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School and Home Cooking试读：
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
I. Baked Apples—Dishwashing
II. Measurements—Stuffed and Scalloped Tomatoes
III. Fuels and Combustion—Sauted and Baked Squash
IV. Coal Ranges—Corn Dishes
V. Gas Ranges—Scalloped Fruit
VI. Stoves and Heating Devices—Stuffed Peppers, Butterscotch Apples
VII. Water and Beverages (A)
VIII. Water and Beverages (B)
IX. Home Projects
X. Afternoon Tea
BODY-BUILDING AND BODY-REGULATING FOODS,—RICH IN ASH (MINERAL MATTER)
XI. Fresh Vegetables (A)
XII. Fresh Vegetables (B)
XIII. Fresh Fruits
XIV. Review: Meal Cooking
XV. Home Projects
ENERGY-GIVING OR FUEL FOODS,—RICH IN CARBOHYDRATES
XVI. Sugar: Digestion of Sugar
XVII. Sugar-rich Fruits: Dried Fruits (A)
XVIII. Sugar-rich Fruits: Dried Fruits (B)
XIX. Cereals: Starch and Cellulose
XX. Cereals: Rice (A)
XXI. Cereals: Rice (B)
XXII. Cereals and the Fireless Cooker
XXIII. Cereals for Frying or Baking
XXIV. Powdered Cereals Used for Thickening
XXV. Toast: Digestion of Starch
XXVI. Root Vegetables (A)
XXVII. Root Vegetables (B)
XXVIII. Root Vegetables (C)
XXIX. Starchy Foods Cooked at High Temperature
XXX. Dining Room Service
XXXI. Cooking and Serving Breakfast
XXXII. Review: Meal Cooking
XXXIII. Home Projects
ENERGY-GIVING OR FUEL FOODS,—RICH IN FATS AN OILS
XXXIV. Fat as a Frying Medium
XXXV. Fat as a Frying Medium—Food Fats
XXXVI. Fat as a Frying Medium—Digestion of Fat
XXXVII. Fat Saving
XXXVIII. Dining Room Courtesy
XXXIX. Cooking and Serving Breakfast
XL. Review: Meal Cooking
XLI. Home Projects
ENERGY-GIVING AND BODY-BUILDING FOODS,—RICH IN PROTEIN
XLIII. Eggs: Digestion of Protein
XLIV. Eggs: Omelets (A)
XLV. Eggs: Omelets (B)
XLVII. Milk with Cocoa and Chocolate
XLVIII. Milk and Cream
XLIX. Cream Soups (A)
L. Cream Soups (B)
LI. Milk Thickened with Egg (A)
LII. Milk Thickened with Egg (B)
LIII. Milk Thickened with Egg (C)
LIV. Milk Thickened with Egg and Starchy Materials (A)
LV. Milk Thickened with Egg and Starchy Materials (B)
LVI. Milk Thickened with Egg and Starchy Materials (C)
LVII. Cheese (A)
LVIII. Cheese (B)
LIX. Structure of Beef—Methods of Cooking Tender Cuts
LX. Beef: Methods of Cooking Tender Cuts (Applied to Chopped Beef) (A)
LXI. Beef: Methods of Cooking Tender Cuts (Applied to Chopped Beef) (B)
LXIL. Beef: Methods of Cooking Tough Cuts (A)
LXIII. Beef; Methods of Cooking Tough Cuts (B)
LXIV. Beef: Methods of Cooking Tough Cuts (C)
LXV. Beef: Methods of Cooking Tough Cuts (D)
LXVI. Beef: Uses of Cooked Beef
LXVII. Gelatine (A)
LXVIIL. Gelatine (B)
LXIX. Fish (A)
LXX. Fish (B)
LXXI. Fish (C)
LXXII. Legumes (A)
LXXIII. Legumes (B)
LXXIV. Legumes (C)
LXXV. Cost of Food
LXXVI. Cooking and Serving a Breakfast
LXXVII. Review: Meal Cooking
LXXVIII. Home Projects
HEALTH AND GROWTH-PROMOTING FOODS,—RICH IN VITAMINES
LXXIX. Vitamines—Vegetables of Delicate Flavor
LXXX. Vitamines—Vegetables of Strong Flavor
LXXXI. Salads (A)
LXXXII. Salads (B)
LXXXIII. Classification of Foodstuffs
LXXXIV. Selecting Food
LXXXV. Cooking and Serving a Luncheon or Supper
LXXXVL. Review: Meal Cooking
LXXXVII. Home Projects
FLAVORING MATERIALS: FOOD ADJUNCTS
LXXXVIII. Food Adjuncts—Dishes Containing Food Adjuncts
LXXXIX. Spending for Food
XC. Cooking and Serving a Luncheon or Supper
XCI. Review: Meal Cooking
XCII. Home Projects
XCIII. Vegetables with Salad Dressing (A)
XCIV. Vegetables with Salad Dressing (B)
XCV. Fish Salad and Salad Rolls
XCVI. Cream of Tomato Soup and Cheese Straws
XCVII. Veal and Potatoes
XCVIII. Mutton and Lamb Dishes
XCIX. Pork, Vegetables, and Apple Sauce
C. Chicken and Rice
CI. Chicken and Peas
CII. Oyster Dishes
CIII. Meat-substitute Dishes
CIV. Meat Extenders and One-dish Meals
CVI. Planning, Cooking, and Serving a Luncheon or Supper
CVII. Review: Meal Cooking
CVIII. Home Projects
QUICK BREADS: POUR BATTERS
CIX. Leavening with Steam and Air: Popovers
CX. Leavening with Baking Soda and Sour Milk: Spider Corn Bread
CXI. Leavening with Baking Soda, Sour Milk, and Molasses: Gingerbread
CXII. Leavening with Baking Powder: Griddle Cakes
CXIII. Leavening with Baking Soda, Sour Milk, and Baking Powder: Sour MilkGriddle Cakes
CXIV. Leavening with Baking Soda, Sour Milk, and Cream of Tartar: SteamedBrown Breads
CXV. Formulating Recipes—Waffles
CXVI. Measurement of the Fuel Value of Foods
CXVII. Planning, Cooking, and Serving a Dinner
CXVIII. Review: Meal Cooking
CXIX. Home Projects
QUICK BREADS: DROP BATTERS
CXX. Fine and Coarse Flours—Muffins
CXXI. Comparison of Wheat and Other Grains—Muffins
CXXII. Baking Powder Loaf Breads
CXXIII. Eggs for Quick Breads—Cream Puffs
CXXIV. Food Requirement
CXXV. Planning, Cooking, and Serving a Dinner
CXXVI. Review: Meal Cooking
CXXVII. Home Projects
QUICK BREADS: SOFT DOUGHS
CXXVIII. Method of Mixing Fat in Quick Breads—Drop Biscuit
CXXIX. Quantity of Fat in Quick Breads—Short Cake
CXXX. "Cut" Biscuit
CXXXI. Measurement of the Fuel Value of Food Applied to the Daily FoodRequirement.
CXXXII. Planning, Cooking, and Serving a Dinner.
CXXXIII. Review: Meal Cooking.
CXXXIV. Home Projects.
YEAST BREADS: STIFF DOUGHS
CXXXV. Yeast—Loaf Bread.
CXXXVI. Wheat Flour—Bread Sponge.
CXXXVII. Modifications of Plain White Bread.
CXXXVIII. Rolls and Buns.
CXXXIX. Food for Girls and Boys.
CXL. Planning a Day's Diet—Cooking and Serving a Meal.
CXLI. Review: Meal Cooking.
CXLII. Home Projects.
CXLIII. Cake without Fat—Sponge Cake.
CXLIV. Cake Containing Fat—One-egg Cake.
CXLV. Cake Containing Fat—Plain Cake and Its Modifications (A)
CXLVI. Cake Containing Fat—Plain Cake and Its Modifications (B)
CXLVII. Cake Containing Fat—Cookies
CXLVIII. Cakes without Eggs
CXLIX. The Luncheon Box
CL. Planning and Preparing Box Luncheons
CLI. Review—Meal Cooking
CLII. Home Projects
CLIII. Pies with Under Crust
CLIV. Pies with Upper Crust
CLV. Two-crust Pies
CLVI. Infant Feeding
CLVII. Modifying Milk
CLVIII. Review—Meal Cooking
CLIX. Home Projects
CLX. Method of Freezing—Water Ice
CLXI. Frozen Creams
CLXII. Diet for Young Children
CLXIII. Planning and Preparing Menus for Children
CLXIV. Review—Meal Cooking
CLXV. Home Projects
CLXVI. The Principles of Preserving Food
CLXVII. Processing with Little or No Sugar—Canned Fruit
CLXVIII. Processing with Much Sugar—Preserves, Jams, and Conserves
CLXIX. Processing with Much Sugar—Jellies
CLXX. Processing with Vinegar and Spices—Relishes
CLXXI. Canned Vegetables
CLXXII. Dried Vegetables
CLXXIII. The Sick-room Tray
CLXXIV. Preparing Trays for the Sick and Convalescent
CLXXV. Review—Meal Cooking
CLXXVI. Home Projects
I. Thanksgiving Sauce
II. Thanksgiving Desserts
III. Christmas Sweets
IV. Christmas Candy
Suggestions for Teaching
Books for Reference
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
A corner in Washington's kitchen at Mt. Vernon [Frontispiece]
1. Skewer and knitting needle for testing foods
2. A sink arranged for efficiency in dish-washing
3. Utensils for dish-washing
8. A rack for drying dishes
9. Utensils for measuring and weighing foods
10. Coal range, showing course of direct draft
11. Coal range, showing course of indirect draft
12. Gas burner, showing mixer
13. Gas burners
14. Gas range, showing direction of draft
15. Cross-section of wickless kerosene stove
16. Electric range
17. Pressure cooker
18. Steam cooker, containing various foods
19. Scene on a tea plantation
20. Tea-ball teapot
21. Coffee berries
22. Coffee percolator
23. Grains of starch
24. A cupful of rice before and after boiling
25. Insulated wall of a refrigerator
26. Fireless cooker, having excelsior packing
27. Fireless cooker, with stone disks
28. Electric fireless cooker
29. Gas range, having fireless cooker attachment, insulated oven and hoods
30. Method of folding filter paper
31. Utensil for steaming,—a "steamer"
32. "Steam" without pressure, and "steam" which has been under pressure
33. Table laid for an informal luncheon
34. Wheel tray
35. How to hold the knife and fork
36. Keeping the fork in the left hand to carry food to the mouth
37. The teaspoon should rest on the saucer
38. How to hold the soup spoon
39. Apparatus to determine the temperature at which eggs coagulate
40. Method of holding pan to turn an omelet on to a platter
41. Cocoa pods
42. Dried bread crumbs
43. Structure of meat
44. Club or Delmonico steak
46. Sirloin,—hip steak
47. Sirloin,—flat bone
48. Sirloin,—round bone
49. First cut prime rib roast
50. Second cut prime rib roast
51. Blade rib roast
52. Chuck rib roast
53. Colonial fireplace, showing a "roasting kitchen"
56. Cuts of beef
58. Cross rib, Boston cut, or English cut
59. Skirt steak; flank steak
60. Fish kettle, showing rack
61. A suggestion for the division of each dollar spent for food
62. The composition of roots and succulent vegetables
63. The composition of butter and other fat-yielding foods
64. The composition of milk and milk products
65. Cuts of veal
66. Cuts of lamb or mutton
67. Lamb chops
68. The composition of fresh and cured meats
69. Cuts of pork
70. The composition of fresh and dried fruits
71. Removing tendons from the leg of a fowl
72. Fowl trussed for roasting,—breast view
73. Fowl trussed for roasting,—back view
74. Composition of fish, fish products, and oysters
75. The composition of eggs and cheese
76. The composition of legumes and corn
77. The composition of bread and other cereal foods
78. Foods containing calcium
79. Foods containing phosphorus
80. Foods containing iron
81. Oven heat regulator
82. Illustrating the amount of heat represented by one Calorie
83. Comparative weights of 100-Calorie portions of food
84. 100-Calorie portions of food
85. Longitudinal section of wheat grain, showing bran, floury part, and germ
86. Growing yeast plants
87. Graduated measure and dipper for measuring the ingredients of modified milk
88. Some species of molds
89. The four types of bacteria
90. Canning foods
91. Rack for holding jars
92. The composition of fruits and fruit products
93. Drier for vegetables or fruits
94. The composition of sugar and similar foods
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Measurement equivalents.
2. Use of the wooden spoon.
3. Lack of draft.
4. Presence of draft.
5. The regulation and purpose of a gas mixer.
6. The dissolving power of water.
7. Presence of gases in water. 8. Simmering and boiling of water.
9. Tannin in tea.
10. The solubility of granulated sugar in cold water.
11. The solubility of granulated sugar in hot water.
12. The solubility of powdered sugar.
13. The solubility of caramel.
14. The starch test.
15. The effect of cold water on starch.
16. The effect of heat on starch.
17. Stiffening of cooked starch.
18. The structure of starch.
19. Separation of cellulose and starch.
20. The difference in the nutritive value of boiled rice and rice cooked over boiling water.
21. Retention of heat.
22. Starch grains and boiling water.
23. Separation of starch grains with cold water.
24. Separation of starch grains with sugar.
25. Separation of starch grains with fat.
26. The change of starch into dextrin.
27. The solubility of dextrin.
28. Starch in cracker.
29. Action of saliva upon starch.
30. The effect of soaking starchy vegetables in water.
31. Temperature at which fats and oils decompose or "burn".
32. Bread fried in "cool" fat.
33. The temperature of fat for frying
34. Saponification of fat
35. Action of oil and water
36. Emulsion of fat
37. The coagulation of egg-white
38. The solubility of albumin
39. Temperature at which eggs coagulate
40. Comparison of cooked and boiled eggs
41. Effect of beating a whole egg
42. Comparison of eggs beaten with a Dover egg beater and with a wire spoon
43. Effect of beating egg yolk and white separately
44. Separation of milk into foodstuffs
45. Scalding milk
46. Comparison of the conducting power of metal and earthenware
47. Effect of rennet on milk
48. Separation of curd and whey
49. Effect of acid on milk
50. Division of muscle
51. Effect of dry heat on (a) connective tissue, (b) muscle fiber
52. Effect of moisture and heat on (a) connective tissue, (b) muscle fiber
53. Comparison of starch and dextrin for thickening
54. Effect of cold water on meat
55. Effect of boiling water on meat
56. Effect of salt on meat
57. Effect of cold water on gelatine
58. Effect of hot water on gelatine
59. Effect of soaking fish in water
60. Effect of boiling fish rapidly
61. Effect of acid on milk
62. Neutralization of acid by means of soda
63. Protein in oyster liquor
64. Leavening with steam and air
65. Comparison of thick and thin quick breads
66. Preparation of flour for quick breads
67. Action of baking soda on sour milk
68. Chemical change
69. Quantity of baking soda to use with sour milk
70. Action of baking soda on molasses.
71. Quantity of baking soda to use with molasses.
72. Effect of cold water on a mixture of cream of tartar and baking soda.
73. Effect of hot water on a mixture of cream of tartar and baking soda.
74. Effect of hot water on baking powder.
75. Starch in baking powder.
76. Comparison of the time of action of different types of baking powders.
77. Conditions for growth of the yeast plant.
78. Protein in flour.
79. Mixtures for freezing.
80. Effect of air, light, and drying upon the growth of molds.
81. Effect of moisture and light upon the growth of molds.
82. Effect of moisture and darkness upon the growth of molds.
83. Effect of moisture and low temperature upon the growth of molds.
84. Growth of molds on cut fruit.
85. Growth of molds upon whole fruits.
86. Growth of molds on other foods.
87. Growth of molds upon wood.
88. Growth of molds upon cloth.
89. Contamination of fresh food by means of moldy food.
90. Growth of bacteria.
91. Effect of boiling upon the growth of bacteria.
92. Effect of preservatives on the growth of bacteria.
93. Use of sugar as a preservative.
94. Pectin in fruit juice.
95. Pectin in the inner portion of orange and lemon peel.
[Illustration: BLEST BE THE FEAST WITH SIMPLE PLENTY CROWNED]
One of the slogans of the World War,—"Food will win the War,"—showed that food was much more important than many persons had believed. It confirmed the fact that food was not merely something that tastes good, or relieves the sensation of hunger, but that it was a vital factor in achieving one of the noblest ideals of all time.
The subject of food is a broad one,—one that is growing in interest. Many present-day scientists are finding a lifework in food study. "Tell me what you eat and I will tell you what you are," was spoken many years ago. The most recent work in science confirms the fact that the kind of food an individual eats has much to do with his health and his ability to work. If you would be well, strong, happy, and full of vim choose your food carefully.
A study of food means a knowledge of many things. Before purchasing foods one should know what foods to select at market, whence they come, how they are prepared for market, by what means they are transported, and how they are taken care of in the market. There is a great variety of foods in the present-day market; some are rich in nutrients; others contain little nourishment, yet are high in price. It has been said that for food most persons spend the largest part of their incomes; it is a pity if they buy sickness instead of health. Whether foods are purchased at the lunch counter or at market, it is necessary to know what foods to choose to meet best the needs of the body.
Meal planning is an important factor of food study. The matter of combining foods that are varied in composition or that supplement one another in nutritious properties deserves much consideration. Not only nutriment but flavor enters into food combination. It is most important to combine foods that "taste well."
In learning to prepare foods, the experience of those who have cooked foods successfully is most helpful. Hence the pupil is told to follow directions for cooking a type of food or to use a recipe. Following a direction or recipe in a mechanical way, however, does not result in rapid progress. Keen observation and mental alertness are needed if you would become skilful in food preparation.
One class of food or one principle of cooking may be related to another or associated with another. For example, the method of cooking a typical breakfast cereal may be applied to cereals in general. There may be some exceptions to the rule, but when the basic principle of cooking is kept in mind, the variations can be readily made. If a pupil has learned to prepare Creamed Potatoes she should be able to apply the principle to the cooking of Potato Soup. In making chocolate beverage, the pupil learns to blend chocolate with other ingredients. The knowledge gained in making chocolate beverage should be applied to the flavoring of a cake or of a dessert with chocolate. In all the thousands of recipes appearing in cook books, only a few principles of cooking are involved. The pupil who appreciates this fact becomes a much more resourceful worker and acquires skill in a much shorter time.
The results of every process should be observed. Careful observations should be made when work is not successful. There is no such thing as "good luck" in cooking. There is a cause for every failure. The cause of the failure should be found and the remedy ascertained. The same mistake should never be made a second time. Progress is sure to result from such an attitude towards work. Moreover, confidence in the result of one's work is gained. This is of incalculable value, besides being a great satisfaction, to the home-keeper.
A dining table with carefully laid covers is always inviting. Graceful serving of food at such a table is an art. The ability to serve food in an attractive way is an accomplishment that no girl should fail to acquire.
Considerations regarding success in learning to cook may be summed up as follows:
(a) Know what foods to select from the standpoint of economy, nutriment, and flavor.
(b) Observe and think when working. Relate or associate one class of foods with another and one principle of cooking with another.
(c) Note the results of your work; know why the results are successful or why they are unsuccessful.
Food selection, food combination, and food preparation are all important factors of good cooking. It is to be hoped that the pupil will realize that the study of food and cooking means the ability not only to boil, broil, and bake, but to select, combine, use, and serve food properly. All this demands much earnest thought and effort.
SCHOOL AND HOME COOKING
BAKED APPLES (Stuffed with Raisins)
6 apples Seeded raisins 6 tablespoonfuls brown sugar 6 tablespoonfuls water
Wash the apples; with an apple corer or paring knife, remove the core from each. Place the apples in a granite, earthenware, or glass baking-dish. Wash a few raisins and place 6 of them and I level tablespoonful of sugar in each core. Pour the water around the apples.
Bake in a hot oven until tender. Test the apples for sufficient baking with a fork, skewer, or knitting needle (see Figure 1). During baking, occasionally "baste" the apples, i.e. take spoonfuls of the water from around the apples and pour it on the top of them. The time for baking apples varies with the kind of apple and the temperature of the oven. From 20 to 40 minutes at 400 degrees F. is usually required.
DISH-WASHING AND EFFICIENCY.—There is almost invariably a waste of effort in both the washing and the drying of dishes. This may be due to:
(a) Poorly arranged dish-washing equipments.
(b) Inadequate utensils for dish-washing.
(c) Lack of forethought in preparing the dishes for washing and too many motions in washing and drying them.
Since dish-washing is one of the constant duties of housekeeping, efficiency methods, i.e. methods which accomplish satisfactory results with the fewest motions and in the least time, should be applied to it. The washing of dishes, invariably considered commonplace, may become an interesting problem if it is made a matter of motion study.
[Illustration: FIGURE 1.—SKEWER AND KNITTING NEEDLE FOR TESTING FOODS. Note that the knitting needle has one end thrust into a cork, which serves as a handle.]