中国新兴媒体融合发展报告.2013-2014(txt+pdf+epub+mobi电子书下载)

作者:新华社新媒体中心

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中国新兴媒体融合发展报告.2013-2014

中国新兴媒体融合发展报告.2013-2014试读:

前言

本年度报告是新华社新媒体中心发布的第二本《中国新兴媒体发展报告》。

从全球来看,新兴媒体正在经历着移动互联网转型,移动互联网成为全球新兴媒体发展的最大推动力,新兴国家地区是世界新兴媒体最具潜力的市场。而在新兴国家和地区中,中国新兴媒体最具活力。

2013年以来,中国新兴媒体正在加速向移动化、融合化、社会化发展。用户稳步增长,创新能力逐步提高,应用与社会进一步对接,市场竞争活跃有序,产业格局开放拓展,社会正能量不断凸显,国家战略强力推进中国迈向新兴媒体强国。

中国拥有世界数量最庞大的新兴媒体用户,网民已经超过6亿,手机用户超过12亿。庞大的市场、“宽带中国”战略的实施、移动互联网的发展、农村地区的信息化建设,都将会给未来的中国新兴媒体发展提供巨大的上升空间。

新兴媒体正式步入第一媒体序列成为2013年最标志性的变化,成为全面深化改革的新动力。

中国拥有世界上最丰富的新兴媒体应用,移动即时通信、社交媒体、网络视频、电子支付、互联网金融、网络教育、搜索引擎、网络游戏、电子商务、电子政务、在线旅游等诸多应用方兴未艾,中国新兴媒体社会化态势更为明显。

中国拥有世界上最活跃的新兴媒体市场。中国新兴媒体正快步迈向全球市场。新兴媒体企业加速跨界发展步伐,云计算、大数据等新技术日益步入实践和商用,基于移动互联网的诸多新应用不断涌现。新兴媒体资本市场极为活跃,新媒体产业格局和市场运营日益推向纵深。新媒体产业领域不断向外延展,经济规模不断壮大。

在中国社会发展进程中,新兴媒体的正能量日益显现,传媒在新旧媒体的融合中焕发出勃勃生机,微传播催生出丰富的网络文化,网络问政日益制度化,新兴媒体已经全面融入中国社会政治、经济、文化发展中。

2013年以来,世界主要国家都在不断推出新的网络安全战略,大力发展新兴媒体产业,不断提高新兴媒体的管理水平。值得关注的是,在新兴媒体快速与社会融合的同时,网络信息安全等问题日益凸现,世界各国也都根据国情社情网情,在发展新兴媒体的同时加强了对新兴媒体的治理。党的十八大以来,中国进一步加强了新兴媒体的顶层设计,加力发展新兴媒体技术和产业,加速产业战略升级。尤其是党的十八届三中全会把网络和信息安全作为牵涉到国家安全和社会稳定的重大问题,提出了加快完善互联网管理领导体制,并专门成立了中央网络安全和信息化领导小组,着眼于国家安全和长远发展,统筹协调涉及经济、政治、文化、社会及军事等各个领域的网络安全和信息化重大问题,研究制定网络安全和信息化发展战略、宏观规划和重大政策,推动国家网络安全和信息化法治建设,不断增强安全保障能力,提出建设新兴媒体强国的战略目标。Abstract

This is the second issue of China New Media Development Report released by the New Media Center of Xinhua News Agency.

New media have become an innovative force that comprehensively pushes forward economic, political, cultural, mass communications and social development.Many big countries in the world are actively developing new media.Since 2013, China has set a strategic goal to grow into a power in new media from its current status as an Internet big country.

From the global perspective, new media are experiencing a transition in mobile Internet.Mobile Internet has become the strongest driving force in global new media development.Emerging economies and regions are the largest potential markets for new media business and among them, China is witnessing the most vibrant new media development.

The year 2013 saw a key juncture in China's new media development.New media's position as the foremost media became more evident as they had turned into a new engine for China's further development, becoming more mobile, integrated and socialized, with the number of their users growing steadily and their innovation further enhanced.Their applications better met social needs, their market competition was both vigorous and orderly, and their industrial patterns were open and expanded, displaying more positive social power.

Against the backdrop of global new media development and China's drive to comprehensively deepen reforms, the field of new media has been quite eventful. Riding the high tide of reform efforts to healthily develop new media so as to become a strong power in new media was the main theme of new media development in China in 2013.

Since 2013, new media development in China has displayed the following six characteristics:First, the development goal has been fundamentally changed from becoming bigger into becoming stronger.Second, it is in the crucial period of mobile development.Third, China's new media have become a mega industry. Fourth, China is turning into an innovator from a learner.Fifth, new media in China are increasingly socialized.Sixth, new media enjoy a massive scope of develop-ment.

Spurred by technologies related to mobile Internet, cloud computing, big data and the Web of Things, new media in China have increased their capacity for independent innovation, and enterprises in this field continuously produce innovative applications, which, as represented by WeChat, show that Chinese enterprises boast independent products and capacity for pattern innovation.

Since 2013, new media technologies have been enjoying an important deve-l opment opportunity, with mobile Internet, big data and cloud computing being the focuses of new media technological development in various countries.In the new round of technological competition, China has been accelerating research and development of 4G and 5G, as well as the commercial applications of technologies and the construction of facilities.This holds great significance for the stimulation of information consumption and domestic demands, as well as the realization of national innovation strategies.

China has the most abundant new media applications.Such applications as instant messaging, social networking, mobile videos, online payment, online f-i nance, online education, search engine, online games, e-commerce, e-governance and online tourism are thriving.New media in China are becoming increasingly socialized.

2013 was the hottest year for online finance, which has blurred the boundaries of traditional finance.The I nternet innovated traditional finance while sticking to its profit-making models.By increasing its Internet elements, traditional finance also realized self-innovation.

Xi Jinping, general secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Pa-r ty of China, said:“Without cyberspace security, there would be no national security.”Cyberspace, with Internet at the core, has become the fifth biggest strategic space after land, sea, air and space.All countries attach great importance to cyberspace security.In 2013, the PRISM scandal revealed by Edward Snowden stunned the world and aroused unprecedented concern about cyberspace security.Cyberspace security in China is generally stable, but still faces cyberattacks and security challenges, which not only affect the interests of Internet users and the healthy development of the industry, but also pose threats and challenges for social, economic development and national security.

Since 2013, new media in China have been the most active capital market worldwide.Major Internet companies are not longer focused on the development of their own fields.Instead, they pay more attention to cross-industry development and are penetrating into traditional industries at an increasing speed.As a result, the capital market has been extremely active.IPOs, acquisitions, and fund raising constitute the main themes of the reshuffling efforts of the new media industry.

Since the Internet thrived, the media industry has experienced unprecedented changes.The mobile age has had a revolutionary impact on the ecology of mass communications.Currently, new media in China are transforming into digital, mobile and micro communications at an increasingly fast pace.In the era of micro-communications, China's news media are becoming more active, with new media and traditional media undergoing fast integration.Traditional media are becoming increasingly digital, intensifying integration with new media and developing such new communication models as Weibo, WeChat and news terminals.

In recent years, the fas-t developing new media industry has also experienced some high-profile problems.In 2013, while pushing forward new media development, the central authorities decided to improve the cyberspace management system.China has also been improving the legal standards of cyberspace management.

China New Media Development Report 2013-2014 lists ten hot issues for new media in China in 2013:1.Cyberspace security has become the top concern in new media development.2.New media in China are turning increasingly mobile in a trend represented by 4G;3.The national strategy to strengthen top-level design becomes important impetus for new media development.4.China's capacity for technological independent innovation has grown significantly.5.The industrial extension of new media has been continuously expanded.6.Cyberspace regulation is becoming more institutionalized.7.New applications represented by WeChat indicate Chinese new media companies are going global.8.The thriving of online finance shows new media are becoming increasingly socialized.9.Micro-communications have become the mainstream communications.10.The thriving of micropolitics and micro-governance indicate media have become positive power for China's political development and social governance.

Based on China New Media Development Report 2012-2013, China New Media Development Report 2013-2014 continues to adopt a global perspective with attention to Chinese characteristics.It contains a more open structure and rich contents divided into 15 parts——Overview, On innovation, On technology, On applications, On finance, On security, On capital, On industry, On media, On society, On regulation, On management, Hot issues, Prospects and Proposals.It comprehensively records the progress of new media in China in 2013, analyzes hot issues related to new media, predicts the direction in which new media in China will develop and offers proposals on how to boost the healthy development of the new media industry in China.Preface

The annual China New Media Development Report, the second of its kind, was compiled by the New Media Center of Xinhua News Agency.

Globally, the new media industry has been experiencing transition to mobile Internet, which is the strongest driving force behind the booming media.The markets of new media in emerging economies have the largest potential.Among them, the Chinese market is most dynamic.

China makes it a national strategy to promote itself toward a world powe-r house in the field.New media in the country has been gearing up since 2013 to shift and develop toward mobility, integration and socialization.The number of new media users has been steadily growing, innovation capacity gradually improving, applications more compatible to social needs, market competition vigorous and orderly, industry structure exoteric and expansive, and positive social effects emerging.

China has the world's biggest population of new media users, with Internet surfers exceeding 600 million and mobile phone users 1.2 billion.Such a huge domestic market, plus other positive factors such as a national“Broadband China”strategy, the booming mobile I nternet and construction of information infrastructure in rural areas, will greatly boost the prosperity of the new media industry in China.

The official ranking of new media as the most important media was a landmark change in 2013.This fresh industry has become a new engine of the comprehensive and deepening reform that China is going for.

China has the most abundant new media applications, such as mobile instant messaging, social networking, video, search engine, e-commerce, e-governance, as well as online payment, finance, education, games and tourism.Socialization of new media in China is more outstanding.

The country has the world's most dynamic new media market and is vigo-r ously marching into the global market.Chinese new media enterprises are stepping up their trans-boundary development.New technologies such as cloud computing and big data have been increasingly commercialized, while new applications based on the mobile Internet are mushrooming.New media's capital market has become extremely vibrant, its structure and market operations developed to further breadth and depth, its domain further extended, and the scale of economy further enhanced.

I n the process of social development in China, new media has been releasing increasingly big positive effects.The integration of new and conventional media brings about great vitality to the overall media industry.Communication through social websites also cultivates cyber culture.Online governance is more and more institutionalized.Therefore, new media is entirely merged into China's political, economic and cultural development.

Since 2013, major countries in the world have vehemently boosted the devel opment of new media and its management.They have also constantly launched new cyberspace security strategies, as problems concerning information and Internet security are looming large in the process of integration between new media and the society.Based on their own national and social conditions, many countries have fortified the management of new media while developing it.After the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China(CPC), China strengthened the top-down design of new media development, further stimulating new technologies to upgrade the industry.Furthermore, the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee took cyberspace and information security as a vital issue concerning national security and social stability.It urged to speed up the improvement of cyberspace administration and set up a central Internet security and informatization leading group in consideration of national security and longer-term development.The group will coordinate key issues of cyberspace security and informatization regarding economy, politics, culture, society and defense, map out development strategies and key policies for Internet security and informatization, push forward legislative construction for the sector, enhance Internet security protection capacity, and initiate the strategic goal of building a heavyweight global player in the industry of new media.

This report, from both global and national perspectives, tracks record of China's developing process of the new media industry from such aspects as trend, innovation, technology, application, finance, security, capital, industry, communication, society, administration, as well as law and regulation.It analyzes hotspots, predicts future trends and makes proposals on the healthy development of the industry in China.一、概况篇

新兴媒体,伴随着互联网、移动通信、数字技术等科技而勃兴。在技术与设施层面,新兴媒体自我更新快而呈现超越态势;在形态和应用层面,新兴媒体不断推陈出新;在发展和功能层面,新兴媒体普及速度快而功能不断融合创新;在属性和产业层面,新兴媒体日益呈现出融合性和跨行业整合的特性;在影响和社会层面,新兴媒体高速向政治、经济以及社会服务等诸多领域渗透。

近年来,随着移动通信和互联网的高度融合,新兴媒体的移动化转向明显加速,并且随着普及程度日益提升而迅速拓展产业,成为各国经济社会发展中的重要高地。世界主要国家不断推出新兴媒体发展与安全战略,大力发展移动互联网,加强新兴媒体管理。新技术、新应用连续涌现,新兴媒体产业全面向传统产业延伸。

2013年发布的《中国新兴媒体发展报告(2012—2013)》曾提出,2012年是中国从新兴媒体大国走向新兴媒体强国的起步之年。2013年,中国则迈出了走向新兴媒体强国的坚实一步。

2013年是中国新兴媒体发展的关键节点。在全球新兴媒体发展和中国推进全面深化改革的大背景下,新兴媒体领域可谓焦点不断、热点频发。党的十八届三中全会强调积极利用、科学发展、依法管理、确保安全的方针,提出加大依法管理网络力度与完善互联网管理领导体制的任务。中央网络安全和信息化领导小组宣告成立,新兴媒体建设与管理提升到最高顶层设计。中国新兴媒体用户稳步增长,基础设施不断优化升级,3G持续发展,4G时代开启,5G研发起步,云计算、大数据、智慧城市建设加速,技术自主创新能力进一步提高,资本市场竞争激烈活跃,产业格局开放拓展,社交媒体、新媒体视频、互联网金融、电子商务等诸多领域极为活跃。在积极转向移动化、社会化和融合化发展的同时,新兴媒体迅速发展而引发的问题也在不断凸显。中国如何顺势而为,借深化改革之机而健康发展新媒体,借新媒体大国之势而走向新媒体强国,这是2013年以来中国新兴媒体发展的主旋律。(一)全球新兴媒体发展基本概况与特点1.各国普遍从国家战略层面重视新兴媒体安全与发展规划

由于新兴媒体产业已经成为国家与社会发展的高地,各国高度重视新兴媒体的国家战略建设,主要有两个层面:

一是重视网络安全,主要国家都制定了相关的国家安全战略

目前,全球已有四十多个国家颁布了网络空间国家安全战略,仅美国就颁布了四十多份与网络安全有关的文件。

2014年2月,美国政府宣布启动《网络安全框架》。在2011年发布的《网络行动战略报告》中,美军首次将网络空间明确定位为与陆、海、空、天同等重要的军事“行动领域”。

2014年2月19日,德国总理默克尔与法国总统奥朗德探讨建立欧洲独立互联网,计划从战略层面绕开美国以强化数据安全。欧盟三大领导机构——欧盟委员会、欧盟理事会、欧洲议会计划在2014年底通过欧洲数据保护改革方案。之前,英国于2009和2011年两度公布《网络安全战略》,专门成立“网络安全办公室”和“网络安全行动中心”,2010年即投入6.5亿英镑开始实施为期四年的“国家网络安全计划”;德国2010年启动了“数字德国2015”战略,2011年出台首份《网络安全战略》,加强保护德国关键基础设施的安全。2012年5月,欧洲网络与信息安全局(ENISA)发布《国家网络安全战略——为加强网络空间安全的国家努力设定线路》。

2013年1月,澳大利亚政府宣布将成立国家网络安全中心。

作为中国的亚洲邻国,日本、印度和新加坡等国家也一直在积极行动。

日本2013年6月出台《网络安全战略》,明确提出“网络安全立国”。

印度政府继2011年5月出台《国家网络安全策略(草案)》后于2013年5月批准了新的《国家网络安全策略》,目标是“安全可信的计算机环境”。

新加坡政府则于2013年7月发布建设《国家网络安全发展蓝图2018》,拟在随后五年内提升关键领域抵御网络袭击的能力。

二是重视新兴媒体发展,制定了专门的大数据、云计算、智慧城市方面的战略规划。

2013年,美国总统奥巴马推出了为期十年、耗资数十亿美元的人脑研究计划,大数据技术由此上升为关乎美国政府重大创新计划成功与否的关键技术。

2013年5月,英国技术战略委员会发布了《2013—2014年度执行计划》,宣布将未来一年对英国创新企业的资助金额提高到创纪录的4.4亿英镑,主要扶持技术领域包括可再生能源、未来城市、新材料、卫星技术、数字技术以及医疗卫生等,扶持重点将是中小企业。

2013年7月,日本内阁会议通过了2013年版《信息通信白皮书》,提出将充分利用记录个人购物数据等庞大数据的“大数据”服务以提高经济效益。

2014年1月,法国总理府下属的“战略研究中心”公布《互联网,展望2030年》。这份报告认为,法国在信息领域的发展未能跟上世界步伐,提出在基础设施建设等方面加大投入,刺激互联网市场消费和经济增长,从而助推法国信息技术进步。

2014年2月,澳大利亚公布了《澳大利亚云计算战略》。

从顶层设计层面重视新兴媒体的发展与安全,以安全促发展,以发展求安全,已经成为各国新兴媒体发展的重要趋势。2.全球新兴媒体用户发展状况

用户及其需求是新兴媒体中最基础的要素,衡量新兴媒体发展水平最宏观的指标是互联网和手机用户。

根据国际电信联盟(ITU)发布的报告,2013年全球互联网网民总数达到27亿,普及率达到39%,其中发达国家普及率为77%,发展中国家普及率为31%;全球手机用户已经达到68亿,而全世界人口数量为71亿,手机渗透率已接近饱和。其中亚太地区手机用户达到35亿,超过全球手机用户的一半,成为全球最大的移动市场。2005—2013年全球手机用户增长

整体而言,全球手机用户虽已接近饱和,但发展中国家尤其是非洲地区仍然有很大的发展空间。随着移动互联网的发展,未来几年全球互联网用户规模仍会持续增长。

随着资费不断降低,宽带的普及率上升的空间很大。根据国际电信联盟(ITU)统计,从2008—2012年,全球支付固定宽带服务的费用已经下降了82%,宽带上网成本大大降低。其中发达国家的宽带普及率为27%,而发展中国家仅为6%。

值得关注的是,2007—2013年,全球移动宽带用户从2.68亿增长到31亿,目前发达国家的移动宽带普及率达到75%,而发展中国家仅为20%。2011—2013年,发展中国家移动宽带用户从4.72亿增长到11.6亿。非洲是移动宽带增长速度最快的地区,2011—2013年,移动宽带普及率从2%增长到11%。3.全球新兴媒体技术应用发展特点

从全球来看,新兴媒体在技术和应用层面主要有四个特点:

第一,在网络层面,以移动互联网为中心,网络技术加剧向移动互联网升级;

第二,在数据技术层面,以大数据为中心,计算处理、存储管理和数据分析技术不断提升;

第三,在应用层面,基于宽带发展的音视频和图片分享类应用,以及基于移动化、社交化和社会化的应用均不断推陈出新。

整体而言,由于以美国为首的西方国家在新兴媒体领域起步早,科技基础与资本实力雄厚,牢牢掌控着移动互联网、大数据和应用的核心技术,不断引领新兴媒体发展的技术潮流。

第四,在技术和应用层面,西方国家一直走在前面,谷歌等公司基本引领核心技术创新,通过开源方式扩散,再通过IT制造商产品化,最后为其他企业所用。

例如,近几年,全球新兴媒体的技术和应用发展主要以移动互联网为中心,大力发展大数据相关的技术。大数据的关键核心环节包括数据分析、计算处理和存储管理。谷歌一直是大数据技术的引领者,建立了八个主要数据中心。当前广泛使用的Hadoop计算处理和存储产品,是基于谷歌2004年开源的GFS、MapReduce和BigTable三项技术。2012年谷歌提出了“新三驾马车”技术:支持海量数据实时交互处理的新型分布式算法Dremel;支持小文件快速读取的大规模分布式文件系统Colossus;支持全球范围同步的分布式数据库Spanner。同期,针对Hadoop处理实时流的不足,雅虎公开了S4流处理技术,Twitter也提出Storm流处理技术。

近年来,韩国、中国、印度等新兴媒体市场比较活跃的国家在技术自主创新方面的能力也在不断提升。4.全球新兴媒体产业发展特点

全球新兴媒体产业发展有四个特点:

一是随着网络技术的不断升级,基础设施层面的产业发展速度很快。

随着商用部署的持续推进,全球IPv6网络规模不断增多,用户数也呈现成倍增长的态势。2012年IPv6访问流量增长了2.5倍。据工信部电信研究院统计,截至2013年7月底,全球已有109张网络支持IPv6,较2012年增长41.6%。从2012—2013年,IPv6 BGP路由年均增长50%,达到13746条,AS为7381个。在用户数方面,2011—2013年期间IPv6用户数每年增长100%,全球已有94个国家发展IPv6用户,用户总数超过2000万。按照当前的发展势头,不超过6年,全球IPv6用户数将达到互联网用户数的一半。在访问流量方面,2013年IPv6的访问流量增长了2.5倍,且IPv6每天访问请求超过100亿次,移动终端的流量成为主要增长点。

二是基于移动互联网的新兴媒体产业发展迅速。

当前新兴媒体正在经历着移动化转型,移动互联网正处于高速发展的阶段,产业规模不断扩大,基于移动互联网技术的新兴媒体产业如硬件业、软件业以及应用和产品发展快,产业规模不断壮大。

三是新兴媒体产业的跨行业态势日益明显。

移动互联网的发展带来了产业竞争格局的重构。在移动互联网的促推下,新兴媒体大大超越了传媒和文化领域,与传统零售业、金融业、服务业等纵深跨界融合,电信运营商、互联网公司、软件企业、硬件企业、商贸等不同企业也不再局限于一个领域,跨行业发展的态势非常明显。

四是新兴媒体产业不断创新和延伸明显。

新兴媒体产业对于传统产业链产生了巨大的冲击,行业转型的速度大大超过了以往。新兴媒体产业融合创新催生出网络金融、移动支付、位置服务、移动医疗等一批跨产业新兴业务。随着智能手机和物联网技术的日益成熟,新兴媒体将衍生出更多新的商业模式和服务业态,可穿戴设备、车联网、智能家居、智能交通等涉及娱乐、商务、生活的新应用服务层出不穷,并展现出强大的发展潜力。(二)中国新兴媒体发展概况与特点1.国家新兴媒体战略和政策法规不断完善

2013年以来,中国加强了新兴媒体战略的顶层设计。◎ 完善互联网管理领导体制

2013年8月19日,全国宣传思想工作会议在北京召开,习近平总书记到会并发表了重要讲话。他专门指出,要健全基础管理、内容管理、行业管理以及网络违法犯罪防范和打击等工作联动机制,健全网络突发事件处置机制,形成正面引导和依法管理相结合的网络舆论工作格局。他强调,互联网已经成为舆论斗争的主战场,要把网上舆论工作作为宣传思想工作的重中之重来抓,使网络空间清朗起来。

2013年11月15日,党的十八届三中全会审议通过《中共中央关于全面深化改革若干重大问题的决定》,特别强调加快完善互联网管理领导体制。《决定》指出,网络和信息安全牵涉到国家安全和社会稳定,是我们面临的新的综合性挑战。从实践看,面对互联网技术和应用飞速发展,现行管理体制存在明显弊端,主要是多头管理、职能交叉、权责不一、效率不高。同时,随着互联网媒体属性越来越强,网上媒体管理和产业管理远远跟不上形势发展变化。特别是面对传播快、影响大、覆盖广、社会动员能力强的微客、微信等社交网络和即时通信工具用户的快速增长,如何加强网络法制建设和舆论引导,确保网络信息传播秩序和国家安全、社会稳定,已经成为摆在我们面前的现实突出问题。《决定》提出坚持积极利用、科学发展、依法管理、确保安全的方针,加大依法管理网络力度,完善互联网管理领导体制,目的是整合相关机构职能,形成从技术到内容、从日常安全到打击犯罪的互联网管理合力,确保网络正确运用和安全。

2014年2月27日,中央网络安全和信息化领导小组宣告成立。该领导小组着眼国家安全和长远发展,统筹协调涉及经济、政治、文化、社会及军事等各个领域的网络安全和信息化重大问题,研究制定网络安全和信息化发展战略、宏观规划和重大政策,推动国家网络安全和信息化法治建设,不断增强安全保障能力。中央网络安全和信息化领导小组的成立是以规格高、力度大、立意远来统筹指导中国迈向网络强国的发展战略,是在中央层面设立的一个更强有力、更有权威性的机构,体现了中国最高层全面深化改革、加强顶层设计的意志,显示出在保障网络安全、维护国家利益、推动信息化发展方面的决心。

这是中共落实十八届三中全会精神的又一重大举措,是中国网络安全和信息化国家战略迈出的重要一步,标志着这个拥有6亿网民的网络大国加速向网络强国挺进。◎ 提出从新兴媒体大国走向新兴媒体强国的战略目标

2014年2月,习近平总书记主持召开中央网络安全和信息化领导小组第一次会议并发表重要讲话。他强调,网络安全和信息化是事关国家安全和国家发展、事关广大人民群众工作生活的重大战略问题,

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