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School and Home Cooking

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

FOREWORD

DIVISION ONE

INTRODUCTION

I. Baked Apples—Dishwashing

II. Measurements—Stuffed and Scalloped Tomatoes

III. Fuels and Combustion—Sauted and Baked Squash

IV. Coal Ranges—Corn Dishes

V. Gas Ranges—Scalloped Fruit

VI. Stoves and Heating Devices—Stuffed Peppers, Butterscotch Apples

DIVISION TWO

BODY-REGULATING FOOD—WATER

VII. Water and Beverages (A)

VIII. Water and Beverages (B)

RELATED WORK

IX. Home Projects

X. Afternoon Tea

DIVISION THREE

BODY-BUILDING AND BODY-REGULATING FOODS,—RICH IN ASH (MINERAL MATTER)

XI. Fresh Vegetables (A)

XII. Fresh Vegetables (B)

XIII. Fresh Fruits

RELATED WORK

LESSON

XIV. Review: Meal Cooking

XV. Home Projects

DIVISION FOUR

ENERGY-GIVING OR FUEL FOODS,—RICH IN CARBOHYDRATES

XVI. Sugar: Digestion of Sugar

XVII. Sugar-rich Fruits: Dried Fruits (A)

XVIII. Sugar-rich Fruits: Dried Fruits (B)

XIX. Cereals: Starch and Cellulose

XX. Cereals: Rice (A)

XXI. Cereals: Rice (B)

XXII. Cereals and the Fireless Cooker

XXIII. Cereals for Frying or Baking

XXIV. Powdered Cereals Used for Thickening

XXV. Toast: Digestion of Starch

XXVI. Root Vegetables (A)

XXVII. Root Vegetables (B)

XXVIII. Root Vegetables (C)

XXIX. Starchy Foods Cooked at High Temperature

RELATED WORK

XXX. Dining Room Service

XXXI. Cooking and Serving Breakfast

XXXII. Review: Meal Cooking

XXXIII. Home Projects

DIVISION FIVE

ENERGY-GIVING OR FUEL FOODS,—RICH IN FATS AN OILS

XXXIV. Fat as a Frying Medium

XXXV. Fat as a Frying Medium—Food Fats

XXXVI. Fat as a Frying Medium—Digestion of Fat

XXXVII. Fat Saving

RELATED WORK

XXXVIII. Dining Room Courtesy

XXXIX. Cooking and Serving Breakfast

XL. Review: Meal Cooking

XLI. Home Projects

DIVISION SIX

ENERGY-GIVING AND BODY-BUILDING FOODS,—RICH IN PROTEIN

XLII. Eggs

XLIII. Eggs: Digestion of Protein

XLIV. Eggs: Omelets (A)

XLV. Eggs: Omelets (B)

XLVI. Milk

XLVII. Milk with Cocoa and Chocolate

XLVIII. Milk and Cream

XLIX. Cream Soups (A)

L. Cream Soups (B)

LI. Milk Thickened with Egg (A)

LII. Milk Thickened with Egg (B)

LIII. Milk Thickened with Egg (C)

LIV. Milk Thickened with Egg and Starchy Materials (A)

LV. Milk Thickened with Egg and Starchy Materials (B)

LVI. Milk Thickened with Egg and Starchy Materials (C)

LVII. Cheese (A)

LVIII. Cheese (B)

LIX. Structure of Beef—Methods of Cooking Tender Cuts

LX. Beef: Methods of Cooking Tender Cuts (Applied to Chopped Beef) (A)

LXI. Beef: Methods of Cooking Tender Cuts (Applied to Chopped Beef) (B)

LXIL. Beef: Methods of Cooking Tough Cuts (A)

LXIII. Beef; Methods of Cooking Tough Cuts (B)

LXIV. Beef: Methods of Cooking Tough Cuts (C)

LXV. Beef: Methods of Cooking Tough Cuts (D)

LXVI. Beef: Uses of Cooked Beef

LXVII. Gelatine (A)

LXVIIL. Gelatine (B)

LXIX. Fish (A)

LXX. Fish (B)

LXXI. Fish (C)

LXXII. Legumes (A)

LXXIII. Legumes (B)

LXXIV. Legumes (C)

RELATED WORK

LXXV. Cost of Food

LXXVI. Cooking and Serving a Breakfast

LXXVII. Review: Meal Cooking

LXXVIII. Home Projects

DIVISION SEVEN

HEALTH AND GROWTH-PROMOTING FOODS,—RICH IN VITAMINES

LXXIX. Vitamines—Vegetables of Delicate Flavor

LXXX. Vitamines—Vegetables of Strong Flavor

LXXXI. Salads (A)

LXXXII. Salads (B)

LXXXIII. Classification of Foodstuffs

RELATED WORK

LXXXIV. Selecting Food

LXXXV. Cooking and Serving a Luncheon or Supper

LXXXVL. Review: Meal Cooking

LXXXVII. Home Projects

DIVISION EIGHT

FLAVORING MATERIALS: FOOD ADJUNCTS

LXXXVIII. Food Adjuncts—Dishes Containing Food Adjuncts

RELATED WORK

LXXXIX. Spending for Food

XC. Cooking and Serving a Luncheon or Supper

XCI. Review: Meal Cooking

XCII. Home Projects

DIVISION NINE

FOOD COMBINATIONS

XCIII. Vegetables with Salad Dressing (A)

XCIV. Vegetables with Salad Dressing (B)

XCV. Fish Salad and Salad Rolls

XCVI. Cream of Tomato Soup and Cheese Straws

XCVII. Veal and Potatoes

XCVIII. Mutton and Lamb Dishes

XCIX. Pork, Vegetables, and Apple Sauce

C. Chicken and Rice

CI. Chicken and Peas

CII. Oyster Dishes

CIII. Meat-substitute Dishes

CIV. Meat Extenders and One-dish Meals

RELATED WORK

CV. Menu-making

CVI. Planning, Cooking, and Serving a Luncheon or Supper

CVII. Review: Meal Cooking

CVIII. Home Projects

DIVISION TEN

QUICK BREADS: POUR BATTERS

CIX. Leavening with Steam and Air: Popovers

CX. Leavening with Baking Soda and Sour Milk: Spider Corn Bread

CXI. Leavening with Baking Soda, Sour Milk, and Molasses: Gingerbread

CXII. Leavening with Baking Powder: Griddle Cakes

CXIII. Leavening with Baking Soda, Sour Milk, and Baking Powder: Sour MilkGriddle Cakes

CXIV. Leavening with Baking Soda, Sour Milk, and Cream of Tartar: SteamedBrown Breads

CXV. Formulating Recipes—Waffles

RELATED WORK

CXVI. Measurement of the Fuel Value of Foods

CXVII. Planning, Cooking, and Serving a Dinner

CXVIII. Review: Meal Cooking

CXIX. Home Projects

DIVISION ELEVEN

QUICK BREADS: DROP BATTERS

CXX. Fine and Coarse Flours—Muffins

CXXI. Comparison of Wheat and Other Grains—Muffins

CXXII. Baking Powder Loaf Breads

CXXIII. Eggs for Quick Breads—Cream Puffs

RELATED WORK

CXXIV. Food Requirement

CXXV. Planning, Cooking, and Serving a Dinner

CXXVI. Review: Meal Cooking

CXXVII. Home Projects

DIVISION TWELVE

QUICK BREADS: SOFT DOUGHS

CXXVIII. Method of Mixing Fat in Quick Breads—Drop Biscuit

CXXIX. Quantity of Fat in Quick Breads—Short Cake

CXXX. "Cut" Biscuit

RELATED WORK

CXXXI. Measurement of the Fuel Value of Food Applied to the Daily FoodRequirement.

CXXXII. Planning, Cooking, and Serving a Dinner.

CXXXIII. Review: Meal Cooking.

CXXXIV. Home Projects.

DIVISION THIRTEEN

YEAST BREADS: STIFF DOUGHS

CXXXV. Yeast—Loaf Bread.

CXXXVI. Wheat Flour—Bread Sponge.

CXXXVII. Modifications of Plain White Bread.

CXXXVIII. Rolls and Buns.

RELATED WORK

CXXXIX. Food for Girls and Boys.

CXL. Planning a Day's Diet—Cooking and Serving a Meal.

CXLI. Review: Meal Cooking.

CXLII. Home Projects.

DIVISION FOURTEEN

CAKE

CXLIII. Cake without Fat—Sponge Cake.

CXLIV. Cake Containing Fat—One-egg Cake.

CXLV. Cake Containing Fat—Plain Cake and Its Modifications (A)

CXLVI. Cake Containing Fat—Plain Cake and Its Modifications (B)

CXLVII. Cake Containing Fat—Cookies

CXLVIII. Cakes without Eggs

RELATED WORK

CXLIX. The Luncheon Box

CL. Planning and Preparing Box Luncheons

CLI. Review—Meal Cooking

CLII. Home Projects

DIVISION FIFTEEN

PASTRY

CLIII. Pies with Under Crust

CLIV. Pies with Upper Crust

CLV. Two-crust Pies

RELATED WORK

CLVI. Infant Feeding

CLVII. Modifying Milk

CLVIII. Review—Meal Cooking

CLIX. Home Projects

DIVISION SIXTEEN

FROZEN DESSERTS

CLX. Method of Freezing—Water Ice

CLXI. Frozen Creams

RELATED WORK

CLXII. Diet for Young Children

CLXIII. Planning and Preparing Menus for Children

CLXIV. Review—Meal Cooking

CLXV. Home Projects

DIVISION SEVENTEEN

FOOD PRESERVATION

CLXVI. The Principles of Preserving Food

CLXVII. Processing with Little or No Sugar—Canned Fruit

CLXVIII. Processing with Much Sugar—Preserves, Jams, and Conserves

CLXIX. Processing with Much Sugar—Jellies

CLXX. Processing with Vinegar and Spices—Relishes

CLXXI. Canned Vegetables

CLXXII. Dried Vegetables

RELATED WORK

CLXXIII. The Sick-room Tray

CLXXIV. Preparing Trays for the Sick and Convalescent

CLXXV. Review—Meal Cooking

CLXXVI. Home Projects

DIVISION EIGHTEEN

SUPPLEMENTARY

I. Thanksgiving Sauce

II. Thanksgiving Desserts

III. Christmas Sweets

IV. Christmas Candy

APPENDIX

Suggestions for Teaching

Books for Reference

INDEX

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

A corner in Washington's kitchen at Mt. Vernon [Frontispiece]

1. Skewer and knitting needle for testing foods

2. A sink arranged for efficiency in dish-washing

3. Utensils for dish-washing

4. Dish-drainer

5. Dish-drainer

6. Dish-rack

7. Dish-rack

8. A rack for drying dishes

9. Utensils for measuring and weighing foods

10. Coal range, showing course of direct draft

11. Coal range, showing course of indirect draft

12. Gas burner, showing mixer

13. Gas burners

14. Gas range, showing direction of draft

15. Cross-section of wickless kerosene stove

16. Electric range

17. Pressure cooker

18. Steam cooker, containing various foods

19. Scene on a tea plantation

20. Tea-ball teapot

21. Coffee berries

22. Coffee percolator

23. Grains of starch

24. A cupful of rice before and after boiling

25. Insulated wall of a refrigerator

26. Fireless cooker, having excelsior packing

27. Fireless cooker, with stone disks

28. Electric fireless cooker

29. Gas range, having fireless cooker attachment, insulated oven and hoods

30. Method of folding filter paper

31. Utensil for steaming,—a "steamer"

32. "Steam" without pressure, and "steam" which has been under pressure

33. Table laid for an informal luncheon

34. Wheel tray

35. How to hold the knife and fork

36. Keeping the fork in the left hand to carry food to the mouth

37. The teaspoon should rest on the saucer

38. How to hold the soup spoon

39. Apparatus to determine the temperature at which eggs coagulate

40. Method of holding pan to turn an omelet on to a platter

41. Cocoa pods

42. Dried bread crumbs

43. Structure of meat

44. Club or Delmonico steak

45. Porterhouse

46. Sirloin,—hip steak

47. Sirloin,—flat bone

48. Sirloin,—round bone

49. First cut prime rib roast

50. Second cut prime rib roast

51. Blade rib roast

52. Chuck rib roast

53. Colonial fireplace, showing a "roasting kitchen"

54. Round

55. Chuck

56. Cuts of beef

57. Rump

58. Cross rib, Boston cut, or English cut

59. Skirt steak; flank steak

60. Fish kettle, showing rack

61. A suggestion for the division of each dollar spent for food

62. The composition of roots and succulent vegetables

63. The composition of butter and other fat-yielding foods

64. The composition of milk and milk products

65. Cuts of veal

66. Cuts of lamb or mutton

67. Lamb chops

68. The composition of fresh and cured meats

69. Cuts of pork

70. The composition of fresh and dried fruits

71. Removing tendons from the leg of a fowl

72. Fowl trussed for roasting,—breast view

73. Fowl trussed for roasting,—back view

74. Composition of fish, fish products, and oysters

75. The composition of eggs and cheese

76. The composition of legumes and corn

77. The composition of bread and other cereal foods

78. Foods containing calcium

79. Foods containing phosphorus

80. Foods containing iron

81. Oven heat regulator

82. Illustrating the amount of heat represented by one Calorie

83. Comparative weights of 100-Calorie portions of food

84. 100-Calorie portions of food

85. Longitudinal section of wheat grain, showing bran, floury part, and germ

86. Growing yeast plants

87. Graduated measure and dipper for measuring the ingredients of modified milk

88. Some species of molds

89. The four types of bacteria

90. Canning foods

91. Rack for holding jars

92. The composition of fruits and fruit products

93. Drier for vegetables or fruits

94. The composition of sugar and similar foods

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

1. Measurement equivalents.

2. Use of the wooden spoon.

3. Lack of draft.

4. Presence of draft.

5. The regulation and purpose of a gas mixer.

6. The dissolving power of water.

7. Presence of gases in water. 8. Simmering and boiling of water.

9. Tannin in tea.

10. The solubility of granulated sugar in cold water.

11. The solubility of granulated sugar in hot water.

12. The solubility of powdered sugar.

13. The solubility of caramel.

14. The starch test.

15. The effect of cold water on starch.

16. The effect of heat on starch.

17. Stiffening of cooked starch.

18. The structure of starch.

19. Separation of cellulose and starch.

20. The difference in the nutritive value of boiled rice and rice cooked over boiling water.

21. Retention of heat.

22. Starch grains and boiling water.

23. Separation of starch grains with cold water.

24. Separation of starch grains with sugar.

25. Separation of starch grains with fat.

26. The change of starch into dextrin.

27. The solubility of dextrin.

28. Starch in cracker.

29. Action of saliva upon starch.

30. The effect of soaking starchy vegetables in water.

31. Temperature at which fats and oils decompose or "burn".

32. Bread fried in "cool" fat.

33. The temperature of fat for frying

34. Saponification of fat

35. Action of oil and water

36. Emulsion of fat

37. The coagulation of egg-white

38. The solubility of albumin

39. Temperature at which eggs coagulate

40. Comparison of cooked and boiled eggs

41. Effect of beating a whole egg

42. Comparison of eggs beaten with a Dover egg beater and with a wire spoon

43. Effect of beating egg yolk and white separately

44. Separation of milk into foodstuffs

45. Scalding milk

46. Comparison of the conducting power of metal and earthenware

47. Effect of rennet on milk

48. Separation of curd and whey

49. Effect of acid on milk

50. Division of muscle

51. Effect of dry heat on (a) connective tissue, (b) muscle fiber

52. Effect of moisture and heat on (a) connective tissue, (b) muscle fiber

53. Comparison of starch and dextrin for thickening

54. Effect of cold water on meat

55. Effect of boiling water on meat

56. Effect of salt on meat

57. Effect of cold water on gelatine

58. Effect of hot water on gelatine

59. Effect of soaking fish in water

60. Effect of boiling fish rapidly

61. Effect of acid on milk

62. Neutralization of acid by means of soda

63. Protein in oyster liquor

64. Leavening with steam and air

65. Comparison of thick and thin quick breads

66. Preparation of flour for quick breads

67. Action of baking soda on sour milk

68. Chemical change

69. Quantity of baking soda to use with sour milk

70. Action of baking soda on molasses.

71. Quantity of baking soda to use with molasses.

72. Effect of cold water on a mixture of cream of tartar and baking soda.

73. Effect of hot water on a mixture of cream of tartar and baking soda.

74. Effect of hot water on baking powder.

75. Starch in baking powder.

76. Comparison of the time of action of different types of baking powders.

77. Conditions for growth of the yeast plant.

78. Protein in flour.

79. Mixtures for freezing.

80. Effect of air, light, and drying upon the growth of molds.

81. Effect of moisture and light upon the growth of molds.

82. Effect of moisture and darkness upon the growth of molds.

83. Effect of moisture and low temperature upon the growth of molds.

84. Growth of molds on cut fruit.

85. Growth of molds upon whole fruits.

86. Growth of molds on other foods.

87. Growth of molds upon wood.

88. Growth of molds upon cloth.

89. Contamination of fresh food by means of moldy food.

90. Growth of bacteria.

91. Effect of boiling upon the growth of bacteria.

92. Effect of preservatives on the growth of bacteria.

93. Use of sugar as a preservative.

94. Pectin in fruit juice.

95. Pectin in the inner portion of orange and lemon peel.

[Illustration: BLEST BE THE FEAST WITH SIMPLE PLENTY CROWNED]

FOREWORD

One of the slogans of the World War,—"Food will win the War,"—showed that food was much more important than many persons had believed. It confirmed the fact that food was not merely something that tastes good, or relieves the sensation of hunger, but that it was a vital factor in achieving one of the noblest ideals of all time.

The subject of food is a broad one,—one that is growing in interest. Many present-day scientists are finding a lifework in food study. "Tell me what you eat and I will tell you what you are," was spoken many years ago. The most recent work in science confirms the fact that the kind of food an individual eats has much to do with his health and his ability to work. If you would be well, strong, happy, and full of vim choose your food carefully.

A study of food means a knowledge of many things. Before purchasing foods one should know what foods to select at market, whence they come, how they are prepared for market, by what means they are transported, and how they are taken care of in the market. There is a great variety of foods in the present-day market; some are rich in nutrients; others contain little nourishment, yet are high in price. It has been said that for food most persons spend the largest part of their incomes; it is a pity if they buy sickness instead of health. Whether foods are purchased at the lunch counter or at market, it is necessary to know what foods to choose to meet best the needs of the body.

Meal planning is an important factor of food study. The matter of combining foods that are varied in composition or that supplement one another in nutritious properties deserves much consideration. Not only nutriment but flavor enters into food combination. It is most important to combine foods that "taste well."

In learning to prepare foods, the experience of those who have cooked foods successfully is most helpful. Hence the pupil is told to follow directions for cooking a type of food or to use a recipe. Following a direction or recipe in a mechanical way, however, does not result in rapid progress. Keen observation and mental alertness are needed if you would become skilful in food preparation.

One class of food or one principle of cooking may be related to another or associated with another. For example, the method of cooking a typical breakfast cereal may be applied to cereals in general. There may be some exceptions to the rule, but when the basic principle of cooking is kept in mind, the variations can be readily made. If a pupil has learned to prepare Creamed Potatoes she should be able to apply the principle to the cooking of Potato Soup. In making chocolate beverage, the pupil learns to blend chocolate with other ingredients. The knowledge gained in making chocolate beverage should be applied to the flavoring of a cake or of a dessert with chocolate. In all the thousands of recipes appearing in cook books, only a few principles of cooking are involved. The pupil who appreciates this fact becomes a much more resourceful worker and acquires skill in a much shorter time.

The results of every process should be observed. Careful observations should be made when work is not successful. There is no such thing as "good luck" in cooking. There is a cause for every failure. The cause of the failure should be found and the remedy ascertained. The same mistake should never be made a second time. Progress is sure to result from such an attitude towards work. Moreover, confidence in the result of one's work is gained. This is of incalculable value, besides being a great satisfaction, to the home-keeper.

A dining table with carefully laid covers is always inviting. Graceful serving of food at such a table is an art. The ability to serve food in an attractive way is an accomplishment that no girl should fail to acquire.

Considerations regarding success in learning to cook may be summed up as follows:

(a) Know what foods to select from the standpoint of economy, nutriment, and flavor.

(b) Observe and think when working. Relate or associate one class of foods with another and one principle of cooking with another.

(c) Note the results of your work; know why the results are successful or why they are unsuccessful.

Food selection, food combination, and food preparation are all important factors of good cooking. It is to be hoped that the pupil will realize that the study of food and cooking means the ability not only to boil, broil, and bake, but to select, combine, use, and serve food properly. All this demands much earnest thought and effort.

SCHOOL AND HOME COOKING

DIVISION ONE

INTRODUCTION

LESSON I

BAKED APPLES—DISH-WASHING

BAKED APPLES (Stuffed with Raisins)

6 apples Seeded raisins 6 tablespoonfuls brown sugar 6 tablespoonfuls water

Wash the apples; with an apple corer or paring knife, remove the core from each. Place the apples in a granite, earthenware, or glass baking-dish. Wash a few raisins and place 6 of them and I level tablespoonful of sugar in each core. Pour the water around the apples.

Bake in a hot oven until tender. Test the apples for sufficient baking with a fork, skewer, or knitting needle (see Figure 1). During baking, occasionally "baste" the apples, i.e. take spoonfuls of the water from around the apples and pour it on the top of them. The time for baking apples varies with the kind of apple and the temperature of the oven. From 20 to 40 minutes at 400 degrees F. is usually required.

DISH-WASHING AND EFFICIENCY.—There is almost invariably a waste of effort in both the washing and the drying of dishes. This may be due to:

(a) Poorly arranged dish-washing equipments.

(b) Inadequate utensils for dish-washing.

(c) Lack of forethought in preparing the dishes for washing and too many motions in washing and drying them.

Since dish-washing is one of the constant duties of housekeeping, efficiency methods, i.e. methods which accomplish satisfactory results with the fewest motions and in the least time, should be applied to it. The washing of dishes, invariably considered commonplace, may become an interesting problem if it is made a matter of motion study.

[Illustration: FIGURE 1.—SKEWER AND KNITTING NEEDLE FOR TESTING FOODS. Note that the knitting needle has one end thrust into a cork, which serves as a handle.]

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