作者：Kellogg, E. E. (Ella Ervilla)
格式: AZW3, DOCX, EPUB, MOBI, PDF, TXT
Science in the Kitchen.试读：
The interest in scientific cookery, particularly in cookery as related to health, has manifestly increased in this country within the last decade as is evidenced by the success which has attended every intelligent effort for the establishment of schools for instruction in cookery in various parts of the United States. While those in charge of these schools have presented to their pupils excellent opportunities for the acquirement of dexterity in the preparation of toothsome and tempting viands, but little attention has been paid to the science of dietetics, or what might be termed the hygiene of cookery.
A little less than ten years ago the Sanitarium at Battle Creek Mich., established an experimental kitchen and a school of cookery under the supervision of Mrs. Dr. Kellogg, since which time, researches in the various lines of cookery and dietetics have been in constant progress in the experimental kitchen, and regular sessions of the school of cookery have been held. The school has gradually gained in popularity, and the demand for instruction has become so great that classes are in session during almost the entire year.
During this time, Mrs. Kellogg has had constant oversight of the cuisine of both the Sanitarium and the Sanitarium Hospital, preparing bills of fare for the general and diet tables, and supplying constantly new methods and original recipes to meet the changing and growing demands of an institution numbering always from 500 to 700 inmates.
These large opportunities for observation, research, and experience, have gradually developed a system of cookery, the leading features of which are so entirely novel and so much in advance of the methods heretofore in use, that it may be justly styled, A New System of Cookery. It is a singular and lamentable fact, the evil consequences of which are wide-spread, that the preparation of food, although involving both chemical and physical processes, has been less advanced by the results of modern researches and discoveries in chemistry and physics, than any other department of human industry. Iron mining, glass-making, even the homely art of brick-making, and many of the operations of the farm and the dairy, have been advantageously modified by the results of the fruitful labors of modern scientific investigators. But the art of cookery is at least a century behind in the march of scientific progress. The mistress of the kitchen is still groping her way amid the uncertainties of mediæval methods, and daily bemoaning the sad results of the "rule of thumb." The chemistry of cookery is as little known to the average housewife as were the results of modern chemistry to the old alchemists; and the attempt to make wholesome, palatable, and nourishing food by the methods commonly employed, is rarely more successful than that of those misguided alchemists in transmuting lead and copper into silver and gold.
The new cookery brings order from out the confusion of mixtures and messes, often incongruence and incompatible, which surrounds the average cook, by the elucidation of the principles which govern the operations of the kitchen, with the same certainty with which the law of gravity rules the planets.
Those who have made themselves familiar with Mrs. Kellogg's system of cookery, invariably express themselves as trebly astonished: first, at the simplicity of the methods employed; secondly, at the marvelous results both as regards palatableness, wholesomeness, and attractiveness; thirdly, that it had never occurred to them "to do this way before."
This system does not consist simply of a rehash of what is found in every cook book, but of new methods, which are the result of the application of the scientific principles of chemistry and physics to the preparation of food in such a manner as to make it the most nourishing, the most digestible, and the most inviting to the eye and to the palate.
Those who have tested the results of Mrs. Kellogg's system of cookery at the Sanitarium tables, or in their own homes through the instruction of her pupils, have been most enthusiastic in their expressions of satisfaction and commendation. Hundreds of original recipes which have appeared in her department in Good Health, "Science in the Household", have been copied into other journals, and are also quite largely represented in the pages of several cook books which have appeared within the last few years.
The great success which attended the cooking school in connection with the Bay View Assembly (the Michigan Chautauqua), as well as the uniform success which has met the efforts of many of the graduates of the Sanitarium school of cookery who have undertaken to introduce the new system through the means of cooking classes in various parts of the United States, has created a demand for a fuller knowledge of the system.
This volume is the outgrowth of the practical and experimental work, and the popular demand above referred to. Its preparation has occupied the entire leisure time of the author during the last five or six years. No pains or expense has been spared to render the work authoritative on all questions upon which it treats, and in presenting it to the public, the publishers feel the utmost confidence that the work will meet the highest expectations of those who have waited impatiently for its appearance during the months which have elapsed since its preparation was first announced. PUBLISHERS.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Introduction Foods Properties of food Food elements Uses of food elements Proper combinations of food Proper proportion of food elements Condiments Relation of condiments to intemperance Variety in food Table topics. The Digestion of Foods The digestive organs The digestion of a mouthful of bread Salivary digestion Stomach digestion Intestinal digestion Other uses of the digestive fluids Absorption Liver digestion Time required for digestion Dr. Beaumont's table made from experiments on Alexis St. Martin Hygiene of digestion Hasty eating Drinking freely at meals Eating between meals Simplicity in diet Eating when tired Eating too much How much food is enough Excess of certain food elements Deficiency of certain food elements Food combinations Table topics. Cookery Evils of bad cookery The principles of scientific cookery Fuels Making fires Care of fires Methods of cooking Roasting Broiling or grilling Baking The oven thermometer Boiling The boiling point of water How to raise the boiling point of water Action of hot and cold water upon foods Steaming Stewing Frying Evaporation Adding foods to boiling liquids Measuring Comparative table of weights and measures Mixing the material Stirring Beating Kneading Temperature Cooking utensils Porcelain ware Granite ware Galvanized iron ware Tests for lead Adulterated tin Table topics. The Household Workshop Description of a convenient kitchen The kitchen furniture Cupboards A convenient kitchen table The kitchen sink Drainpipes Stoves and ranges Oil and gas stoves The "Aladdin Cooker" Kitchen utensils The tin closet The dish closet The pantry The storeroom The refrigerator The water supply Test for pure water Filters Cellars Kitchen conveniences The steam cooker The vegetable press The lemon drill The handy waiter The wall cabinet The percolate holder Kneading table Dish-towel rack Kitchen brushes Vegetable brush Table topics. The Grains, or Cereals, and their Preparation General properties of grains Cooking of grains The double boiler Table showing amount of liquid, and time required for cooking different grains Grains for breakfast Grains an economical food Wheat Description of a grain of wheat Preparation and cooking Recipes: Pearl wheat Cracked wheat Rolled wheat Boiled wheat Wheat with raisins Wheat with fresh fruit Molded wheat Finer mill products of wheat Recipes: Farina Farina with fig sauce Farina with fresh fruit Molded farina Graham grits Graham mush Graham mush No. 2 Graham mush No. 3 Graham mush with dates Plum porridge Graham apple mush Granola mush Granola fruit mush Granola peach mush Bran jelly The oat, description of Oatmeal Brose Budrum Flummery Preparation and cooking of oats Recipes: Oatmeal mush Oatmeal fruit mush Oatmeal blancmange Oatmeal Blancmange No. 2 Jellied oatmeal Mixed mush Rolled oats Oatmeal with apple Oatmeal porridge Barley, description of Gofio Scotch milled or pot barley Pearl barley Suggestions for cooking barley Recipes: Baked barley Pearl barley with raisins Pearl barley with lemon sauce Rice, description of Rice paddy Preparation and cooking of rice Recipes: Steamed rice Boiled rice Rice with fig sauce Orange rice Rice with raisins Rice with peaches Browned rice Rye, description of Rye meal Rye flour Recipes: Rolled rye Rye mush Maize, or Indian corn, description of Suggestions for cooking corn Recipes: Corn meal mush Corn meal mush with fruit Corn meal cubes Browned mush Samp Cerealine flakes Hulled corn Coarse hominy Fine hominy or grits Popped corn Macaroni, description of Semolina Spaghetti Vermicelli To select macaroni To prepare and cook macaroni Recipes: Homemade macaroni Boiled macaroni Macaroni with cream sauce Macaroni with tomato sauce Macaroni baked with granola Eggs and macaroni Table topics. Breadstuffs and Bread-making The origin of bread Chestnut bread Peanut bread Breadstuffs Qualities necessary for good bread Superiority of bread over meat Graham flour Wheat meal Whole_wheat or entire wheat flour How to select flour To keep flour Deleterious adulterations of flour Tests for adulterated flour Chemistry of bread-making Bread made light by fermentation The process of fermentation Fermentative agents Yeast Homemade yeasts How to keep yeast Bitter yeast Tests for yeast Starting the bread Proportion of materials needed Utensils When to set the sponge Temperature for bread-making How to set the sponge Lightness of the bread Kneading the dough How to manipulate the dough in kneading How many times shall bread be kneaded Dryness of the surface Size of loaves Proper temperature of the oven How to test the heat of an oven Care of bread after baking Best method of keeping bread Test of good fermented bread Whole-wheat and Graham breads Toast Steamed bread Liquid yeast Recipes: Raw potato yeast Raw potato yeast No. 2 Hop yeast Boiled potato yeast Boiled potato yeast No. 2 Fermented breads Recipes: Milk bread with white flour Vienna bread Water bread Fruit roll Fruit loaf Potato bread Pulled bread Whole-wheat bread Whole-wheat bread No. 2 Miss B's one-rising bread Potato bread with whole-wheat flour Rye bread Graham bread Graham bread No. 2 Graham bread No. 3 Raised biscuit Rolls Imperial rolls French rolls Crescents Parker House rolls Braids Brown bread Date bread Fruit loaf with Graham and whole-wheat flour Raised corn bread Corn cake Oatmeal bread Milk yeast bread Graham salt rising bread Unfermented breads Passover cakes Tortillas Evils of chemical bread raising Rochelle salts in baking powders General directions Gem irons Perforated sheet-iron pan for rolls Unfermented batter breads Unfermented dough breads Recipes: Whole-wheat puffs Whole-wheat puffs No. 2 Whole-wheat puffs No. 3 Graham puffs Graham puffs No. 2 Currant puffs Graham gems Crusts Rye puffs Rye puffs No. 2 Rye gems Blueberry gems Hominy gems Sally Lunn gems Corn puffs Corn puffs No. 2 Corn puffs No. 3 Corn puffs No. 4 Corn dodgers Corn dodgers No. 2 Cream corn cakes Hoe cakes Oatmeal gems Snow gems Pop overs Granola gems Bean gems Breakfast rolls Sticks Cream Graham rolls Corn mush rolls Fruit rolls Cream mush rolls Beaten biscuit Cream crisps Cream crisps No. 2 Graham crisps Oatmeal crisps Graham crackers Fruit crackers Table topics. Fruits Chemical constituents of Value as nutrients Structure of fruits The jelly-producing principle Digestibility of fruits Unripe fruits Table of fruit analysis Ripe fruit and digestive disorders Over-ripe and decayed fruits Dangerous bacteria on unwashed fruit Free use of fruit lessens desire for alcoholic stimulants Beneficial use of fruits in disease Description Apples The pear The quince The peach The plum The prune The apricot The cherry The olive; its cultivation and preservation The date, description and uses of The orange The lemon
The sweet lemon or bergamot The citron The lime The grape-fruit The pomegranate, its antiquity The grape Zante currants The gooseberry The currant The whortleberry The blueberry The cranberry The strawberry The raspberry The blackberry The mulberry The melon The fig, its antiquity and cultivation The banana Banana meal The pineapple Fresh fruit for the table Selection of fruit for the table Directions for serving fruits Apples Bananas Cherries Currants Gooseberries Grapes Melons Oranges Peaches and pears Peaches and cream Pineapples Plums Pressed Figs Raspberries, Blackberries, Dewberries, Blueberries and Whortlberries Frosted fruit Keeping fresh fruit Directions for packing, handling, and keeping fruits To keep grapes To keep lemons and oranges To keep cranberries Cooked fruit General suggestions for cooking fruit Recipes: Baked apples Citron apples Lemon apples Baked pears Baked quince Pippins and quince Baked apple sauce Baked apple sauce No. 2 Apples stewed whole Steamed apples Compote of apples Apple compote No. 2 Stewed pears Smooth apple sauce Boiled apples with syrup Stewed apples Stewed crab apples Sweet apple sauce with condensed apple juice Apples with raisins Apples with apricots Peaches, pears, cherries, berries, and other small fruits Baked apples Baked pears Baked peaches Cranberries Cranberries with raisins Cranberries with sweet apples Oranges and apples Stewed raisins Dried apples Dried apples with other dried fruit Dried apricots and peaches Evaporated peach sauce Dried pears Small fruits Prunes Prune marmalade Canning fruit Selection of cans How to test and sterilize cans Selection of fruit Directions for preparing fruit Cooking fruit for canning Storing of canned fruit Mold on canned fruit Opening of canned fruit Rules for selecting canned fruit Recipes: To can strawberries To can raspberries, blackberries and other small fruit To can gooseberries To can peaches To can pears To can plums To can cherries To can mixed fruit Quinces and apples Plums with sweet apples To can grapes To can crab apples To can apples To can pineapples Fruit jellies Recipes: Apple jelly Apple jelly without sugar Berry and currant jellies Cherry jelly Crab apple jelly Cranberry jelly Grape jelly Orange jelly Peach Jelly Quince jelly Plum jelly Fruit in jelly Fruit juices, value of How to prepare fruit juices Recipes: Grape juice or unfermented wine Grape juice No. 2 Another method Fruit syrup Currant syrup Orange syrup Lemon syrup Lemon syrup No 2 Blackberry syrup Fruit ices Nuts Composition and nutritive value of The almond Almond bread The Brazil nut The cocoanut, its uses in tropical countries The chestnut Chestnut flour The acorn The hazel nut The filbert The cobnut The walnut The butternut The hickory nut The pecan The peanut or ground nut Recipes: To blanch almonds Boiled chestnuts Mashed chestnuts Baked chestnuts To keep nuts fresh Table topics. The Legumes Composition and nutritive value Legumes as a substitute for animal food Legumin, or vegetable casein Chinese cheese Legumes the "pulse" of Scripture Diet of the pyramid builders Digestibility of legumes A fourteenth century recipe The green legumes Suggestions for cooking Slow cooking preferable Soaking the dry seeds Effects of hard water upon the legumes Temperature of water for cooking Amount of water required Addition of salt to legumes Peas, description of Buying votes with peas A commemorative dinner Peas bainocks Peas sausages Peas pudding Time required for cooking Recipes: Stewed split peas Peas puree Mashed peas Peas cakes Dried green peas Beans, description of Mention of beans in Scripture Beans in mythology Time required for digestion Method of cooking Experiment of an English cook Parboiling beans Time required to cook Recipes: Baked beans Boiled beans Beans boiled in a bag Scalloped beans Stewed beans Mashed beans Stewed Lima beans Succotash Pulp succotash Lentils, description of Use of lentils by the ancients Lentil meal Preparation for cooking Recipes: Lentil puree Lentils mashed with beans Lentil gravy with rice Table topics. Vegetables Composition and nutritive value of vegetables Exclusive diet of vegetables not desirable To select vegetables Poison in potato sprouts Stale vegetables a cause of illness Keeping vegetables To freshen withered vegetables Storing winter vegetables Preparation and cooking To clean vegetables for cooking Methods of cooking Time required for cooking Irish potato, description of The chemistry of cooking Digestibility of the potato New potatoes Preparation and cooking Recipes: Potatoes boiled in "jackets" Boiled potatoes without skins Steamed potatoes Roasted potatoes Baked potatoes Stuffed potatoes Stuffed potatoes No. 2 Mashed potatoes New potatoes Cracked potatoes Creamed potatoes Scalloped potatoes Stewed potatoes Potatoes stewed with celery Potato snow balls Potato cakes Potato cakes with egg Potato puffs Browned potatoes Ornamental potatoes Broiled potatoes Warmed-over potatoes Vegetable hash The sweet potato, description of Preparation and cooking Recipes: Baked sweet potatoes Baked sweet potatoes No 2 Boiled sweet potatoes Steamed sweet potatoes Browned sweet potatoes Mashed sweet potatoes Potato hash Roasted sweet potatoes To dry sweet potatoes Turnips, description of Preparation and cooking Recipes: Boiled turnips Baked turnips Creamed turnips Chopped turnips Mashed turnips Scalloped turnips Steamed turnips Stewed turnips Turnips in juice Turnips with cream sauce Parsnips, description of Preparation and cooking Recipes: Baked parsnips Baked parsnips No. 2 Boiled parsnips Browned parsnips Creamed parsnips Mashed parsnips Parsnips with cream sauce Parsnips with egg sauce Parsnips with potatoes Stewed parsnips Stewed parsnips with celery Carrots, description of Preparation and cooking Recipes: Boiled carrots Carrots with egg sauce Stewed carrots Beets, description of Preparation and cooking Recipes: Baked beets Baked beets No. 2 Beets and potatoes Beet hash Beet greens Beet salad or chopped beets Beet salad No 2 Boiled beets Stewed beets Cabbage, description of Preparation and cooking Recipes: Baked cabbage Boiled cabbage Cabbage and tomatoes Cabbage and celery Cabbage hash Chopped cabbage or cabbage salad Mashed cabbage Stewed cabbage Cauliflower and Broccoli, description of Preparation and cooking Recipes: Boiled cauliflower Browned cauliflower Cauliflower with egg sauce With tomato sauce Stewed cauliflower Scolloped cauliflower Spinach, description of Preparation and cooking Celery To keep celery fresh Recipes: Celery salad Stewed celery Stewed celery No. 2 Celery with tomato sauce Celery and potato hash Asparagus, description of Preparation and cooking Recipes: Asparagus and peas Asparagus Points Asparagus on toast Asparagus with cream sauce Asparagus with egg sauce Stewed asparagus Sea-kale, description of Lettuce and radish, description of Recipes: Lettuce Radishes Cymling Description Preparation and cooking
Recipes: Mashed squash Squash with egg sauce Stewed squash Winter squash Winter squash Preparation and cooking Time required for cooking Recipes: Baked squash Steamed squash The pumpkin, description of Recipes: Baked pumpkin Stewed pumpkin Dried pumpkin Tomato, description of Preparation and cooking Recipes: Baked tomatoes Baked tomatoes No. 2 Scalloped tomatoes Stewed corn and tomatoes Tomato gravy Tomato salad Tomato salad No. 2 Broiled tomatoes Tomato pudding Stewed tomatoes Tomato with okra Egg plant, description of Nutritive value Recipes: Scalloped egg plant Baked egg plant Cucumber, description of Digestibility Preparation and cooking Salsify or vegetable oyster, description of Preparation and cooking Recipes: Scalloped vegetable oysters Stewed vegetable oysters Green corn, peas, and beans, description of General suggestions for selecting and cooking Recipes for corn: Baked corn Baked corn No. 2 Boiled green corn Stewed corn pulp Corn cakes Corn pudding Roasted green corn Stewed green corn Summer succotash Dried corn Recipe for peas: Stewed peas Recipes for beans: Lima beans Shelled beans String beans Canning vegetables Recipes: Canned corn Canned corn and tomatoes Canned peas Canned tomatoes Canned tomatoes No. 2 String beans Canned pumpkin and squash Table topics. Soups Value of soup as an article of diet Superiority of soups made from grain and legumes Economical value of such soups Digestibility of soups Cooking of material for soups Use of a colander in preparing soups Quantity of salt required Flavoring soups Seasoning of soup Chinese soup strainer Whole grains, macaroni, shredded vegetables, etc., for soups Milk in the preparation of soups Consistency of soups Preparation of soups from left-over fragments Croutons Recipes: Asparagus soup Baked bean soup Bean and corn soup Bean and hominy soup Bean and potato soup Bean and tomato soup Black bean soup Black bean soup No. 2 Bran stock Brown soup Canned green pea soup Canned corn soup Carrot soup Celery soup No 2 Celery soup Chestnut soup Combination soup Combination soup No. 2 Another Another Cream pea soup Cream barley soup Green corn soup Green pea soup Green bean soup Kornlet soup Kornlet and tomato soup Lentil soup Lentil and parsnip soup Lima bean soup Macaroni soup Oatmeal soup Parsnip soup Parsnip soup No. 2 Pea and tomato soup Plain rice soup Potato and rice soup Potato soup Potato and vermicelli soup Sago and potato soup Scotch broth Split pea soup Sweet potato soup Swiss potato soup Swiss lentil soup Tomato and macaroni soup Tomato cream soup Tomato and okra soup Tomato soup with vermicelli Vegetable oyster soup Vegetable soup Vegetable soup No. 2 Vegetable soup No. 3 Vegetable soup No. 4 Velvet Soup Vermicelli soup Vermicelli soup No 2 White celery soup Table topics. Breakfast Dishes Importance of a good breakfast Requirements for a good breakfast Pernicious custom of using fried and indigestible foods for breakfast Use of salted foods an auxiliary to the drink habit The ideal breakfast Use of fruit for breakfast Grains for breakfast An appetizing dish Preparation of zwieback Preparation of toast Recipes: Apple toast Apricot toast Asparagus toast Banana toast Berry toast Berry toast No. 2 Celery toast Cream toast Cream toast with poached egg Cherry toast Gravy toast Dry toast with hot cream Grape toast Lentil toast Prune toast Peach toast Snowflake toast Tomato toast Vegetable oyster toast Miscellaneous breakfast dishes: Brewis Blackberry mush Dry granola Frumenty Macaroni with raisins Macaroni with kornlet Peach mush Rice with lemon Table topics. Desserts Appropriate and healthful desserts Objections to the use of desserts The simplest dessert General suggestions Importance of good material Preparation of dried fruit for dessert Molded desserts Suggestions for flavoring: To prepare almond paste Cocoanut flavor Orange and lemon flavor To color sugar Fruit desserts Recipes: Apple dessert Apple meringue dessert. Apple rose cream Apple snow Baked apples with cream Baked sweet apple dessert Bananas in syrup Baked bananas Fresh fruit compote Grape apples Peach cream Prune dessert Desserts made of fruit with grains, bread, etc. Recipes: Apple sandwich Apple sandwich No. 2 Baked apple pudding Barley fruit pudding Barley fig pudding Blackberry cornstarch pudding Cocoanut and cornstarch blancmange Cornstarch blancmange cornstarch with raisins Cornstarch with apples Cornstarch fruit mold Cornstarch fruit mold No. 2 Cracked wheat pudding Cracked wheat pudding No. 2 Farina blancmange Farina fruit mold Fruit pudding Jam pudding Plain fruit pudding or Brown Betty Prune pudding Rice meringue Rice snowball Rice fruit dessert Rice dumpling Rice cream pudding Rice pudding with raisins Red rice mold Rice and fruit dessert Rice and tapioca pudding Rice flour mold Rice and stewed apple dessert Rice and strawberry dessert Stewed fruit pudding Strawberry minute pudding Sweet apple pudding Whortleberry pudding Desserts with tapioca, sago, manioca, and sea moss Recipes: Apple tapioca Apple tapioca No. 2 Banana dessert Blackberry tapioca Cherry pudding Fruit tapioca Molded tapioca with fruit Pineapple tapioca Prune and tapioca pudding Tapioca and fig pudding Peach tapioca Tapioca jelly Apple sago pudding Red sago mold Sago fruit pudding Sago pudding Manioca with fruit Raspberry manioca mold Sea moss blancmange Desserts made with gelatin Gelatine an excellent culture medium Dangers in the use of gelatine Quantity to be used Recipes: Apples in jelly Apple shape Banana dessert Clear dessert Fruit foam dessert Fruit shape Gelatine custard Layer-pudding Lemon jelly Jelly with fruit Orange dessert Oranges in jelly Orange jelly Snow pudding Desserts with crusts Recipes: Apple tart Gooseberry tart Cherry tart Strawberry and other fruit shortcakes Banana shortcake Lemon shortcake Berry shortcake with prepared cream Cream Raised pie Baked apple loaf Custard puddings Importance of slow cooking Best utensils for cooking Custard desserts in cups To stir beaten eggs into heated milk To flavor custards and custard puddings Recipes: Apple custard Apple custard No. 2 Apple custard No. 3 Apple cornstarch custard Apple and bread custard Almond cornstarch pudding Almond cream Apple charlotte Banana custard Boiled custard Boiled custard bread pudding Bread and fruit custard Bread custard pudding Bread and fig pudding Bread and apricot pudding Caramel custard Carrot pudding Cocoanut cornstarch pudding Cocoanut custard Cocoanut rice custard Corn meal pudding Corn meal pudding No. 2 Corn meal and fig pudding Cornstarch meringue Cracked wheat pudding Cup custard Farina custard Farina pudding Floating island Fruit custard Graham grits pudding Ground rice pudding Lemon pudding Lemon cornstarch pudding Lemon cornstarch pudding No. 2 Macaroni pudding Molded rice or snowballs Orange float Orange custard Orange pudding Peach meringue Picnic pudding Plain cornstarch pudding Plain custard Prune pudding Prune whip Rice apple custard pudding Rice custard pudding Rice snow