燕山大学外国语学院357英语翻译基础[专业硕士]历年考研真题及详解(txt+pdf+epub+mobi电子书下载)

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燕山大学外国语学院357英语翻译基础[专业硕士]历年考研真题及详解

燕山大学外国语学院357英语翻译基础[专业硕士]历年考研真题及详解试读:

2011年燕山大学外国语学院357英语翻译基础考研真题及详解

I. Directions: Translate the following words, abbreviations or terminology into their target language respectively. There are altogether 30 items in this part of the test, 15 in English and 15 in Chinese, with one point for each. (30 points)

1.UNFAO【答案】联合国粮食及农业组织(United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization)

2.UPI【答案】合众国际社(United Press International)

3.IOC【答案】国际奥林匹克委员会(International Olympic Committee)

4.CIA【答案】中央情报局(Central Intelligence Agency)

5.UNGA【答案】联合国大会(the United Nations General Assembly)

6.GDP【答案】国内生产总值(Gross Domestic Product)

7.WHO【答案】世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)

8.Federal Reserve System【答案】联邦储备系统 

9.aging society【答案】老龄化社会

10.trade deficit【答案】贸易逆差;贸易赤字

11.junk bond【答案】垃圾债券;价格低但风险大的债券

12.the United States Secretary of Labor【答案】美国劳工部长

13.the Engel’s Coefficient【答案】恩格尔系数

14.Boxing Day【答案】节礼日;圣诞节后的第一个工作日

15.La Nina phenomenon【答案】拉尼娜现象

16.公务员【答案】civil servant

17.恶性循环【答案】vicious circle

18.安定团结【答案】stability and unity

19.综合国力【答案】Comprehensive National Power

20.流行文化【答案】popular culture

21.旅游黄金周【答案】golden week for tourism

22.天道酬勤【答案】God help those who help themselves.

23.经济全球化【答案】economic globalization

24.资源配置【答案】allocation of resources

25.《中庸》【答案】The Doctrine of Mean

26.扬长避短【答案】to enhance advantage and avoid disadvantage

27.外向型经济【答案】export-oriented economy

28.科学发展观【答案】scientific development concept

29.和为贵【答案】Harmony is to be prized.

30.留得靑山在,不怕没柴烧。【答案】Where there is life, there is hope.

II. Directions: Translate the following two source texts into their target language respectively. If the source text is in English, its target language is Chinese. If the source text is in Chinese, its target language is English (120 points).

1.The Earth is full! Four billion people have crammed into every desirable and fruitful area and have spilled over into all the barren and inhospitable areas. Under the pressure of the fullness, the wilderness is disappearing, competing plants and animals are dying out; the weather is changing and the soil is failing. And yet there is perhaps an even more fundamental danger to humanity in the Earth’s fullness than is represented by any sort of physical deterioration. Humanity began as a thin cluster of primitive hominids in East Africa about four million years ago. About two million years ago, the first hominids appeared who were sufficiently close in structure to the human being to be placed into genus Homo. It was not until 150,000 years ago that the hominids brain developed to a size sufficient to produce the first organisms we can classify as Homo sapiens, and it was only 50,000 years ago that “modem man,” Homo sapiens, made his appearance on the Earth.

His increase in range was slow indeed. It was not till 30,000 years ago that human beings began to enter Australia and the American continents, and even as late as 300 years ago, those continents were but thinly occupied.

Then came the Industrial Revolution and the Earth filled with what was, on the evolutionary scale, an explosion. In a couple of centuries, the world population quintupled from 0.8 billion to 4.2 billion, and now Earth bears all the human load it can manage and, in many places, somewhat more than it can manage.

Consider, then, that we and our hominid ancestors evolved on an essentially empty Earth. There was always the possibility, during times of stress, that one might pick up as much of one’s belongings as one could carry and travel to the other side of the hill,where conditions might be better, where a new life might be built and where a new chance might be taken. (322 words)【Key words】

hominid类人动物,原始人

genus Homo 人属;人类

Homo Sapiens智人(现代人的学名)【参考译文】

地球已人满为患!40亿人充塞着每一个适于居住的,富饶的地区,甚至那些不宜生活的不毛之地,也到处都有人类的足迹。在人口日益膨胀的压力下,旷野正在消失;在与人类的生存竞争中,许多植物和动物正在灭绝;气候正在发生变化,土壤日趋贫瘠。但对人类来说,与自然环境的恶化相比,人满为患也许是一个更为严重的危险。约400万年以前,人类起源于东非;那时仅仅是一群为数不多的原始人。约200万年前,最早的原始人在人体结构上进化到接近现在归入“人类”的这一物种。直到15万年之前,原始人的大脑增大,才进化到足以产生第一批可归入“智人”的有机生物,而直到5万年之间,“现代人”,即智人,才真正在地球上出现。

人类所占范围的增加确实很慢。直到3万年前,人类才开始进入澳大利亚和美洲大陆,甚至在三百年前,这些大陆上的人口也很稀疏。随着工业革命的到来,地球上的人口数量爆炸性地增加。几个世纪以来,世界人口从8亿增加到42亿,现在地球人口承载数量已经饱和,在许多地方,甚至远远超过了它的负荷。

那么你想一下:我们和我们的原始人祖先在一个实质上空旷的地球上进化而来。在有压力的时候,人们总是有可能会尽可能多地打包自己的行李然后旅行到山的另一边,那里条件可能更好,有可能能够开始新的生活也有可能会有新的机会。

2.也许是我的精、气、神都不足吧,不但自己写不出长的东西,我读一本刊物时,也总是先挑短的看,不论是小说、散文或是其他的文学形式,最后才看长的。

我总觉得,凡是为了非倾吐不可而写的作品,都是充满了真情实感的。反之,只是为写作而写作,如上之为应付编辑朋友,下之为多拿稿费,这类文章都是尽量地往长里写,结果是即便有一点点感情,也被冲洗到水分太多、淡而无味的地步。

当由一个人物,一桩事迹,一幅画面而发生的真情实感,向你袭来的时候,它就像一根扎到你心尖上的长针,一阵卷到你面前的怒潮,你只能用最真切、最简练的文字,才能描绘出你心尖上的那一阵剧痛和你面前的一霎惊惶。(245字)【参考译文】

Perhaps due to my failing energies, not only have I refrained from writing anything long, but also, in reading a magazine, for example, I usually finish its shorter pieces of writing first, be they fiction, prose or any other forms of literature, before going on to the longer ones.

I always believe that anything written with an irresistible inner urge to disclose oneself must be full of genuine feelings. On the contrary, if one writes simply for the sake of writing-say, to humor one’s editor friends, or worse still, to earn more remuneration, one will most probably make his writings unnecessarily long until they become, despite what little feeling they may contain, inflated and wishy-washy.

When true emotions aroused by a person, an event or a scene come upon you like a pin pricking your heart or an angry tide surging threateningly before you, all you can do is use the most vivid and succinct language to describe the severe pain in your heart or the momentary feeling of panic caused by the angry tide.

2012年燕山大学外国语学院357英语翻译基础考研真题及详解

I. Directions: Translate the following words, abbreviations or terminology into their target language respectively. There are altogether 30 items in this part of the test, 15 in English and 15 in Chinese, with one pint for each. (30 分)

1.UNICEF【答案】联合国儿童基金会(United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund)

2.CPI【答案】消费物价指数(Consumer Price Index)

3.UNESCO【答案】 联合国教科文组织(United Nations Educational,Scientific,and Cultural Organization)

4.UNDP【答案】联合国开发计划署(United Nations Development Program)

5.ISO【答案】国际标准化组织(International Standardization Organization);国际科学组织(International Science Organization)

6.WMO【答案】世界气象组织(World Meteorological Organization)

7.World Habitat Day【答案】世界住房日

8.Law of Protection of Minors【答案】未成年人保护法

9.registered capital【答案】注册资本

10.intermediary services【答案】中介服务

11.biodegradable substance【答案】可生物降解物质

12.life-long learning system【答案】终身学习体系

13.disguised inflation【答案】变相涨价;变相通货膨胀

14.stock option【答案】职工优先认股权

15.A stitch in time saves nine.【答案】小洞不补,大洞吃苦;一针及时顶九针。

16.核心竞争力【答案】core competence

17.社会保障体系【答案】social security system

18.外汇储备【答案】foreign exchange reserves

19.市场准入【答案】market access

20.人才流失【答案】brain drain

21.娱乐业【答案】entertainment industry

22.孔子学院【答案】Confucius Institute

23.棍棒教育【答案】stick parenting

24.不良贷款【答案】bad loans

25.打假【答案】crack down on fake products

26.科教兴国【答案】rejuvenate our country through science and education

27.国际经济新秩序【答案】new international economic order

28.趋利避害【答案】draw on advantages and avoid disadvantages

29.可持续发展战略【答案】the strategy of sustainable development

30.知识经济时代【答案】the era of knowledge economy

II. Directions: Translate the following two source texts into their target language respectively. If the source text is in English, its target language is Chinese. If the source text is in Chinese, its target language is English. (120 分)

Source Text 1:

For millennia man has exploited and often destroyed the riches of the land. Now man covets the wealth of the oceans, which cover nearly three-quarters of the earth. But the scramble for minerals and oil, for new underwater empires, could heighten international tensions and set a new and wider stage for world conflict.

Even the most conservative estimates of resources in the seabed stagger the imagination. In the millions of miles of ocean that touch a hundred nations live four out of five living things on earth. In the seabed, minerals and oil have been proved to exist in lavish supply. The oceans are a source of pure water and food protein; of drugs and building materials; they are even possibly a habitat for man himself and a key to survival for the doubling population on the land.

Man may yet learn to use a tiny fraction of this wealth. Unless international law soon determines how it shall be shared, that fraction alone could set off a new age of colonial war. Is the deep seabed, like the high seas, common to all? Or like the wilderness areas of land, is it open to national claim by the use and occupation of the first or the strongest pioneer? The question of what is to be done to regulate and control exploitation of the seabeds is no longer a theoretical matter. It is a problem of international concern. We must decide how to divide this great wealth equitably among nations. But wealth is not the only thing at stake. We must also learn how to protect the oceans from the menace of pollution.

More familiar to most of us is the accelerated pace of offshore drilling that now extends more than 50 miles out to sea and accounts for 15 percent of U.S. oil production. In the twelve years between 1955 and 1967, offshore production of crude oil increased from seven million to 222 million barrels. Estimates of known reserves of natural gas have more than tripled in the past 15 years, and each advance in scientific exploration of the ocean beds brings to light new finds that would gladden the eye of the most hardened veteran of the California gold rush. (371 words)【参考译文】

几千年以来,人类不断地开发和经常破坏陆地上的财富。而现在人类则又渴望觊觎占地球四分之三面积的海洋里的财富了。可是,为矿物和石油以及水下控制权而进行的争夺会加剧世界紧张局势,并为世界冲突提供新的、更大的场所。

对海底资源的估计,即使是最保守的估计也远远超过了人们的想象。在影响到一百个国家的几百万英里的海洋中,生活着地球上百分之八十的生物。已证明海底存在着极其丰富的矿床及石油。海洋能提供净水、食物蛋白、药物及建筑材料。甚至可能成为人类自身的居住地,从而解决陆地上人口倍增造成的生存问题。

人类可能只学会了利用这一财富中小小的一部分。如果不尽快制定国际法来规定各国怎样分享这一财富的话,哪怕一小部分财富就足以开创殖民战争的一个新时期。海底深处是像公海一样属于所有国家还是像陆地上荒野地区那样归首先占据与使用该地区或最有实力的开拓者国家所有呢?该做些什么来调节和控制海底开发,早已不再是理论问题而是个全世界关注的问题。我们必须决定怎样使各国合理地分配这一巨大财富。但是财富并不是唯一厉害攸关的问题。我们还必须学会怎样保护海洋不受污染威胁。

我们大多数人更熟悉的是近海钻井加快的速度,现在钻探的水域已延伸到海底外50多英里的海域。海底钻探得来的石油占美国总生产量的百分之十五。在过去的15年中,对海底天然气贮藏量的估计就增加了两倍多。海底科学开发的每一个进展都会揭示新的发现。这些发现会使在加利福尼亚淘金热中最不易动心的老手也跃跃欲试。

Source Text 2:

读书是文明生活中人所共认的一种乐趣,极为无福享受此种乐趣的人所羡慕。我们如把一生爱读书的人和一生不知读书的人比较一下,便能了解这一点。凡是没有读书癖好的人,就时间和空间而言,简直是等于幽囚在周遭的环境里边。他的一生完全落于日常例行公事的圈禁中。他只有与少数几个朋友或熟人接触谈天的机会,只能看见眼前的景物,没有逃出这所牢狱的法子。但在他拿起一本书时,立刻就走进了另一个世界。如若所拿的又是一部好书,则他便已得到了一个和一位最善谈者接触的机会。这位善谈者引领他走进另外一个国界,或另外一个时代,或向他倾吐白己胸中的不平,或和他讨论一个他从来不知道的生活问题。一个人在每天的二十四小时中,能有两个小时的工夫撇开一切俗世烦扰,而走到另一个世界去游览一番,这种幸福自然是被无形牢狱所拘囚的人们所极羡慕的。这种环境的变更,在心里的效果上,其实等于出门旅行。(373 words)【参考译文】

Reading or the enjoyment of books has always been regarded among the charms of a cultured life and is respected and envied by those who rarely give themselves that privilege. This is easy to understand when we compare the difference between the life of a man who does no reading and that of a man who does. The man who has not the habit of reading is imprisoned in his immediate world, in respect to time and space. His life falls into a set routine; he is limited to contract and conversation with a few friends and acquaintances, and he sees only what happens in his immediate neighborhood. From this prison there is no escape. But the moment he takes up a book, he immediately enters a different world, and if it is a good book, he is immediately put in touch with one of the best talkers of the world. This talker leads him on and carries him into a different country or a different age, or unburdens to him some of his personal regrets, or discusses with him some special line or aspect of life that the reader knows nothing about. Now to be able to live two hours out of twelve in a different world and take one’s thoughts off the claims of the immediate present is, of course, a privilege to be envied by people shut up in their bodily prison. Such a change of environment is really similar to travel in its psychological effect.

2013年燕山大学外国语学院357英语翻译基础考研真题及详解

I. Directions: Translate the following words, abbreviations or terminology into their target language respectively. There are altogether 30 items in this part of the test, 15 in English and 15 in Chinese, with one point for each. (30 points)

1.UNCED【答案】联合国环境与发展会议(United Nations Conference on Environment and Development)

2.ROI【答案】利润率(Rate of Interest)

3.UNFPA【答案】联合国人口活动基金会(United Nations Fund for Population Activities)

4.LDCs【答案】最不发达国家(Least Developed Countries)

5.CNPC【答案】中国石油天然气集团公司(China National Petroleum Corporation)

6.ASEAN【答案】东南亚国家联盟(东盟)(Association of Southeast Asian Nations)

7.food security【答案】食品安全

8.endowment insurance【答案】养老保险

9.traffic performance index【答案】交通拥堵指数

10.advertising slot【答案】广告位置

11.mutation in gene【答案】基因突变

12.hunger-marketing strategy【答案】饥饿市场营销策略

13.Skopostheory【答案】目的论

14.translation brief【答案】翻译纲要;翻译要求

15.intra-textual coherence【答案】语际内连贯

16.购买力【答案】purchasing power

17.师德【答案】teacher’s professional ethics

18.民生【答案】people’s livelihood

19.数字化进程【答案】the digitalization process

20.经济法制化【答案】economy legalization

21.优惠的税收政策【答案】preferential tax policies

22.社会知识化【答案】knowledge-based society

23.政治体制改革【答案】political restructuring

24.机构臃肿【答案】overstaffing in organizations

25.医德医风【答案】medical ethics

26.文化逆差【答案】cultural deficit

27.温饱工程【答案】Decent-Life Project

28.再就业工程【答案】Re-employment Project

29.反腐倡廉【答案】anti-corruption bid

30.生态环境恶化【答案】ecological environment deterioration

II. Directions: Translate the following four source texts into their target language respectively. If the source text is in English, its target language is Chinese. If the source text is in Chinese, its target language is English. (120 points)

Source Text 1:

The therapeutic benefits of laughter are widely known, however, and this is intriguing from the standpoint of basic science. Laughter is one of the most fundamental components of human behavior, transcending all age and cultural boundaries. It produces a hit of pure, direct pleasure. Yet scientists still do not understand what is happening in the brain to give such a positive feeling.

Laughter breaks all the rules of survival. It uses up energy, makes predator-attracting noise and serves no obvious function in terms of gaining nourishment, accomplishing reproduction, or protecting from danger; yet it appears to be as natural as breathing. So fundamental is it, in fact, that people in all societies spend time -- and often money - engineering themselves into situations where laughter is likely. It must be there for a reason.

试读结束[说明:试读内容隐藏了图片]

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