调查那起凶杀案件。

4.strike [straik] v. a) to hit or fall against the surface of something攻击, 袭击; 侵袭:A hurricane struck the city.飓风袭击了该城市。b) if something strikes you, you think of it, notice it, or realize that it is important, interesting, true etc(突然)出现于(某人的)脑海中:As I watched them, an idea struck me.我看着他们时, 产生了一个想法。c) to leave a deep impression给…以深刻印象:His enthusiasm for study struck his teacher favorably.他勤奋学习的热情给老师留下了良好的印象。

5.resist [ri5zist] v. a) to fight against something or someone that is attacking you抵抗,反抗:The city resisted the enemy onslaught for two weeks.这个城市反抗敌人的猛攻达两个星期之久。b) to stop yourself from doing something that you want to do忍住,顶住:She can never resist buying new shoes.她总忍不住要买新鞋。其形容词形式为:resistant有抵抗力的,阻止的

6.clear [kliE] v. a) to make somewhere emptier or tidier by removing things from it开辟(道路等);开垦,开拓:They cleared some 300 acres in the jungle.他们在丛林地带中开拓出大约 300英亩田地。b) to prove that someone is not guilty of something摆脱;消除(嫌疑、罪名等);使清白无辜;宣判…无罪:The presiding judge cleared him of a charge.审判长宣告他无罪。c) if the weather, sky, mist etc clears, it becomes better and there is more sun使干净;使明亮;使清澈:The rain cleared the air, and the grass smelt fresh and sweet.雨水使空气变得洁净,青草发出清新芬芳的气味。

7.propose [prE5pEuz] v. a) to put forward for consideration, discussion or adoption提议,建议:They proposed to make arrangement beforehand.他们提议事先做好安排。b) to ask someone to marry you, especially in a formal way求婚:He proposed to me only six months after we met.我们认识六个月后他就向我求婚了。搭配propose a toast意为“建议举杯庆祝”。

8.refuge [5refju:dV] n. shelter or protection from trouble, danger庇护,避难,避难所:They took refuge in a cave yesterday.他们昨天是在一个洞里避难的。名词refugee意为“难民”。

9.currently [5kQrEntlI] adv. at the present time当前;目前;眼下:Our contracts are currently under review.我们的合同正在复查。She is currently appearing at the Liverpool Playhouse.她目前正在利物浦剧院演出。

10.height [hait] n. a) how tall someone or something is高度,身高:The city is a height of three hundred feet above sea level.这座城市的高度是海拔300英尺。b) the busiest or most extreme part of a period or activity顶点, 极度, 最佳点, 最强点, 顶点:We work hard to reach new height.为了达到新高峰, 我们努力工作。搭配have a head for heights意为“不恐高”。

二、课文精解

Text I

1.the World Trade Center (Para.1):世界贸易中心大楼简称世贸中心,纽约市的标志建筑,位于哈得逊河口,曼哈顿闹市区南端,雄踞纽约海港旁,是美国纽约市最高、楼层最多的摩天大楼。由纽约和新泽西州港务局集资兴建、原籍日本的总建筑师山崎实负责设计。大楼于1966年开工,历时7年,1973年竣工。共110层,高411米,是由几幢建筑物组成的综合体。其主体(北楼和南楼)呈双塔形,塔柱边宽63.5米。地基扎在坚固的岩石层上。大楼采用钢结构,用钢7万8千吨,楼的外围有密置的钢柱,墙面由铝板和玻璃窗组成,有“世界之窗”之称。大楼一切机器设备都用电脑控制,不论热暑寒冬,均能自动调节,被誉为“现代技术精华的汇集”。大楼有84万平方米的办公面积,可容纳5万名工作人员,同时可容纳2万人就餐。其楼层分租给世界各国800多个厂商,还设有为这些单位服务的贸易中心、情报中心和研究中心,在底层大厅及44、78两层高空门厅中,有种类齐全的商业性服务行业,为5万名办公人员和8万登楼游览或洽谈业务的人们服务。世贸中心新主楼“自由之塔”的效果示意图地下车库分4层,可供停车2000辆,并有地铁在此经过设站,整个世贸中心可谓是服务齐全的办公城,高耸云天的立体城。107层是观景台,极目远眺,方圆可及72公里。2001年9月11日,被恐怖分子劫持的两架飞机先后撞向世贸中心的双塔楼,由于撞击引起大火,双塔楼在几十分钟内相继倒塌。

2.They were careening wildly, three feet in either direction. (Para.2):他们就像暴风雨中的船只,上下左右晃动着,幅度高达三英尺。careen意为“倾斜”,例如:The driver lost control and the car careen down the hill.司机失控,那辆汽车翻下下山去。

3.Mayblum would be one of thousands cast into an extraordinary purgatory that morning. (Para.3):那天早上,有数千人将卷入一场惊心动魄的灾难,梅布鲁也是其中的一员。be cast into意为“被扔在,被抛弃在”,这里引申为“卷入”,相当于be involved in,但前者比后者更能形象地表达当时那种严重的,令人绝望的情景。

4.For some, it was a matter of geography (Para.3):对于一些人而言,存活的关键取决于他们所处的位置。geography本意为“地形,地理”,这里指人们对自己的定位。

5.May Davis (Para.6):梅·戴维斯集团投资银行,该公司在9·11事件中失去了在世贸中心的办公区,但他的员工中仅有一位幸存者,该员工当天历经磨难走下了87层楼梯。

6.Ramos had waded into the pandemonium to help panicked workers into a stairwell. (Para.8):拉莫斯艰难地步入了那一片混乱之中,帮助受惊的工人进入楼梯井处。wade本意是“蹚过(水、泥等)”,这里用这个词,意在说明步履之艰难,体现了当时事情的严重性。stairwell为名词,意为“楼梯井”,即楼梯拐角处形成的井状。

7.head trader:首席交易官

8.So Hong decided that he would be the guinea pig instead. (Para.13):于是,洪决定亲自去试验一下电梯是否安全。a guinea pig是“小白鼠”的意思,小白鼠常用来做实验,洪把自己当做小白鼠,也即是把自己当成试验品,一试电梯的安全性。

9.“Who are you, screaming at him to get out?”(Para.21):你以为你是谁呀?你没有权力大喊大叫地命令他出去!scream at sb.意为“朝某人大喊大叫”

Text II

1.…the buildings held up well. (Para.4):被袭击后,大楼状态还相当不错。hold up意为“支撑,(在逆境中) 保持良好状况”,例如:Children’s wear is one area that is holding up well in the economic recession.在经济衰退期间,童装是持续销售良好的一个领域。

2.…the towers imploded and fell down in their own space. (Para.6):塔内爆炸了,倒下时并未散落到其他地方。implode指“向内爆裂”。

3.the Empire State Building (Para.16):帝国大厦,位于美国纽约市的一栋著名的摩天大楼,共有102层,由Shreeve, Lamb, and Harmon建筑公司设计,1930年动工,1931年落成,只用了410天,它的名字来源于纽约州的别称帝国州(Empire State),所以英文原意实际上是“纽约州大厦”,为“世界七大奇迹”之一。

4.Sears Tower (Para.21):西尔斯大厦,位于美国伊利诺伊州芝加哥的一幢摩天大楼,用作办公楼,SOM建筑设计事务所,为当时世界上最大的零售商西尔斯百货公司设计。楼高442.3米,共地上108层,地下3层。西尔斯大厦是北美最高的建筑,世界第三大建筑,芝加哥的商业中心。

5.Petronas Towers (Para.21):双子星塔,位于马来西亚首都吉隆坡,一九九八年落成,是目前全球第四高的大楼,高451米,9公尺,两座塔各有八十八层楼的可出租空间。

6.Donald Trump (Para.22):美国商业大亨、电视名人和作家,特朗普集团董事长及总裁,特朗普娱乐公司的创始人,在全世界经营房地产、赌场和饭店。一直以来,特朗普因为奢华的生活方式和直言不讳的性格而声名大噪,最近则由于担任自己的NBC实境节目秀《谁是接班人》的主持人而更广为人知。

7.an International Financial Center for Shanghai (Para.23):上海的一个国际金融中心,前身为陆家嘴美食城,中国上海市一个建设中的综合物业发展计划。位于上海浦东新区世纪大道8号,陆家嘴金融贸易区内。东邻金茂大厦,西接正大广场,北面为上海轨道交通二号线陆家嘴站及陆家嘴中心绿地。

三、全文翻译

Text I“我们被撞了!”

大楼起火时,有一个人需要帮助,另一个人也不愿扔下他不管。

以前,亚当·梅布拉姆非常喜爱风雨敲打着他办公室窗户的景象:你认为那就是力量?梅布拉姆会嗤之以鼻。我在世界贸易中心的87楼,这里才是力量的象征。窗帘的拉绳似乎在微微晃动,但这只是一个幻觉。即使是在1,040英尺的高空,世贸中心也是相当稳固。

在那个九月的上午,梅布拉姆突然感到一阵震耳欲聋的轰鸣声,于是他瞟了一眼窗帘拉绳。它们疯狂地到处乱晃,幅度有三英尺。

当天上午,成千上万的人陷进一个异常恐怖的人间炼狱,梅布拉姆就是其中之一。虽然多达25,000人找到了安全的出口,而另外的5,000人则不幸罹难。

对于有些人来说,能否成功逃生取决于他们所在的地理位置——不仅仅与他们在哪座楼或是哪一层工作有关,而且和在大楼的哪个角落工作有关。

对于一些人来说,只要选择走哪个楼梯就可以。而另外一些人则陷入最终的道德困境:先自保,还是拯救他人。

亚当·梅布拉姆在梅·戴维斯金融服务公司上班,当时他所在的办公室里混乱情况持续了几秒钟后,他知道他得设法赶紧逃出去。

他把T恤撕成几块,浸上水,发给他的同事们,要他们捂在脸上。其中有个叫哈里·拉莫斯的人,他是梅·戴维斯公司的首席交易员。他和梅布拉姆断断续续一起共事了14年。

梅布拉姆冲下楼梯时,火花灼伤了她的脚踝。他冲下两段楼梯后才发现他的贸易搭档朱虹落在后面了。他又冲回去,现在整个地方浓烟滚滚,充斥着飞机燃料的味道。

哪里都找不到朱虹。梅布拉姆赶紧又冲下来了,到了78层,那里有一个换乘大厅,需要在那里换另外的电梯和楼梯。他看见令人欣慰的景象:拉莫斯正在混乱中帮助惊慌失措的工人进入楼梯间。

梅布拉姆继续往下冲,腿上的肌肉开始有些痉挛了。在53层时,他遇到了一个大块头男人,那人走不动了。“你和我一起走,还是要我找人帮你?”梅布拉姆喊道。

这个大块头男人说他要找救援,梅布拉姆说好。

在一片嘈杂中,浓烟弥漫,火星四溅,梅布拉姆不知道他的朋友朱虹一直在楼梯间,就在他的后面。当朱虹到了53层时,他遇上了哈里·拉莫斯。拉莫斯正弯着腰帮助梅布拉姆见过的那个大块头。“我来帮你吧,”朱虹说。

就这样,拉莫斯和朱虹一起把那个大块头弄到了下一层楼的一个电梯边。“不要坐电梯!”一个港务局人员吼道。

拉莫斯和朱虹试着把一本杂志用电梯送下去以测试电梯的安全。但他们按下“下”键时,电梯门却关不上。因此朱虹决定还是他自己试试。

他走进电梯,门在他身后关上了。

朱虹乘电梯到了44层,那里有另一个换乘大厅。到目前为止,一切顺利。他按下“52”。返回去接拉莫斯和那个大块头。

在第44层,他俩把这个大块头弄进最后一段电梯,这可以把他们送到第一层去。

朱虹再次按下“下”键,电梯没有任何反应。他们只能走楼梯了。

拉莫斯和朱虹尽量搀着这个大块头男人。“一次只走一步。”朱虹说。

到目前为止,他们为了逃生已经花了1小时零5分钟。下到36层时,他们感觉南边那楼倒塌了。“我们真的要快点儿走了”,朱虹说。

隔壁南塔倒塌时的轰然声响似乎耗尽了这个大块头男人的最后一丝力气。“我实在走不动了。”他说着,坐了下来。

朱虹和拉莫斯想劝他不要放弃。“你不用走!”朱虹吼道。你只要动动你的屁股,我们走吧!”但这个大块头实在走不动了。

一名消防员向他们跑过来。朱虹希望他会帮忙把这个大块头弄出去。相反,消防员却向朱虹走过去。“你是什么人,你居然叫他出去?你快出去吧!”这个消防员吼道。

朱虹看看拉莫斯,他仍然与大块头男人站在一起。

拉莫斯对大块头男的说:“我和你一起下去,我不会离开你的。”“那我一个人走了。”朱虹难过地说。

第二天,亚当·梅布拉姆给亲友们发了电子邮件描述他的经历,亲友们又把这封邮件转发给其他人。一个在旧金山的人读了这封邮件,他认识纽约一个叫丽贝卡的女人。她的丈夫维克托是个大块头男人,他失踪了。

9月15日,星期六,梅·戴维斯公司的总裁在自己新泽西的家里组织了一次聚会。亚当·梅布拉姆在那里。朱虹也参加了。丽贝卡也在那里,她终于知道她的丈夫维克托,在他生命的最后时刻是一直有人安慰的,因为哈里·拉莫斯一直不愿扔下他。

拉莫斯的妻子米琪也在那儿。她一直问梅布拉姆和朱虹她的丈夫在哪里,她坚信梅·戴维斯公司唯一一名目前失踪的雇员哈里仍然还活着。

她一点一点地勾勒出哈里逃生的场景:飞机撞进大楼的时候,哈里在87层;他在78层停下来帮助别人,在53层遇见朱虹。但是无论她多么努力地去想,无论她问多少问题,那幅画面到36层时就开始模糊起来。

Text II

重新审视摩天大楼

杰莉琳·沃森

世界上大多数被称为摩天大楼的高层建筑都位于美国。然而,最近的恐怖袭击使得一些美国人对这些超高层建筑的安全性深感忧虑。

在近30年里,高达410米的世界贸易中心耸立于纽约市金融中心内。这座双子塔是该城市最高的建筑。它们都超过100层。9月11日上午,两架被劫持的飞机撞击了双子塔。

许多人在爆炸和大火中当场丧生。有些人冲下楼梯,拼命从大楼里逃出来。其他人在办公室等待救援。然后,这两栋大楼接连倒塌,导致数千人死亡,周围的建筑物也遭到损毁。

伊利诺伊州的工程师很快会应联邦紧急事务管理署之邀前往调查世贸中心的倒塌情况。然而,他们的初步调查结果显示,大楼被撞后仍然很稳固。在飞机撞击后,一座塔坚持了约47分钟才倒塌。另一座则坚持了约1小时40分钟。事实上,这两座楼坚持了相当长的时间,让很多人得以逃生。

一些专家说,没有建筑物能经受这样的袭击。恐怖分子的意图是尽可能制造强烈的爆炸和熊熊烈火,因为他们劫持的飞机都装载着大量的燃油。燃料燃烧产生的热量破坏了大楼的钢架结构。这些大火的火焰燃烧程度远远超过测试建筑材料的火焰,而且燃烧得也更加持久。强热造成了大楼的上层坍塌。接着,大楼的低层也就倒塌了。

大楼的一些残骸对该地区造成了极大的破坏。然而,双子塔是内部爆炸,主要倒塌在自己的建筑区域内。一些工程师对世贸中心大楼的这一点给予高度评价。如果双子塔往旁边倒,将会导致更多伤亡。

官方称,那些残渣需要几个月的时间才能清除干净。袭击发生后,碎玻璃和冒烟的金属物在地面堆了12米高。世界贸易中心大楼由二十万吨钢铁制成,安装了四万三千扇窗户。

大约有五万人在世贸中心上班。有人估计,有一阵子,每天有多达9万人进出大楼。该楼代表着美国最大城市的商业和贸易。世界上有很多人一眼就能认出照片里纽约天空下的世贸中心。

纽约市民正讨论如何纪念世贸中心和在恐怖袭击中死难的人。一些艺术家和建筑设计师建议建造一个名叫“光明塔”的纪念物。艺术团队“创意时代”提议按原塔的形状再建两座光塔。这些灯光能直射天空。目前艺术家们正在研究能产生这种强光的方法。

目前,商人拉里·斯尔维斯坦掌握着世贸中心的使用权。斯尔维斯坦先生说他将重建世贸中心。不过,目前还不清楚新的世贸中心会是什么样子。

一些建筑师建议建造四座矮一点儿的建筑物。这些建筑大约有50层。建筑物之间的公园里将为这次袭击的受害者树立纪念碑。

有些纽约市民要求按原样重建世贸中心。例如,前市长爱德华·科克呼吁重建两个摩天大楼。他说,这将向恐怖分子显示,纽约是坚不可摧的。

然而,一些城市规划者认为这种超高层建筑物不应该重建。相反,一些专家建议模仿纽约其他一些不太高的建筑物。

城市土地研究所是规划师和建筑设计师们组成的一个研究和教育机构。一些成员认为摩天大楼浪费空间。这些专家说,一些建筑物的低楼层主要是作为到达高层的通道。

一些专家还认为,公司对于办公室的需求正在转变。现在大多数大公司的总部都设在摩天大楼,这样他们的员工能在一个地方上班。然而,现在的员工可以通过电子邮件和其他手段方便地进行沟通交流。因此,一些规划者认为未来对于摩天大楼的需求会越来越少。

帝国大厦目前是纽约市最高的建筑,它建于1931年。在以后的40年里,它一直是世界上最高的建筑。至今它仍然是最受欢迎的建筑物之一。几十亿的游客曾从这座大厦的观景台俯瞰纽约风景。

现在有些美国人说他们很担心帝国大厦。然而一个富有的纽约地产商提出要用五千七百万美元购买它。他说他认为对摩天大楼的担忧是暂时的。

恐怖袭击后,美国的许多摩天大楼都增加了安全措施。业主在建筑物临街的区域设置了屏障。安全检查设备和保安对进入大楼的人进行安检。大厦的居住者也有培训有关如何应对紧急情况的知识。

摩天大楼起源于美国。早在19世纪80年代,两项新技术的发展使建造高层建筑成为可能。一个是机械电梯的发明。它意味着人们到建筑物的高层去时不用再爬楼梯了。另外,钢铁业的发展也使得建造高层建筑成为可能。

1885年,第一座摩天大楼建于伊利诺伊州的芝加哥——家居保险大厦大约55米高。1973年,西尔斯大厦在芝加哥建成,芝加哥成了世界最高建筑物的发源地。西尔斯大厦有442米高,以后的23年里它一直是世界上最高的建筑。然后,在1996年两座更高的大楼落成。他们是马来西亚吉隆坡的双子塔,大约高452米。

最近,商人唐纳德·特朗普提议在芝加哥建造另一座摩天大楼。特朗普先生和《芝加哥太阳时报》的老板们计划在芝加哥河畔建立一座457米高的大楼。他们一直在为该项目筹集更多的资金。然而,现在还不清楚他们是否还会建一个这样庞大的摩天大楼。

中国的开发商也计划建造世界上最高的摩天大楼。他们正准备在上海建造一个国际金融中心。该中心高度将超过487米。

该大厦会有世贸中心大楼没有的若干安全措施。例如,该大厦的楼梯会比世贸中心大楼的宽。每10到12层会设有一个“避难层”。这些开阔的区域可以防止人们遭受烟雾的困扰。在中国和亚洲其他一些国家的法律上有这样的要求。

专家称,摩天大楼的建设高度几乎在工程学上没有限制。不过,人们的心态可能会限制未来的摩天大楼的规模。

例如,在一摩天大楼高层办公室工作的一位纽约股票交易员说,他曾经很喜欢从办公室窗户往外眺望,这样可以看见城市里其他的高楼大厦。但自从恐怖袭击以后,他的心态已经改变。

现在他说,他希望工作的地方更靠近地面。

四、练习答案

Text I

Text comprehension

I. Decide which of the following best states the author’s purpose of writing.

C

II. Judge, according to the text, whether the following statements are true or false.

1.F. Refer to the first paragraph. Storms did not cause the drawstrings to careen in the WTC. The wild careening of the drawstrings was the result of the airplane strike.

2.F. Refer to Paragraphs 10,13 and 14. It was Mayblum who first met the heavyset man on the 53m floor (not on the transfer lobby, which was on the 78th floor). Then Ramos and Hong met the heavyset the man on the same floor.

3.F. Refer to Paragraphs 18 to 22. They first took the elevator down to the 44th floor, then helped him down to the 36th floor.

4.T. Refer to the last paragraph, which is a clear indication of their death.

5.F. Refer to Paragraph 31. Mayblum sent the e-mail to share his experience with others.

III. Answer the following questions.

1.The answer to this question can be found in the first paragraph in which the author implies that for Mayblum, the WTC was a symbol of power because of its height and steadiness, and the force of storms was actually nothing compared with the WTC.

2.The author means that the survival of the people inside the WTC would simply depend on their locations, i.e. where they were at that moment.

3.Refer to Paragraphs 9,13,19 and 29, Ramos went to help the panicked workers into a stairwell (the 78th floor), helped the heavyset man down one more flight to an elevator (the 53rd floor), helped the man toward the last bank of elevator (the 44th floor), and reassured the man he would be staying with him ( the 36th floor).

4.They helped the heavyset man 17 floors down the building. They met him on the 53rd floor and their attempt to descend ended on the 36th floor.

5.The sentence implies that Ramos and the heavyset man were blocked on that floor. Though he endeavored to get the man out of the building, Ramos did not make it.

IV. Explain in your own words the following sentences.

1.Thousands of people in the WTC were thrown, all of a sudden, into a condition of extremely terrible suffering that morning. Mayblum was one of them.

2.It seemed that the tremendous sound of the collapse of the south tower destroyed the man’s hope of climbing down the remaining stairs, and thus took away his remaining energy.

Structural analysis of the text

The third part is mainly about how the three people (Mayblum, Ramos and Hong) endeavored to save a heavyset man with their joint efforts.

The last part describes the gathering of some of the survivors and the victims’ wives. It is a most touching scene. It seems to suggest that the author has, from what is described above, reached the conclusion about the ultimate moral dilemma: “Save yourself, or save another”.

Vocabulary

I. Explain the underlined parts in your own words.

1.burning

2.something, a situation or a circumstance, that is dependent on one’s location in the building

3.in an intermittent manner

4.help you

5.Things were satisfactory up to this point

II. Fill in the blank in each sentence with a word or phrase taken from the box in its appropriate form.

III. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of the given words.

IV. Choose the word or phrase that can replace the underlined part in each sentence without changing its original meaning.

1.A

2.D

3.C

4.B

5.D

6.C

7.A

8.D

V. Give a synonym or an antonym of the word underlined in each sentence in the sense it is used.

VI. Write in each space the adjective form of each given word.

Grammar

I. Complete the following sentences with would when appropriate. Use used to whenever would is not suitable.

II. Fill in the blanks with used to (do) or be used to (doing).

III. Explain the meaning of would in the following sentences.

IV. Complete the following sentences using would, should, could or might.

1.could, would , might, might, should , might

2.could/would, should, could, might, could, would

3.should, should, would, would, could

V. Complete the following sentences with needn’t have done or didn’t need to do.

VI. Make sentences of your own after the sentences given below, keeping the parts in italics in your sentences.

1.A fireman ran up to them. Hong expected that he would join in to get the heavy man to move. Instead, the fireman turned to Hong.

e.g. Overindulging children with material things does little to lessen parental guilt, although parents expect that will make them feel more loved. Instead, the effects of overindulgence can be harmful.

The patient did not wait for the medicine and treatment to cure him. Instead, with the help of the physician, he fought the disease courageously.

2.Adam Mayblum was there. So was Hong Zhu.

e.g. One hundred years ago, people became famous for what they had achieved. Men like J. P. Morgan, E. H. Harriman were all notable achievers. So were Thomas Edison and Mark Twain.

Slowly, I began to realize that I had been my son’s world. If I am reading the paper, he reads the paper. If I am thirsty, so is he. He is imitating my steps as I once copied my own father’s.

Translation

I. Translate the following sentences into Chinese.

1.对有些人来说,生死攸关的是此时此刻他们所在的位置——不仅是哪幢楼,哪一层,更重要的是大楼的哪个角落。

2.周围噪声震耳,烟雾弥漫,火星四溅,梅布勒姆没有意识到,他的朋友朱虹始终就在他身后的楼梯井里。

3.她一点一点地拼出了哈里逃生的场景:飞机撞击时,他正在87层。

4.但是,尽管她绞尽了脑汁,问了无数问题,她拼出的场景还是在第36层上逐渐模糊了。

II. Translate the following sentences into English, using the words and phrases given in brackets.

1.Thanks to modern technology, the film about that ancient battle gives the audience the illusion of being on the battlefield themselves.

2.That ancient city was devastated by the fire, but fortunately the stone tablet survived.

3.The videotape and the story by the woman filled them with sympathy for the child who had become an orphan in the earthquake.

4.In that earthquake, we heard many stories of teachers who had refused to leave their students behind and laid down their lives.

5.The construction of the Yu Yuan Garden began in 1558, but it was not completed until 1578 because building went off and on for lack of money.

6.In 1980, when I met up with her, she had just returned from abroad with a master’s degree.

7.It was my first visit to New York, but I managed to find my way to the little firm.

试读结束[说明:试读内容隐藏了图片]

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