托福考试官方指南解析(新东方)(txt+pdf+epub+mobi电子书下载)

作者:金鑫

出版社:北京语言大学出版社

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托福考试官方指南解析(新东方)

托福考试官方指南解析(新东方)试读:

前言

托福考试是进入国外大学深造的敲门砖,优秀的托福成绩会为我们进入理想的学校提供更多的机会。作为一名从业十年的托福老师,我一直和广大托福考生一起奋斗在备考的第一线,也一直在尽最大的努力通过自己托福教学的经验帮助更多的学生进入世界名校。《托福考试官方指南》(The Official Guide to the TOEFL Test,简称OG)作为托福考试唯一命题中心ETS出版的权威指南,在学生的考试准备过程中起着举足轻重的作用。但是,OG中对考试的介绍只是提纲挈领的,对于题目的解析也比较简单,没有系统性、规律性的题型归类和解题方法,也没有专门适合中国考生的备考指导和答题技巧。对于考生来说,这无疑是个很大的缺憾。为了满足这个需求,这是我第二次为OG做出全方位的深度解析,与旧版解析不同的是,本书针对OG里面所出现的文章与题目给予了更加详细的解释,并增加了新版OG中新增内容的剖析。本书紧抓ETS命题思路,致力于帮助考生更好地掌握托福考试的答题方法以及理解问题的角度,在备考的过程中少走弯路。

听力部分中,OG中每一道听力题目都有详细的解析。解题关键句在听力原文中进行标注,并和正确答案一一对应,以相当直观的形式呈现出来,简洁明了,同时辅以中文解答,帮助考生训练在听力过程中捕捉重点信息的能力。“听力思路与考点总结”列举出关键性的、规律性的词句,需要在听力过程中重点关注,对后面的解题有重要的提示作用,往往是考点所在。

阅读部分中,OG中每一篇阅读文章同样都配有精细的讲解。每篇文章都给出了文章结构框架和重点词汇,能够对理解文章内容和解题起到有效的辅助作用。书中对题目进行了归类,并总结了各类题型的经典解题方法;考生可以将这些方法推而广之,应用到具体的解题当中。此外,关键词和定位句将题目和原文建立起直接的对应联系,解题思路实用又简捷,同时总结了正确选项和错误选项的特征,帮助考生提高解题速度。

本书是理论大纲和实战经验的结晶,是浓缩的精华,相信对考生备考托福有核心的指导性作用。不过需要说明的一点是,本书没有包含口语和写作两部分,主要是因为这两部分属于语言输出性题目,非一日之功,不是学习一些纯粹的技能就能提高的,建议考生通过吸收大量的语料来提高口语和写作能力。本书中不再赘述。

人生最幸福的事情就是为了梦想而奋斗,而托福考试是我们触及梦想的第一步。只有在理解了考试命题思路的同时,运用恰当的方法,才能获得最终的成功。我希望通过阅读这本书,考生能够在深入了解托福考试的基础上,有效改善逻辑思维能力,这种能力的培养对进入国外学校继续深造有着深远的意义。

很感谢一直以来支持与关爱我的同事们和朋友们、感谢我的学生们,正是你们促使我在托福教学的道路上不断地努力、不断地进步。

亲爱的考生朋友,如果你对某些题目或者某些方法有进一步的见解与想法,欢迎随时和我联系。祝你们都考出好成绩,早日进入自己理想的学校!编者TOEFL iBT Listening(听力部分)Listening Practice SetsPractice Set 1对话‖关于气象变化的论文写作题目解析1Professor

Sure,John.What did you wanna talk about?Student

Well,I have some quick questions about how to write up the research project I did this semester——about climate variations.

Why does the man go to see his professor?①②(A)To borrowsome charts and graphsfrom her(B)To ask her to explain some statistical procedures(C)To talk about a report he is writing(D)To discuss a grade he got on a paper①

选项(A),对话中未提到过任何关于“borrow…”的信息,故②此选项错误。“charts and graphs”都是细节信息,不能成为主旨题的正确选项。

选项(B)中的“statistical procedures”这个概念对话中并未提及。对话中提到的是“statistical tests”,且属于细节信息,故不是正确答案。

选项(D)中的“grade”是对话中未提及的内容,一定错误。听力技巧:在听力部分,ETS经常用原文中并未出现的一些信息作为题目的迷惑选项,此类选项必错。该类选项中未被提及的内容在以下题目中均已用删除线标明,以后不再重复说明。2Professor

You know,you have to remember now that you're the expert on what you’ve done.So,think about what you'd need to include if you were going to explain your research project to someone with general or casual knowledge about the subject,like…like your parents.That's usually my rule of thumb:would my parents understand this?Student

OK.I get it.Professor

I hope you can recognize by my saying that how much you do know about the subject.

Listen again to part of the conversation.

Then answer the question.

Why does the professor say this?(A)To question the length of the paper(B)To offer encouragement(C)To dispute the data sources(D)To explain a theory

由“You know,you have to remember now that you're the expert on what you’ve done.So,…”这两句话我们可以知道,教授所要强调的是学生要有信心,把自己当做该课题的研究专家,然后考虑报告里到底还应该加一些什么内容。因此,在教授说“I hope you can recognize by my saying that how much you do know about the subject”这句话时,仍然是要强调她所表达的中心意思。只有选项(B)的内容与此相关,故正确。(A)(D)两选项中删除线所标内容在对话中完全未提及,故教授说话的目的不可能与这两项的内容相关。选项(C)中的data sources是对话中间部分提及的内容,而本题考点出现在前半部分,此内容位置与考点位置不对应,因此不能成为本题的正确答案。3Student

Right.I understand.I was wondering if I should also include the notes from the research journal you suggested I keep?Professor

Yes,definitely.You should use them to indicate what your evolution in thought was through time.So,just set up,you know,what was the purpose of what you were doing——to try to understand the climate variability of this area——and what you did,and what your approach was.Student

OK.So,for example,I studied meteorological records;I looked at climate charts;I used different methods for analyzing the data,like certain statistical tests;and then I discuss the results.Is that what you mean?Professor

Yes,that's right.You should include all of that.The statistical tests are especially important.And also be sure you include a good reference section where all your published and unpublished data came from,'cause you have a lot of unpublished climate data.

What information will the man include in his report?

Climate charts (include)

Interviews with meteorologists(not include)

Journal notes (include)

Statistical tests (include)

本题是对细节信息的考查。4Student

Hmm…something justcame into my mind and went out the other side.(=forgetful)Professor

That happens to me a lot,so I’ve come up with a pretty good memory management tool.I carry a little pad with me all the time and jot down questions or ideas that I don't want to forget.For example,I went to the doctor with my daughter and her baby son last week,and we knew we wouldn't remember everything we wanted to ask the doctor,so we actually made a list of five things we wanted answers to.

Why does the professor tell the man about the appointment at the doctor's office?(A)To demonstrate a way of remembering things(B)To explain why she needs to leave soon(C)To illustrate a point that appears in his report(D)To emphasize the importance of good health

首先请注意一个表达:Something just came into my mind and went out the other side=forgetful。学生说“我总是记不住事情”,对此教授解释道“这种事也经常发生在我身上,所以我想出一个非常好的记忆管理方法。我总是带一个小便签本,把我不想忘的问题和想法随手写下来。比如说,上次我陪我的女儿和她的小孩去看医生……”因此,教授提到去看医生的目的是为了说明一种防止忘记事情的方法,即把事情写在便签本上。选项(A)正确。5Student

Yes.It ends up that I have data on more than just the immediate Grant City area,so I also included some regional data in the report.With everything else it should be a pretty good indicator of the climate in this part of the state.Professor

Sounds good.I'd be happy to look over a draft version before you hand in the final copy,if you wish.Student

Great.I'll plan to get you a draft of the paper by next Friday.Thanks very much.

What does the professor offer to do for the man?(A)Help him collect more data in other areas of the state(B)Submit his research findings for publication(C)Give him the doctor's telephone number(D)Review the first version of his report

请注意两组同义表达:look over=review;draft version=first version听力思路及考点总结1.Uh,excuse me,Professor Thompson.I know your office hours are tomorrow,but I was wondering if you had a few minutes free now to discuss something.★But之后的内容往往是考点。★I was wondering if之后的内容要注意听,往往是考点。2.Sure,John.What did you wanna talk about?这种疑问句后的内容要注意听。原文中对这个疑问句的回答是第一题的正确答案。3.Yes,that's right.You should include all of that.The statistical tests are especially important.★“You should…”是一种典型的建议句型。建议句型在听力中出现时,往往成为考点。常考到的建议句型还有:Have you done…?You might (also)…If I were you (in your shoes),I would…It doesn't hurt if you do…Why not do…?★“…are especially important.”这种句子一定要听清楚,它本身就在强调这个内容是重要的,必为考点。4.I'd be happy to look over a draft version before you hand in the final copy,if you wish.在这种句型中,“if you wish”之前的内容经常成为考点。Practice Set 2讲座‖哲学·古希腊哲学家亚里士多德的伦理理论——快乐题目解析1

OK.Another ancient Greek philosopher we need to discuss is Aristotle——Aristotle's ethical theory.What Aristotle's ethical theory is all about is this:he's trying to show you how to be happy——what true happiness is.

Now,Why is he interested in human happiness?It's not just because it's something that all people want or aim for.It's more than that.But to get there,we need to first make a very important distinction.Let me introduce a couple of technical terms:extrinsic value and intrinsic value.

What is the main purpose of the lecture?(A)To illustrate the importance of extrinsic values(B)To explain Aristotle's views about the importance of teaching(C)To explain why people change what they value(D)To discuss Aristotle's views about human happiness

教授先讲extrinsic value 和intrinsic value的区别,目的是为了解释之后的主题happiness。整个讲座都是围绕着happiness这个主题进行的,故本题答案为选项(D)。

选项(A)…extrinsic values和选项(B)…teaching均为讲座中的细节信息,不可以成为主旨题的正确答案。2

Exercise.There may be some people who value exercise for itself,but I don't.I value exercise because if I exercise,I tend to stay healthier than I would if I didn't.So I desire to engage in exercise,and I value exercise extrinsically…not for its own sake,but as a means to something beyond it.It brings me good health.

Health.Why do I value good health?Well,here it gets a little more complicated for me.Um,health is important for me because I can't…do other things I wanna do——play music,teach philosophy——if I'm ill.So health is important to me——has value to me——as a means to a productive life.But health is also important to me because I just kind of like to be healthy——it feels good.It's pleasant to be healthy,unpleasant not to be.So to some degree I value health both for itself and as a means to something else:productivity.It's got extrinsic and intrinsic value for me.

Then there's some things that are just valued for themselves.I'm a musician,not a professional musician;I just play a musical instrument for fun.Why do I value playing music?Well,like most amateur musicians,I only play because,well,I just enjoy it.It's something that's an end in itself.

Now,something else I value is teaching.Why?Well,it brings in a modest income,but I could make more money doing other things.I'd do it even if they didn't pay me.I just enjoy teaching.In that sense it's an end to itself.

But teaching's not something that has intrinsic value for all people——and that's true generally…(Teaching →Intrinsic)

The professor gives examples of things that have value for her.Indicate for each example what type of value it has for her.

Teaching (Intrinsic)

Exercise (Extrinsic)

Health (Both Extrinsic and Intrinsic)

Playing a musical instrument (Intrinsic)

在做本题时,除了以上被标明的几句话之外,大家应该注意一些核心意思在讲座中的重复,与itself alone,for its own sake意思相关的全属于intrinsic value;与not for itself,as a means to something else意思相关的全属于extrinsic value。3

So how does all this relate to human happiness?Well,Aristotle asks:is there something that all human beings value…and value only intrinsically,for its own sake and only for its own sake?If you could find such a thing,that would be the universal final good,or truly the ultimate purpose or goal for all human beings.Aristotle thought the answer was yes.What is it?Happiness.Everyone will agree,he argues,that happiness is the ultimate end to be valued for itself and really only for itself.For what other purpose is there in being happy?What does it yield?The attainment of happiness becomes the ultimate or highest good for Aristotle.

Why is happiness central to Aristotle's theory?(A)Because it is so difficult for people to attain(B)Because it is valued for its own sake by all people(C)Because it is a means to a productive life(D)Because most people agree about what happiness is

教授讲extrinsic value 和intrinsic value的区别是为了引出人们只用intrinsic value衡量的事物——happiness。所以此题选(B)。

选项(A)的内容在讲座中未提及。选项(C)中的productive life确实曾被提及,不过是在衡量health时提到的,出现在本题考点内容之前,与本题考点位置不对应。选项(D)完全错误,教授在提到what is happiness这个话题时指明了people disagree。4

And,second,true happiness should be something that I can obtain on my own.I shouldn't have to rely on other people for it.Many people value fame and seek fame.Fame for them becomes the goal.But,according to Aristotle,this won't work either,because fame depends altogether too much on other people.I can't get it on my own,without help from other people.

According to the professor,why does Aristotle think that fame cannot provide true happiness?(A)Fame cannot be obtained without help from other people.(B)Fame cannot be obtained by all people.(C)Fame does not last forever.(D)People cannot share their fame with other people.

此题答案在讲座中已经明确给出。正确答案为选项(A)。5

Listen again to part of the lecture.

Then answer the question.

Now,something else I value is teaching.Why?Well,it brings in a modest income,but I could make more money doing other things.

What does the professor mean when she says this?(A)Teaching is not a highly valued profession in society.(B)She may change professions in order to earn more money.(C)The reason she is a teacher has little to do with her salary.(D)More people would become teachers if the salary were higher.

教授在讲她自己喜欢教学,她value teaching intrinsically,即:对教学的评价不受其他因素的影响。并且,教授说“虽然教学能给我带来不错的收入,但如果我做其他的工作,可以赚更多的钱”。这表明收入并不是她喜欢教学的原因。选项(C)指明了这一点,故正确。听力思路及考点总结1.Another ancient Greek philosopher we need to discuss is Aristotle——Aristotle's ethical theory.What Aristotle's ethical theory is all about is this:he's trying to show you how to be happy——what true happiness is.“Another…we need to discuss is…”这是引出文章主旨的一种表达方法,常常用来回答主旨题。2.Why is he interested in human happiness?It's not just because…“It's not just because…”这句话中有明确的否定词,不用仔细听,但需要注意听它的真正原因是什么,即“it is because…”。一般情况下,听力中有明确否定词的地方,一般不会成为考点,不用认真听。但要注意与之相对应的肯定句所在的地方。此外,若听力中出现neither,hardly,doubt这类词时,要注意这些词所在的句子,它们虽然是肯定的形式,但实际上却表示否定,如“I could hardly wait”表达的意义是“我等不及了”。这些词所在的句子往往成为考点。3.Let me introduce a couple of technical terms:extrinsic value and intrinsic value.“Let me…”引导的内容需要认真听,它是说话者所要强调的内容,容易成为考点。4.Why do I value playing music?Well,like most amateur musicians,I only play because,well,I just enjoy it.It's something that's an end in itself.这是一个自问自答式的表达,往往有考点出现。听清问题后,只需要听出主要答案,对于答案的具体解释稍加注意即可,因为考点通常是这个主要答案,并不是对它的具体解释。题目中,教授的提问会成为最终的问题,而这个主要答案就是这道题的正确选项。Practice Set 3讲座‖心理学·行为理论题目解析1

What is the professor mainly discussing?(A)The development of motor skills in children(B)How psychologists measure muscle activity in the throat(C)A theory about the relationship between muscle activity and thinking(D)A study on deaf people's problem-solving techniques“Thinking can be measured as muscle activity”这个观点在讲座中被反复提及,故本主旨题的正确选项为(C)。

选项(A)中motor skill是讲座中从未提及的内容,必错。选项(B)中muscle activity in the throat和选项(D)中deaf people都是细节信息,不能成为主旨题的正确答案。听力技巧:若在整篇文章中被反复提及的内容在主旨题的选项中出现,则该选项为正确答案。2

Watson thought laryngeal habits——you know,from larynx;in other words,related to the voice box——he thought those habits were an expression of thinking.

Listen again to part of the lecture.

Then answer the question.

Why does the professor say this?(A)To give an example of a laryngeal habit(B)To explain the meaning of a term(C)To explain why he is discussing laryn-geal habits(D)To remind students of a point he had discussed previously“…in other words…”这个表达表明教授一定是要解释刚刚提到的术语或问题。考生必须熟记。与此功能相似的表达还有I mean…,that is (to say)…,Let's put it this way…等。在讲座中,教授提到了“laryngeal habits”这个术语,这句话的出现表明教授接下来要解释这个术语,故选项(B)正确。

若出现“Oh,no.Wait a minute…”这种表达则表明说话者说错了话,他/她要更正这个错误。若出现“Tell me about it”或“You can say that again”这种表达则表明说话者同意前一个说话人的观点。3Student

Professor Blake,um,did he happen to look at people who sign?I mean deaf people?Professor

Uh,he did indeed,um,and to jump ahead,what one finds in deaf individuals who use sign language when they're given problems of various kinds,they have muscular changes in their hands when they are trying to solve a problem…muscle changes in the hand,just like the muscular changes going on in the throat region for speaking individuals.

What does the professor say about people who use sign language?(A)It is not possible to study their thinking habits.(B)They exhibit laryngeal habits.(C)The muscles in their hands move when they solve problems.(D)They do not exhibit ideomotor action.

本题是对细节信息的考查,选项(C)与原文意思完全对应,故正确。注意本题出题点的设置,位于讲座中“问题——回答”的地方,即有问有答之处。上文讲过,这种位置经常是考点。

选项(D)中的ideomotor action是在此内容之后提到的,出现在本题考点位置之后,与本题考点位置不对应,故错误。4

Ideomotor action is an activity that occurs without our noticing it,without our being aware of it.I'll give you one simple example.If you think of locations,there tends to be eye movement that occurs with your thinking about that location.In particular,from where we're sitting,imagine that you're asked to think of our university library.Well,if you close your eyes and think of the library,and if you're sitting directly facing me,then according to this notion,your eyeballs will move slightly to the left,to your left,’cause the library's in that general direction.

What point does the professor make when he refers to the university library?(A)A study on problem solving took place there.(B)Students should go there to read more about behaviorism.(C)Students’eyes will turn toward it if they think about it.(D)He learned about William James's concept of thinking there.

教授提到图书馆这个例子就是为了说明“If you think of locations,there tends to be eye movement that occurs with your thinking about that location”(如果你在想某个地方,你的眼球就会转向那个方位)这句话。所以当学生们想着图书馆时,他们的眼球会转向图书馆的方向。故选项(C)正确。5

Ideomotor action is an activity that occurs without our noticing it,without our being aware of it.I'll give you one simple example.If you think of locations,there tends to be eye movement that occurs with your thinking about that location.In particular,from where we're sitting,imagine that you're asked to think of our university library.Well,if you close your eyes and think of the library,and if you're sitting directly facing me,then according to this notion,your eyeballs will move slightly to the left,to your left,’cause the library's in that general direction.

James and others said that this is an idea leading to a motor action,and that's why it's called“ideomotor action”——an idea leads to motor activity.If you wish to impress your friends and relatives,you can change this simple process into a magic trick.Ask people to do something such as I’ve just described:think of something on their left;think of something on their right.You get them to think about two things on either side with their eyes closed,and you watch their eyes very carefully.And if you do that,you'll discover that you can see rather clearly the eye movement——that is,you can see the movement of the eyeballs.Now,then you say,“Think of either one and I'll tell which you're thinking of.”

The professor describes a magic trick to the class.What does the magic trick demonstrate?(A)An action people make that they are not aware of(B)That behaviorists are not really scientists(C)How psychologists study children(D)A method for remembering locations

教授用两个例子(例1:当学生们想到图书馆时,他们的眼球会不自觉地转向图书馆的方向。例2:学生们可以去给别人变一个小魔术magic trick)支持同一个观点“Ideomotor action is an activity that occurs without our noticing it,without our being aware of it.”只有选项(A)指出了这个例子要说明的问题。6

OK.Well,Watson makes the assumption that muscular activity is equivalent to thinking.But given everything we've been talking about here,one has to ask:are there alternatives to this motor theory——this claim that muscular activities are equivalent to thinking?Is there anything else that might account for this change in muscular activity,other than saying that it is thinking?And the answer is clearly yes.Is there any way to answer the question definitively?I think the answer is no.

What is the professor's opinion of the motor theory of thinking?(A)Most of the evidence he has collected contradicts it.(B)It explains adult behavior better than it explains child behavior.(C)It is the most valid theory of thinking at the present time.(D)It cannot be completely proved or disproved.

教授表明存在能够解释这个问题的其他理论,但却没有一个完全可以确定的理论,也就是说motor theory of thinking不能完全被证明是正确的或是错误的,即选项(D)。听力思路及考点总结1.That is,if you put electrodes on the throat and measure muscle potential——muscle activity——you discover that when people are thinking,like if they're diligently trying to solve a problem,that there is muscular activity in the throat region.“That is”之后的内容要注意听,它是对前句话的解释,经常成为考点。2.StudentProfessor Blake,um,did he happen to look at people who sign?I mean deaf people?ProfessorUh,he did indeed,um,and to jump ahead,what one finds in deaf individuals who use sign language when they're given problems of various kinds,they have muscular changes in their hands when they are trying to solve a problem…muscle changes in the hand,just like the muscular changes going on in the throat region for speaking individuals.学生提问教授回答,或者是教授自问自答的这两种“问题——回答”模式经常成为考点。大家在听录音时,一定要注意位于这种位置的内容。3.Ideomotor action is an activity that occurs without our noticing it,without our being aware of it.I'll give you one simple example.“Ideomotor action is…”这种表达通常是要下定义,而定义的出现是为了解释一个新的概念。考生若在听力考试时遇到下定义的句型,只需要知道新的概念大约表达了一个什么意思即可。但在本文中,“I'll give you one simple example”表示教授还要就这个概念举例,说明这个概念在文章中很重要。此时,考生就必须对这个概念所要表达的内容有清晰的记忆,它常常会成为考点。4.Are there alternatives to this motor theory——this claim that muscular activities are equivalent to thinking?Is there anything else that might account for this change in muscular activity,other than saying that it is thinking?And the answer is clearly yes.Is there any way to answer the question definitively?I think the answer is no.这组句子很有代表性,经常在听力中出现。它所要表达的整体意思是“对某个问题目前还没有定论,还在讨论之中”。当考到对这类句子意思的理解时,直接选表达这个意思的选项即可。

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