晨梅梅《新发展英语综合教程(1)》学习指南【词汇短语+课文精解+全文翻译+练习答案】(txt+pdf+epub+mobi电子书下载)

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晨梅梅《新发展英语综合教程(1)》学习指南【词汇短语+课文精解+全文翻译+练习答案】

晨梅梅《新发展英语综合教程(1)》学习指南【词汇短语+课文精解+全文翻译+练习答案】试读:

Unit 1

一、词汇短语

colloquial [kE5lEukwiEl] adj. 日常会话的,口语的,白话的【例句】His English then was fluent but not colloquial. 他的英语讲得很流利,但不够口语化。【词组】colloquial words口语词汇

colloquial style 口语体【助记】col + loqu说→一起说→口语会话。col共同,1oqu说—共同说的话—口语的。

pick up拾起;用车载;获得;好转;继续

slant [slB:nt; (?@) slAnt] vi. 倾斜,使倾斜;倾向;有倾向性地报导,歪曲报导;个人的见解或观点

n. 倾斜;观点【例句】①She slants her letters from upper right to lower left. 她写的字母从右上角到左下角倾斜。

②I need your slant on the situation. 我想请你说说对这种情况的意见。【词组】slant range 倾斜范围(等于slant distance)【助记】能够slide的,就是斜坡;s = c, an = in, cline, incline;音:斜 + line 斜线;音:丝栏梯,铁丝栏着的梯子,斜的,所以需要拦着

emphasis [5emfEsis] n. 强调,重点【例句】Some schools lay special emphasis on language study. 有些学校特别重视语言学习。【词组】emphasis on 着重于;对…的强调

give emphasis to强调(着重)

lay down放下;制定;铺设;主张

alter [5C:ltE(r)] v. 修改,改变,变更;阉割(割除动物,如猫或狗的卵巢)【例句】The weather alters almost daily. 天气几乎天天变化。【助记】记法:alter→later( adv. 稍后,以后)→以后再改变(目前还维持现状)【派生】altered adj. 改变了的;蚀变的

alteration n. 修改,改变;变更

phonetic [fEu5netik] adj. 语音的【例句】Is the text marked with phonetic symbols? 课文有注音吗?【词组】phonetic system 语音系统

phonetic symbols 音标

phonetic alphabet [语]音标字母【派生】phonetics n. 发音学,语音学

mad [mAd] adj. 疯狂的,发疯的;愚蠢的;着迷的

n. 狂怒【例句】They were mad about missing the train. 他们为误了火车而生气。【词组】mad at 生气;恼火

mad with 因…发狂

mad on 对…入迷,狂热地喜欢(某人);渴望,为…生气

go mad 发疯;失去理智【派生】maddening adj. 令人发狂的;使人恼火的

madly adv. 疯狂地;发狂地;精神失常地

madness n. 疯狂;愚蠢的行为

inconsistency [9InkEn`sIstEnsI] n. 前后不一致;矛盾【例句】She noticed several minor inconsistencies in his argument. 她觉察到他的论点有几处略微有些自相矛盾。【词组】time inconsistency 时间不一致性,时间矛盾

attempt [E5tempt] n. 努力,尝试,企图

vt. 尝试,企图【例句】I attempted to read the entire novel in one sitting. 我试图一次读完整本小说。【词组】attempt on sb’s life企图杀害某人

attempt at企图

attempt at doing sth企图做某事;尝试做某事【助记】at(一再)+ tempt(尝试)→一再尝试→企图

nationalistic [7nAFEnE5listik] adj. 国家主义的【例句】This is a movement which was romantic, irrational and vehemently nationalistic in character.

这是一场具有荒诞的,反理性的,鼓吹民族主义性质的运动。

mount [maunt] v. 登上,爬上;安装;发起

n. 支架,底座,底板;(M-)(用于山名前)山峰【例句】①I can’t find the mount of this plate. 我找不到这只盘子的托架了。

②He mounted the horse and rode off. 他骑上马走了。【词组】mount up 增长;上升【派生】mounting n. 装备,装配

assault [E5sC:lt] n. & v. 刺激;猛烈地攻击,袭击【例句】The roar of city traffic is a steady assault on one’s nerves. 市区的喧嚣不断地刺激着人的神经。【助记】as(一再)+ sault(联想salt)→一再往你的伤口上撒盐→攻击,谐音“阿嫂她”,阿嫂她攻击你。

thumb [WQm] n. 大拇指

v. 弄脏;示意要求搭车;迅速翻阅【例句】The car stopped when the driver saw him thumbing. 司机看到他要搭便车,便停下了车。【词组】under sb.’s thumb 在某人的支配下;任人驱使

thumb down 贬低;拒绝,责备

thumbs up/down 表示成功或赞许[失败或拒绝] 的用语或手势)【助记】由于该词和词义为“总数”的单词sum读音相近,则可记成:挑起大拇指(thumb),意味着总数(sum)。

to this day至今

triumphant [trai5QmfEnt] adj. 获胜的,洋洋得意的,成功的,喜悦的【例句】The victorious general made a triumphant return. 这位打了胜仗的将军凯旋而归。【词组】a triumphant smile得意的微笑

bonnet [5bCnit] n. 无边女帽,童帽

vt. 给…装上罩;给…戴上帽子【例句】The poke of her black bonnet hide her face from him. 她那黑色帽子的前沿遮住了她的脸,使他看不见。【词组】a mother bonneting her children给孩子戴帽子的母亲

valve bonnet阀盖;阀罩;阀帽;气门盖

funnel bonnet烟囱裙板;烟囱顶罩;烟囱罩【助记】bon(法语)好;好网,一种好看的优质的女式网状帽子。

boot [bu:t] n. 踢;解雇;(长筒)靴;行李箱

v. 导入;解雇;踢【例句】The employer booted him out for being drunk at work. 他因为在工作时间喝醉了,被老板解雇了。【词组】boot out解雇

boot up启动

get the boot解雇【派生】booted adj. 穿靴的

bumper [5bQmpE] n. (汽车上的)保险杠,缓冲器

adj. 丰盛的,丰富的【例句】①Part of the car's bumper had come adrift. 汽车的保险杠有一处松动了。

②The bumper harvest of coffee last year is the cause of this year's weak market.

去年的咖啡大丰收是造成今年市场疲软的原因。【词组】bumper harvest 丰收

front bumper 前保险杠;前车挡;前缓冲铁

rear bumper 后保险杠;后档

bumper sticker 保险杆贴纸;车尾贴【助记】bump 撞 + er东西,撞的东西,保险杠,专门撞车用的,防撞

hood [hud] n. 头巾,兜帽;车篷;引擎罩

v. 用头巾包裹;给…加罩,覆盖【例句】①It’s raining. Put the hood up. 下雨了,把车篷撑上。

②Her long lashes hood her eyes. 她那长长的睫毛覆盖着她的眼睛。【词组】robin hood n. 罗宾汉;(罗宾汉式的)绿林好汉

fume hood通风橱;烟橱

trunk [trQNk] n. 树干;大衣箱;(汽车后部的)行李箱

vt. 把…放入旅行箱内

adj. 树干的;躯干的;干线的;箱形的【例句】The trunk of that fir is about 2 meters thick. 那棵枞树的树干约有2米粗。

fender [5fendE] n. 挡泥板;护舷的垫子等【例句】His car bruised the auto fender of my car. 他的汽车撞瘪了我的汽车挡泥板。【词组】front fender 前叶子板,前护盖

rubber fender 橡皮挡泥板;橡胶防冲垫;橡胶护垫

fender bender 轻微交通事故;撞弯保险杠的车祸(等于小车祸)【助记】源自defend 防护,防卫的东西。

carriage [5kAridV] n. 四轮马车;(火车)客车厢;运输,运费【例句】The horse stood between the shafts of the carriage. 马站在大车车辕中间。

coffin [5kCfin] n. 棺材【例句】The sight of the coffin sent a shudder through him. 看到那副棺材,他浑身一阵战栗。【词组】a nail in the coffin of… 促使…失败(或完结)的因素

by means of用,依靠,凭借

undertaker [5QndEteIkE(r)] n. 承办者,承担者;承办丧葬者;殡仪员【例句】The undertaker closed his eyes a moment and then began to speak. 殡葬者闭了一会儿他的眼睛,然后开始说。

casket [5kB:skit] n. 首饰盒,匣子;<美>棺材【例句】She made a small casket with paper board. 她用纸板做了一个匣子。

mortician [mC:5tiFEn] n. 殡仪业者【例句】Now he was to wait until morning and get the mortician to bring him a ladder.

现在,他不得不等到天亮了,然后让墓地的工作人员给他拿个梯子来。

pavement [5peivmEnt] n. 铺过的道路;人行道【例句】Concrete makes good pavement. 混凝土是很好的铺筑材料。

sidewalk [5saidwC:k] n. 人行道【例句】He stepped on to the sidewalk from the bus. 他从公共汽车走下,来到人行道上。【词组】a sidewalk fruit stand 街旁的水果摊

a slippery sidewalk 打滑的人行道

variant [5vZEriEnt] adj. 不同的

n. 变量【例句】①The quagga was a strikingly beautiful variant of the zebra. 白氏斑马是一种极其美丽的斑马变种。

②Recently, new variant strains have been detected in several parts of Asia and Africa.

最近,在亚洲和非洲的一些地区发现了新的变异菌株。

influential [7influ5enFEl] adj. 有影响的;有势力的【例句】His father was an influential democrat. 他父亲是个有影响的民主党人。【词组】influential (in sth. /doing sth. ) 有影响的;有说服力的

advocate [5AdvEkit] n. 提倡者,鼓吹者

vt. 提倡,主张;鼓吹,拥护,【例句】He advocates building more schools. 他主张多建几所学校。【词组】devil's advocate 故意持相反意见的人;故意唱反调的人

advocate change be made提倡改革

an advocate of peace鼓吹和平者【助记】ad肯定 + vocate 召唤;vocal voice 声音,发音。分析:ad—“阿弟”的拼音首字母;vo—“我”(wo)的近似拼音;cat—猫;e—鹅。记忆:阿弟想让我的猫拥护他的鹅。

contributor [kEn5tribju(:)tE] n. 贡献者;捐助者;投稿者【例句】He is a generous contributor. 他是位慷慨的捐助者。

conform to遵照;符合

regional [5ri:dVEn(E)l] adj. 整个地区的,地方地;地域性地【例句】Detailed implementation of the plans was left to the regional offices. 这些计划由各地区办事处来具体执行。

variation [7vZEri5eiFEn] n. 变动,变化;变异,变种;变奏,变调【例句】The regulation allows of no variation. 这规则不得改变。【词组】variation (in/of sth. ) 变化,变动,变异(的程度)【助记】vari(改变)+ ation(表状态)→变化,变动,变异

inevitable [in5evitEbl] adj. 不可避免的,必然的【例句】Socialism is inevitable. 社会主义是必然的。【助记】in(否定)+ evitable(可避免的)→不可避免的

medium [5mi:djEm] adj. 中间的,中等的;半生熟的

n. 方法;媒体;媒介;中间物【例句】He prefers a happy medium in life. 他在生活中甘居中游。【助记】med(中间)+ ium→中间的→中等的;媒介

set beside与…相比【例句】Money seems unimportant when sets beside the joys of family life. 与天伦之乐相比,金钱显得微不足道。

have… in common在…有共同之处【例句】We have lots of things in common besides music. 除了音乐,我们还有很多共通点。

stick to坚持;粘住【例句】She made it clear the government would stick to its policies despite union militancy.

她明确表示,尽管工会很强悍,但政府将坚持自己的政策。

二、课文精解

Intensive Reading

1.American English and British English exhibit differences, particularly in colloquial speech:exhibit显示;表现出。例:He has exhibited symptoms of anxiety and overwhelming worry. 他已表现出焦虑和忧心如焚的症状。colloquial speech口语。

2.A Londoner who reads The Times will find no special difficulty if he flies the Atlantic and picks up the New York Times:who引导的定语从句修饰A Londoner,if引导条件状语从句。pick up拿起,拾起。此外,pick up还可表示“学会”,例:Where did you pick up your English?你是在哪儿学得英语?

3.Printing changed all that; by the 18th century the great English Dictionary (1755) of Dr. Johnson laid down a standard set of spellings that has altered little to the present day:定语从句that has altered little to the present day修饰a standard set of spellings,且that在从句中作主语。all that那么;到那种程度。例:She isn't all that beautiful. 她并不是很漂亮。lay down制定;主张;铺设。例:Not all companies lay down written guidelines and rules. 不是所有的公司都制定书面的准则和条例。a set of一套,一组。例:He is shaping up a set of notes for publication. 他正在整理一批笔记准备出版。

4.There have been many attempts to “reform” English spelling:attempt也可做动词与to连用,构成词组attempt to,表示“尝试,企图;试图做某事”。例:Certain big oil companies attempted to cash in on the energy crisis. 某些大石油公司企图从能源危机中捞到好处。

5.Webster added some thousands of “American” words that were unknown to Dr. Johnson and he mounted an all-out assault on the “traditional, English way of spelling:定语从句that were unknown to Dr. Johnson修饰“American” words,且that在从句中作主语。add“添加”,常与介词to搭配,构成词组add to,表示“加入,加到;增加”,例:I have nothing to add to my earlier statement. 我对我先前说的话,没有什么补充的。be unknown to“不为…所知”,与其意思相反的是be known to(为…所知;为某人所熟知),例:The little restaurant is known to all locally. 这家小餐馆在当地远近闻名。mount an assault on表示“对…猛然袭击”。 all-out全部的;竭尽全力的;毫无保留的。

6.But even the Americans of his time ignored him and it remains “thumb” to this day in modern editions of Webster:to this day至今。例:I haven't told him the whole story to this day. 我迄今仍未给他讲完整个故事。

7.His “reformed” spelling” of English in “-our” words has won the day...:win the day得胜;占上风;取得成功(等于carry the day)。例:People who persist will finally win the day. 坚持到底的人将会最后取得胜利。

8.One of the other ways in which American spelling differs from the British is in the treatment of the letter “I” in the middle of a word:本句主干是系表结构,主语是One of the other ways in which American spelling differs from the British,系动词is,介词短语in the treatment of the letter “I” in the middle of a word作表语。主语中,“介词in+which”引导定语从句修饰the other ways,其中in可与先行词the other ways搭配。differ from与…不同;区别于…。例:That arrangement differs from the one I had in mind. 那种安排同我原先所想的不同。句中的treatment表示“对待”。

9.If they are issues in UK pounds they bear the title “Traveller’s Cheque”:issue此处表示“债券”,此外,它还有“发行;发表;流出;问题”等意思,例:Last night he issued a statement denying the allegations. 昨天晚上,他发表了一项声明否认那些说法。bear意为“具有”,同时bear还可表示“忍受;支撑”等意思,例:The ice was not thick enough to bear the weight of marching men. 冰的厚度不足以支撑行军队伍的重量。

10.But the even more influential magazine The New Yorker, first published in 1925,insisted that contributors conform to the style of the H. W. Fowler’s very British Modern English Usage:that从句作insist的宾语。insist“坚持”,常与on连用,insist on表示“坚持,坚决要求;督促,强调”,例:I insist on his innocence. 我坚认他无罪。conform to符合;遵照。例:If you don't conform to the traffic laws, you might get hurt. 如果不遵守交通法规,则可能受伤。

11.The variations between American English and British English are slight when set beside what the two have in common:when引导时间状语从句,该从句中,从句what the two have in common作set beside的宾语,且what在宾语从句中作宾语。set beside与…相比。例:No one can set beside him. 没有人能和他相比。have sth. in common有共同之处。例:Their views have much in common with mine. 他们的观点和我的观点有许多共同之处。

12.Readers of English anywhere can move from the Financial Times or The Economist (published in England) to Time or the Reader’s Digest (published in America),well aware that they are reading the same language:此处well aware that they are reading the same language为形容词短语作状语,that从句作aware的宾语。形容词或形容词短语可以作状语,表示行为方式或伴随状况。有时,它会像非限制性定语从句一样,表示意义上的增补,其逻辑主语是句子的主语。aware意识到的,知道的。常用词组be aware of,表示“知道”。

13.Then stick to it:stick to坚持;粘住。例:We must stick to the principle. 我们必须坚持原则。

三、全文翻译

课内精读

美式英语还是英式英语?

伊恩·戈登

美式英语和英式英语呈现出一些不同之处,特别是在口语中。书面语中二者的差异并不大,它们的核心词汇是相同的。一个读《泰晤士报》的伦敦人,在飞越大西洋时能毫不费力地读懂随手翻阅的《纽约时报》。报纸上新闻的观点(或重点)自然是各不相同,但他读到的语言则基本上是相同的。

但是对于那些母语不是英语的人来说,就会有一些令人迷惑的差异了。最明显的是拼写。在印刷术出现之前,文字交流是靠手写的,每个人都可以按自己的选择拼写。而印刷术完全改变了这一情况;到18世纪,约翰逊博士的盛名之作《英语辞典》(1755)制定了一套拼写标准,直到如今都几乎没有改变。这种拼写并不容易。它部分是根据发音而成,但仅仅是部分而已,而且有一些令人发狂的矛盾之处。甚至说母语的人也觉得它很难,连那些说一口流利英语的孩子们也要花好几年的时间才能学会拼写他们的母语。在英国和美国,甚至那些受过良好教育的人也不得不经常查阅字典,其频率比他们通常承认的要高得多。

历史上曾出现过许多“改革”英文拼写的尝试。最重要的拼写改革家当数美国的诺亚·韦伯斯特,他在1828年编写了一本带有明显的国家主义色彩的词典——《美国英语词典》。韦伯斯特增加了数以千计的“美国词汇”,这些词汇并不为约翰逊博士所知。而且,他还竭力攻击“传统的”英文拼写方式。

他曾说:“thumb(拇指)”中的“b”不发音,但为什么我们却拼成“thumb”?但是,即便是他那个时代的美国人也都对他不予理睬,所以直到现在,韦伯斯特现代版的词典还是将 “拇指”拼成“thumb”。

然而,韦伯斯特却成功地改革了其他的一些词汇。他在“-our”的拼写改革上就取得了成功。“favor”,“labor”,“honor”替代了(以前)英式英语中的“favour”,“labour”,“honour”。

同样,美式英语把诸如“centre”,“theatre”,“caliber”拼写成“center”,“theater”,“caliber”。

美式拼写与英式拼写的另一个不同之处,是在处理一个单词中间的字母“l”的问题上。这种不同在美国捷运公司的支票上显而易见。如果它们是以英国英镑发行,那么它们就叫“Traveler’s Cheque”,如果是以美国美元发行,那就是“Traveler’s Check”。幸运的是,商人会接受两者中的任何一种!如果钱没错,为什么要在乎它的拼写呢?(美式英语和英式英语)在词汇方面也有很多不同之处。英国人乘“lift(电梯)”到一栋建筑的高层,而美国人则乘“elevator(电梯)”;英国的机动车有一个“bonnet(引擎罩)”及一个“boot(行李箱)”并且受“bumpers(保险杠)”的保护;而美国汽车则有一个“hood(引擎罩)”及一个“trunk(行李箱)”,并受“fenders(保险杠)”的保护;英国乘客在铁路上的“carriages(车厢)”中旅行,而美国人则乘坐在铁路上的“cars(车厢)”里。去世了的英国人通过一个“undertaker(丧葬承办人)”将其埋葬在一个“coffin(棺材)”里,而在美国则由一个“mortician(丧葬承办人)”将死者埋葬在一个“casket(棺材)”里;英国小孩在学校里从一个“form(年级)”升到高一个年级,而美国小孩则从学校的一个“grade(年级)”升到高一个年级;英国人走在“pavement(人行道)”上,而美国人却步行在“sidewalk(人行道)”上。诸如此类的差异还有数百种。

在韦伯斯特之后,路易斯·门肯则是提倡美式英语独立性的最有影响的人物,他所著的《美国语言》于1919年首次出版。但是更有影响力的杂志《纽约客》——1925年首次出版——却坚持让投稿者遵循H·W·福勒的《现代英语用法词典》中那种带有明显英式英语特点的风格。

事实上,英式英语和美式英语在用法上有许多细微的差别。所有的主要语言都有着同样的地域性差异,这不可避免。但问题是:它们很重要吗?随着英语作为一个国际媒介被广泛传播,答案似乎是“不是很重要”。与它们的共同之处相比,美式和英式英语之间的差异只是微乎其微的。任何地方的英文读者都既能读《金融时报》和《经济学人》(英国出版),也能读《时代周刊》和《读者文摘》(美国出版),并很清楚地知道,他们读到的是相同的语言。

那么该选择哪一个呢?答案是使用你所在区域使用的语言,然后坚持使用下去,不要混用。

快速阅读

说英语还是美语?

约翰·爱略特

当然,美国人和英国人都讲英语,但有时候说的又似乎不是同一种语言。事实上,英式英语和美式英语之间有着一些显著的区别。

首先,它们听起来不一样。通常,美国人不会将每一个单词中的所有字母都发出音来,尤其是“t”和“d”这类辅音。例如,美国人可能讲“I donno(我不知道)”,而不是“I don’t know”,或者他们可能说“Whaddya say(你说什么)?”,而不是“What do you say?”

然而,英国人通常会更认真地发辅音。

另外,一些字母的发音也不同。例如,美国人发“half”中的“a”时和发“cat”中的“a”一样,但是英国人发“half”中的“a”时就像发“soft”中的“o”音。“r”有时也发得不同。

当一个美国人说“farmer”时,你通常可以听到“r”音。但是你在英式英语中听不到这个“r”音。英国人说“fahmah”。

发音不是英式英语和美式英语之间的唯一差别。这两种语言对某些事物用的词也不同。

衣着用词就是如此。美国人同“sweater(套衫)”这个词,而英国人说“jumper(套衫)”。

美国人把“vest(背心)”穿在他们的衬衫外面,而英国人把“vest(背心)”穿在衬衫里面。

美国人在豪华派对上穿“tuxedo(男士无尾半正式晚礼服)”,而英国人则穿一件“dinner-jacket (无尾晚礼服)”。美国人说“裤子(pants)”或“slacks(裤子)”,但是英国人则说“trousers”,而且在这两个国家,很多表达方式也不同。在英格兰,如果你想打电话给朋友们,你“ring them up”,在美国,你“give them a call”。英国人用“lovely”这个词来描绘他们喜欢的东西。美国人则用“nice”或“great”这些词。

两者在语法上也有很多不同。例如美国人几乎总是将助动词“do”与动词“have”一起使用。他们可能会讲:“Do you have an extra pen?(你有多余的一支笔吗?)”。英国人则是另一种问法。他们可能会说:“Have you got an extra pen?”

如果你正在学英语,这些差别可能会把你搞糊涂。但是这些差别是有原因的。语言会因时而变。当同种语言被用于不同的地方,也会因地而异。英语是如此,其他语言也一样。

例如法语,加拿大的很多人说法语,但是他们的法语就不同于法国人说的法语了。

四、练习答案

Part Ⅱ Text Comprehension

Fact Searching

Reading Analysis

1.D

2.B

3.D

4.A

5.B

Information Organization

British or American English?

Main idea: (Para. 1) Although British English and American English do exhibit many differences, they are basically the same.

Supporting points:

1.(Paras. 2-7) Although American English shows some differences from British English after it has been reformed, the differences are not so significant.

2.(Para. 8) There are also many differences in the vocabulary between British English and American English.

3.(Paras. 9~10) Differences in British and American usage of English are numerous; however, they are only the regional variation and are not important.

Conclusion:

(Para. 11) We should choose either British or American English and stick to it.

Team Work

Omitted

Part Ⅲ Skill Building

1.Word Forms

2.Vocabulary in Context

A.

1.B

2.A

3.B

4.A

5.D

B.

1.B

2.B

3.C

4.A

5.D

6.A

C.

1.If you have much spare time when you are on business in Japan, you can pick up some Japanese.

2.Although you are the leader here, you cannot lay down the rules totally according to your own will.

3.They succeeded by means of patience and carefulness.

4.New citizens are required to conform to the local customs.

3.Key Structures

1.The truth is that she is too young to shoulder such important responsibilities.

2.The truth is that he never truly loved her.

3.He made a huge mistake in the English Speaking Contest, well aware that he lost the first prize.

4.She walked onto the stage confidently, well aware that she would be the final winner.

5.Those students who work hard may be given the scholarship.

6.Those people who have worked in this company for more than five years can have the chance to go abroad.

7.Her father insists that she (should) come back to China after she finishes her study abroad.

8.The teacher insists that the students (should) come to class on time.

4.Translation

A.

1.新闻的“观点”

2.受过良好教育的人

3.获胜,占上风

4.Traveler’s Check

5.take a lift/an elevator

6.regional variation

B.

1.She went over to the crying baby and picked her up.

2.To this day, I still don’t understand why he did it then.

3.Different people may have different “slants” on the same incident.

4.After marriage, he had continually made attempts to change her way of life, but failed.

5.Betty Friedan is a very influential advocate of the equality of men and women in the United States.

6.The Suzhou dialect has a lot in common with the Shanghai dialect.

7.He was triumphant in defeating his opponent.

8.If you want to be successful, you must stick to your own principles.

5.Writing: Simple Sentence (简单句) and Compound Sentence (复合句)

A.

1.SVO

2.SVP

3.SV

4.SVOC

5.SVOO

B.

1.The phone is ringing. (The phone rings.)

2.He looked frightened.

3.They smiled at the baby.

4.The monitor handed us our books.

5.These pictures made the book more interesting.

C.

1.It was windy, so I stayed indoors. Or I stayed indoors, for it was windy.

2.He was short-sighted, so he was not able to join the army, for He was not able to join the army, for he was short-sighted.

3.John wanted to ski and Mary wanted to fly kites. Or John wanted to ski, but Mary wanted to fly kites.

4.She can’t sing, nor/neither can she dance.

D.

1.不当,but—and

2.不当,so—but

3.不当,and—but或while

4.使用得当

Part IV Fast Reading

Reading Comprehension

1.D

2.B

3.A

4.C

5.C

6.D

Unit 2

一、词汇短语

take action采取行动;提出诉讼【例句】The committee indicated that it might take action. 委员会表示可能采取行动。

keep an eye on照看;留意;密切注视【例句】Please keep an eye on the stove in case the milk boils. 劳神照料炉上的牛奶,别沸溅了。

emotional [i5mEuFEnl] adj. 情绪的,情感的;深情的,充满感情的【例句】She had a major emotional upset. 她情绪上受到了沉重的打击。

breakdown [5breikdaun] n. 故障,损坏;衰弱;崩溃;破裂;(关系、计划或讨论等的)中断【例句】He couldn't hold down a job after his breakdown. 他病倒以後,工作也就保不住了。【助记】break(破碎)+ down(下)→破碎并掉下→崩溃,倒塌

inform [in5fC:m] v. (of, about)通知,告知;告发,告密【例句】We were informed of the change in plans. 我们被告知计划已改变。【词组】inform of/about/that通知,告诉,获悉【助记】in(在里面)+ form(形式,形状)→将形式通知你【派生】information n. 信息,资料;知识;情报;通知

start up开始;发动;突然站起;突然出现

snippy [5snipi] adj. 暴躁的;傲慢的【例句】Cindy had been more than usually snippy. 辛迪异乎寻常的出言不逊。

scan [skAn] v. 细看;浏览;扫描

n. 扫描【例句】They scanned the morning papers while eating breakfast. 他们吃早饭时浏览早报。【助记】发音记忆:“四看”→四处看→扫描,s-can→细看。【派生】scanner n. 扫描仪;扫描器

scanning n. 扫描;搜索,观测

disc [disk] n. 圆盘,唱片(等于disk)

vt. 灌唱片【例句】The orange disc of the sun sank towards the horizon. 太阳那橘红色的圆盘从地平线升起。

shut down停工,关闭

in case万一;假使

medically [5medikEli] adv. 医学上;医药上【例句】We have all been medically checked. 我们都做了体格检查。

weirdness [wiEdnis] n. 古怪;命运【例句】The weirdness of Hollywood suits him well. 好莱坞的光怪陆离非常适合他。

regularly [5re^julEli] adv. 有规律地,有规则地,定期地;整齐地,匀称地【例句】He dunged his vegetable garden regularly. 他经常给他的菜园施肥。【词组】bathe regularly 经常洗澡

data [5deitE] n. 数据(datum的复数);资料【例句】We gather up from various sources a great amount of first hand data. 我们从各种来源收集了大量第一手资料。

needless [5ni:dlis] adj. 不需要的,不必要的;多余的,无用的【例句】He got a large fortune when his father died, but trifled it away in only a few years of needless spending.

父亲去世时他得到一大笔财产,可仅仅几年的时间就将这笔钱胡乱挥霍一空。【词组】needless to say 不用说

version [5vE:FEn] n. 型,版本;译本,译文;说法【例句】Did you read the whole book or only the abridged version?你读的是足本还是节本?【助记】vers(转化)+ ion→从原文转化而来→译本;v-er-sion。

crayon [5kreiEn] n. 彩色蜡笔(或粉笔等)

vt. 用彩色蜡笔画【例句】The baby daubed up the wall with his crayon. 小孩用蜡笔把墙上画得斑斑点点。【词组】a crayon drawing 彩色蜡笔画【助记】ray 光线是彩色的 + on 上面;gray + on 上面是灰色的,(黑板上)的字,画是灰色的粉笔写的;粉笔画canyon峡谷

swear [swZE] v. (at)诅咒,骂人;宣誓,发誓【例句】You often seem to get rid of stress by swearing at me. 你似乎经常通过骂我,来消除紧张情绪。【词组】swear (at sb. /sth. ) 咒骂,诅咒

swear sth. (against sb. ) 宣誓承认(某一陈述)属实

swear in 使宣誓就职

swear sb. in 使某人宣誓就职

swear off sth. 宣布停用某事物【助记】s(蛇)+ wear(穿)→蛇穿好衣服,去发誓【派生】swearing n. 发誓;咒骂

reliable [ri5laiEbl] adj. 可靠的,可信赖的

n. 可靠的人【例句】It’s not reliable to judge a man only by his looks. 单凭外表来判断一个人是不可靠的。

seizure [5si:VE] n. 抓,捉;没收,查封;夺取;捕获【例句】①The seizure took place about 4 o’clock one morning. 这次发作在凌晨四点左右发生。

②The courts ordered the seizure of all her property. 法院下令查封她所有的财产。【词组】seizure clause 扣押免责条款

the impressive seizures of drugs 轰动一时的毒品扣押案

squish [skwiF] n. 咯吱声,果酱

vt. 压扁,压烂

vi. 咯吱吱地走【例句】It’ll help squish out all that water I've been retaining. 它能帮我把我一直保持的水份全都挤出来。

warm up热身;变暖【例句】Let's do some exercises to warm up a bit. 让咱们先做做操热一下身。

asparagus [E5spArEgEs] n. 芦笋,龙须菜(一种植物,可作蔬菜或入药)【例句】I like asparagus soup. 我喜欢喝芦笋汤。【词组】asparagus lettuce 莴苣,莴笋

asparagus juice 芦笋汁

tempt [tempt] vt. 诱惑,引诱;吸引,使感兴趣【例句】A second helping tempted me. 又一道菜吸引了我。【词组】tempt sb. (into sth. /doing sth. ) 劝说或鼓动某人做某事(尤指错事﹑ 傻事)【派生】temptation n. 引诱;诱惑物

二、课文精解

Intensive Reading

1.Warts and All:英语中,这个短语表示“不隐瞒任何缺点,不管有多少缺点,毫不遮丑”。本文中,作者一方面写电脑出现的问题以及由此带来的各种不快,另一方面指作者腿上长的疣,属于一语双关。

2.At least once per day, without fail, my computer, like every computer have ever owned, has some kind of emotional breakdown:本句主干是my computer has some kind of emotional breakdown,其余部分都做状语。without fail务必,必定;无疑。例:I’ll be there at two o’clock without fail. 我两点钟一定到那里。some kind of某种。emotional(情绪的)多用于人,电脑是没有感情的,但作者这里将电脑比拟成一个具有感情的生物,体现出作者的幽默诙谐。

3.It simply stops working--often when I’m not touching it--and it puts a message on the screen informing me that an error has occurred:破折号中间的内容是对前面的补充说明,表示电脑经常自动停止工作。me和that从句作inform的双宾语。inform“通知,告诉”,常用结构inform sb. of sth. ,表示“通知某人某事”,例:They would inform him of any progress they had made. 他们将把自己所取得的任何进展都告诉他。

4.It does not say what the error is, nor where it occurred:

试读结束[说明:试读内容隐藏了图片]

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