陶洁《美国文学选读》(第2版)笔记和课后习题详解(txt+pdf+epub+mobi电子书下载)

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陶洁《美国文学选读》(第2版)笔记和课后习题详解

陶洁《美国文学选读》(第2版)笔记和课后习题详解试读:

第1单元 本杰明•富兰克林

1.1 复习笔记

I. Introduction to author(作者简介)

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) was a rare genius in human history. He became everything: a printer, postmaster, almanac maker, essayist, scientist, inventor, orator, statesman, philosopher, political economist, ambassador,—“Jack of all trades.”

富兰克林是人类历史上少有的天才。他是出版家、邮政总长、历书作者、散文家、科学家、发明家、演说家、政治家、哲学家、政治经济学家、大使、业务员等等。

1.Life(生平)

He was born into a poor family. He was a voracious reader. At 16 he published essays under the pseudonym Silence Do good. At 17 he ran away to Philadelphia to make his own fortune. He became a printer. He helped found the Pennsylvania Hospital, an academy which led to the University of Pennsylvania, and the American Philosophical Society. He was a preeminent scientist of his day. He signed the Declaration of Independence. He was one of the makers of the new nation.

富兰克林出生于一个贫穷的家庭。他非常勤奋好学。16岁时开始以笔名“静行善”发表评论文章。17岁时只身逃往费城谋生。后成为出版商。他帮助建立了宾夕法尼亚大学的前身——宾夕法尼亚医学院和北美哲学学会。他也是当时著名的科学家。他签署过《独立宣言》。他是美国的缔造者之一。

2.Major works(主要作品)

Poor Richard’s Almanac 《穷查理历书》

The Autobiography《自传》

II. Selected works(选读作品)

◆The Autobiography 《自传》

1.Main content主要内容

It depicted the background of Benjamin Franklin, including his studying in his young age and his experiences of work. And his achievement in politics, science and economy were also mentioned in this book.

There are four parts in this book. The first part is the experiences of his first 25years of his life. The second part, written in Paris, is the accomplishments on science and the cause of public affairs. The third and fourth part, written in Philadelphia, is the record of his life from 25 to 51-year-old.

这本书主要记叙了本杰明的成长经历,包括年幼时读书还有工作经历。书中也讲述了他在政治、科学及经济领域取得的成就。

本书共有四部分。第一部分讲述了他一生前25年的经历。第二部分写于巴黎,侧重描写在科学上的成就及他所从事的公共事业。第三四两部分写于费城,先后记叙了他从25岁至51岁的生活。

2.Comments(赏析)

(1) The Autobiography was probably the first of its kind in literature. It is the simple yet immensely fascinating record of a man rising to wealth and fame from a state of poverty and obscurity into which he was born, the faithful account of the colorful career of American’s first self-made man. He represented in America all its ideas, that man is basically good and free by nature, endowed by God with certain inalienable rights of liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Through telling a success story of self-reliance, the book celebrates the fulfillment of the American dream.

(2) The Autobiography is also an eloquent elucidation of the fact that Franklin was a spokesman for the new order of eighteenth-century enlightenment. It is also a Puritan document. It is a record of self-examination and self-improvement. The book is also a convincing illustration of the Puritan ethic that, in order to get on in the world, one has to be industrial, frugal and prudent.

(3) The style of The Autobiography reveals that it is the pattern of Puritan simplicity, directness and concision.

(1) 《自传》是自传体文学中的上乘佳作。它简明而极其引人入胜地叙述了富兰克林由穷苦卑微而跃至富有、闻名的故事。它忠实地记录了美国第一位自力更生者光辉灿烂的职业生涯。他代表着,在美国,人本质是善良自由的,拥有上帝赋予的不可剥夺的自由及追求幸福的权力。该书通过讲述自力更生而获取成功的故事,歌颂了美国梦的实现。

(2) 《自传》充分说明了富兰克林是18世纪美国启蒙运动的代言人。这也是一本清教文献。它记录了清教徒的自我反省和自我完善。它也是清教道德原则的最好说明,为了取得成功,人必须勤劳、简朴、谨慎。

(3) 《自传》的文体体现出清教徒朴素、直爽、简洁的风格。

1.2 课后习题详解

1.Why did Franklin write his Autobiography?

Key:

Because that when he was young, he has “never had a pleasure in obtaining any anecdotes” of his ancestors, and he held that it was a great pity because he was curious about them. So, he thought that his son would also want to know the story of him and he himself also had responsibility to share it with his son. In addition, he thought that his experiences and success would give some useful advice to his son. With such consideration in mind, Franklin wrote his autobiography.

2.What made Franklin decide to leave the brother to whom he had been apprenticed?

Key:

The altercation between Franklin and his brother made him decide to leave. His brother considered himself as Franklin’s master and treated him harshly and tyrannically. This kind of treatment annoyed Franklin, so he decided to leave.

3.How did he arrive in Philadelphia?

Key:

He arrived in Philadelphia with great difficulties. At the very start, he set out in a boat for Amboy, and in crossing the bay he, along with his companions, met with a squall that tore the rotten sails to pieces and drove him upon Long Island. On approaching the island, they had to drop anchor and swim out their cable towards the shore, etc. In a word, he went through many hardships on the way to Philadelphia.

4.What features do you find in the style of the above selection?

Key:

This selection is written in the form of letters to his son. By this way, it can show the author’s honesty and frankness, which will make the reader stand close to him and actually feel and understand his emotions and experiences. Another feature is that this biography has a good narrative and reads like a story, which can arouse the readers’ reading interest and curiosity.

第2单元 埃德加•爱伦•坡

2.1 复习笔记

I. Introduction to author(作者简介)

Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) is a novelist, poet, and critic.

埃德加•爱伦•坡(1809-1849),小说家,诗人,评论家。

1.Life(生平)

Poe’s childhood was a miserable one. He lost both of his parents when still very small, and was taken care of by a wealthy merchant. Father and son enjoyed nothing but an unhappy relationship together. Poe entered the University of Virginia but did not finish. He went to West Point as a cadet but was dismissed because of misbehavior. Poe wrote and worked as editor most of his short life. He was poor all his life. At 27 he married his cousin, whose death in 1847 left him inconsolable and bitter with life than ever. He died, in October, 1849.

坡有着悲惨的童年。他年幼时父母双亡,他被一位富商收养,父子之间关系紧张。坡进入弗吉尼亚大学学习,但是没能完成学业。后来去了西点军校,却又因为行为不端而被校方开除。他短暂的一生中大部分时间都在从事写作和编辑工作。他终身贫困潦倒。27岁时,他和他的表妹结婚,1847年妻子的离世使他悲痛万分。1849年10月,坡去世了。

2.Major works(主要作品)

(1) Poems(诗集)

Tamerlane and Other Poems《帖木儿》

Al Araaf《艾尔•阿拉夫》

Poems《诗集》

The Raven and Other Poems 《乌鸦及其他诗篇》

(2) Short stories(短篇小说)

Tales of the Grotesque and the Arabesque《述异集》

The Fall of the House of Usher《厄舍大厦的倒塌》

The Masque of the Red Death《红色死亡假面舞会》

Ligeia《莉盖亚》

The Black cat《黑猫》

The Cask of Amontillado《阿芒提拉多的酒桶》

The Murders in the Rue Morgue《莫格街谋杀案》

The Purloined Letter《被窃的信件》

The Gold Bag《金甲虫》

(3) Literary theory(文学理论)

The Philosophy of Composition《创作哲学》

The Poetic Principle《诗歌原理》

II. Selected works(选读作品)

◆The Cask of Amontillado《阿芒提拉多的酒桶》

1.Theme and style(主题与风格)

The theme is about horror and death.

Poe pursues the style of shortness and fast tempo and to reach the climax quickly. To achieve the effect, he reduces the background information and the words he used are concise. In this short story, even nothing is redundant.

小说的主体是恐怖和死亡。

坡追求篇幅短小而节奏很快的叙事风格,从而使故事迅速达到高潮。为达到这种效果,他减少了背景信息,并且用词凝练。在这篇短篇小说中,甚至没有一个词是冗余的。

2.Main plot(主要情节)

It is the narrator’s account of his ability to carry out a chilling plot of revenge against his offender, Fortunato.

Montresor baits Fortunato by telling him he has obtained what he believes to be a pipe of a rare vintage of Amontillado. He claims he wants his friend’s expert opinion on the subject. Fortunato goes with Montresor to the wine cellars of the latter’s palazzo, where they wander in the catacombs. Montresor offers wine to Fortunato. Montresor displays a trowel he had been hiding and killed Fortunato.

主要讲述了叙述者实施他的复仇计划,将冒犯他的弗图那多杀死的故事。

蒙特利瑟告诉弗图那多他买了一桶阿芒提拉多酒,但不确定是不是名酒,想要弗图那多去帮忙鉴定。蒙特利瑟便带领着弗图那多到了豪华宫殿的地下酒窖,将酒拿给弗图那多看。然后将弗图那多绑在事先准备好的铁桩上,杀死了他。

3.Analysis(作品分析)

(1) Precision in time, place, and setting preclude the idea of risk and allow the narrator both the retribution he seeks and the impunity he demands.

(2) It is set during the “supreme madness” of Carnival. In such a riotous atmosphere, it is easy to see how a crime could go unnoticed.

(3) Because Montresor is aware of the unfortunate Fortunato’s impending death, dramatic irony also plays a role in the comedy of horrors of "The Cask of Amontillado." Dramatic irony is the result of the disconnect that occurs when a character, namely Fortunato, is not aware of the true meaning of his own actions. The very setting of the story is ironic, in that Montresor has chosen the jovial carnival season to enact his murder because no one will be at his estate to witness the crime. Fortunato himself is dressed in a jester’s outfit, and the jingling of his jester’s bells reminds us of the atmosphere of happiness and cheer outside the catacombs. Later, as they drink the Medoc, Fortunato drinks to the dead and buried, not realizing that he is about to join them, and Montresor wryly drinks to Fortunato’s health.

(1) 精确的时间与地点减少了风险并使叙述者顺利实施复仇计划又免遭惩罚。

(2) 在狂欢节“最疯狂活动”中实施计划,很难引起人们的注意。

(3) 蒙特利瑟知道弗图那多注定要死去,戏剧反讽也有很大的作用。弗图那多并不知道他的行为意味着什么造成了戏剧性反讽。故事发生的背景也颇具讽刺意味。蒙特利瑟选择在狂欢节实施他的复仇计划是因为没人会注意到发生了什么。而弗图那多自己穿着小丑的衣服,以及小丑的铃声使我们想起狂欢节欢快的气氛外面以及地下酒窖外的欢呼声。当他们喝梅多科酒时,弗图那多并没意识到死亡正向他逼近,蒙特利瑟报复计划就要得逞。

2.2 课后习题详解

1.Who is the narrator? What wrong does he want to redress?

Key:

Montresor is the narrator. He had borne thousands of injuries of Fortunato as best he could, and he decides to take revenge on him. He must not only punish Fortunato but with impunity.

2.What is the pretext he uses to lure Fortunato to his wine cellar?

Key:

He said to Fortunato that he got a pipe of Amontillado, and he was doubt about it, so he wanted someone to make sure for him. At the same time, he deliberately showed his doubts about Fortunato’s connoisseurship in wine and cared about his health, which firmed Fortunato’s decision to go with him to his wine cellar.

3.What happens to Fortunato in the end?

Key:

He was locked in the cellar by Montresor, and can only wait for death.

4.Describe briefly how Poe characterizes Montresor and Fortunato as contrasts?

Key:

Poe characterizes the two characters with striking contrasts between them in many aspects. Firstly, their names are endowed with opposite symbolic meanings: Montresor symbolizes “monstrous”, while Fortunato symbolizes “fortunate”. Montresor is the devil in the story, and Fortunato is fortunate through his life and makes great fortune, but finally, he ends in a very unfortunate way, which is very ironical. Secondly, their clothes are very different: Fortunato “wore motley”, while Montresor put on “a mask of black silk” and drew “a roquelaire” closely about his person. Last, their psychological activities and consciousness are in contrast: Montresor knows clearly what is going on and what will happen, while Fortunato is always kept in the dark till the end.

第3单元 拉尔夫•华尔多•爱默生

3.1 复习笔记

I. Introduction to author(作者简介)

Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) is an essayist, poet, and one of leaders of The Transcendentalism.

拉尔夫·瓦尔多·爱默生(1803-1882),散文家,诗人,超验主义哲学的领导者。

1.Life(生平)

Emerson was the descendant of a long line of New England clergymen. When he was still a child, the family fortune fell. He went to Harvard. Later he embraced Unitarianism and became a Unitarian minister to the Second Church of Boston. But not for long, he found the rationality of Unitarianism intolerable and left his job. He went to Europe and brought back with him the influence of European Romanticism. He formed an informal Transcendentalists’ club with some friends and edited for a time the Transcendentalist journal, the Dial, to explain their ideas. He became the most eloquent spokesman of New England Transcendentalism. During his lifetime he was considered one of the two or three best writers in America, and certainly the most influential among his contemporaries. He was the prophet of his age and exerted great influence on Thoreau, Whitman, Hawthorne and others in varying degrees.

爱默生生于新英格兰一个显赫牧师之家。幼年时家道中落。他曾在哈佛大学就读。后接受唯一教教义,并成为波士顿第二礼拜堂唯一教牧师。不久,因对该教一些古板仪式持异议而辞职。赴欧洲旅行时受到欧洲浪漫主义的影响。回国后跟朋友结成非正式的“超验主义俱乐部”,编辑超验主义专刊《日晷》,传播超验主义思想。他是新英格兰超验主义最杰出的代言人。他生前被认为是美国最顶尖的两到三个作家之一,是同时代最富影响力的哲学家和文豪。他是那个时代的先知,对梭罗、惠特曼、霍桑等作家产生了不同程度的影响。

2.Major works(主要作品)

Nature《论自然》

The American Scholar《论美国学者》

The Divinity of Address《神学院致辞》

Essays《论文集》

Essays: Second Series《论文集:第二辑》

Representative Men《人类代表》

English Traits《英国特征》

The Conduct of Life 《人生的行为》

Poems《诗集》

May-Day and Other Pieces《五月节》

II. Transcendentalism(超验主义)

1.Major features(主要特征)

(1) The Transcendentalists placed emphasis on spirit, or the Oversoul, as the most important thing in the universe. The Oversoul was an all-pervading power for goodness, omnipresent and omnipotent, from which all things came and of which all were a part. This represented a new way of looking at the world. It was a reaction to the eighteenth Newtonian concept of the universe. It was also a reaction against the direction that a mechanized, capitalist America was taking, against the popular tendency to get ahead in world affairs to neglect spiritual welfare.

(2) The Transcendentalists stressed the importance of the individual. To them the individual was the most important element of society. The ideal type of man were the self-reliant individuals. The individual soul communed with the Oversoul and was therefore divine. This new notion of the individual and his importance represented a new way of looking at man. It was a reaction against the Calvinist conception of total depravity, against the process of dehumanization that came in the wake of developing capitalism.

(3) The Transcendentalists offered a fresh perception of nature as symbolic of the spirit or God. Things in nature tended to become symbolic, and the physical world was a symbol of the spiritual. This in turn added to the tradition of literary symbolism in American literature.

(1) 超验主义者强调精神,或超灵,认为这是宇宙间至为重要的存在因素。超灵是一种无所不容、无所不在、扬善抑恶的力量,是万物之本、万物之所属。这是一种新的世界观。他反对10世纪的机械宇宙观,反对美国朝着机械化、资本主义化的方向发展,反对美国人沉湎于发财致富而忽略精神生活的世风。

(2) 超验主义者强调个人的重要性。他们认为个人是社会的最重要的组成因素。理想的人是自立自强的人。个人灵魂与上帝交流,因而具有神性。这种关于人及其重要性的新观点反映出对人的新评价。它反对加尔文教义中的彻底的堕落,反对资本主义上升阶段的非人性化现象。

(3) 超验主义者以全新的目光看待自然,认为自然界是超灵或上帝的象征。自然界万物皆具有象征性,外部世界是精神世界的体现。这又加强了美国文学中象征主义的传统。

III. Selected works(作品选读)

◆Self-Reliance《论自助》

1.Main content(主要内容)

It is an essay from Essays. The theme of the essay is about “trusting yourself” and one of the important works that express the ideas of The Transcendentalism. He criticized any form of not being independent. He thought every great man in history is different from ordinary man because they keep being themselves even if they may be misunderstood by others.《论自助》选自爱默生的《论文集》。这篇文章是表达他的超验主义观点最重要的作品之一。“相信自己”是爱默生的重要观点之一也是这篇文章的主题。他在文中鞭笞了任何形式的随波逐流。他认为历史上的伟人都是坚持自己的想法,尽管有可能被世人误解。

2.Analysis(作品分析)

(1) Emerson’s master principle self-reliance is also the main theme of the American Transcendentalist movement This essay provides us sayings as well as builds up new concepts through which the author paves the path for the readers to follow, and furthermore, he tries to force the readers to be self-reliant in order to obtain their self-reliance successfully.

(2) The distinction of Self-Reliance is the elegant style of prose and vivid expression of his thoughts. His words can capture the thoughts of people. He also used a lot of figures of speech to emphasize his ideas.

(3) The idea of abolishing the slaves can be also found in this essay. But he also tells people that love your neighbor not the far-away slaves.

(1) 爱默生在《论自助》中所阐述的观点也是美国超验主义运动的主题。这篇文章也使我们知道了很多新的想法,并使读者意识到自己要自立只有这样才能成功的成为一个独立的人。

(2) 爱默生的不同之处在于他优雅的散文风格及生动表达思想的能力。他的文章能抓住人们的想象。同样他也在文中运用了很多修辞手法。

(3) 虽然他也持有废除黑奴的想法,但是他也告诫人们要爱你的邻居而不是千里之外的黑奴。

3.2 课后习题详解

1.What is the author’s attitude towards charity? Why does he hold such an attitude?

Key:

The author thinks that not all charity is good, especially when malice and vanity wear the coat of philanthropy. And it is not his obligation to give money to the poor. What’s more, he feels shameful when sometimes he succumbs and gives the dollar, and it is a wicked dollar. He objects to the charity.

Because he thinks that people’s good actions, such as doing charity, are done as an apology or extenuation of their living in the world. However, he holds that people should not wish to expiate, but to live.

2.According to the author, what do most people believe to be virtue? And what is real virtue?

Key:

Most people believe that virtues are rather the exception than the rule, and they are penances. The real virtue is the rule that people must do what concerns them rather than what the people think.

3.Why does the author dislike “consistency”? Do you agree with him? Do you think that people should give up consistency?

Key:

Because that consistency scares us from self-trust, and makes us less confident. It also makes us have a reverence for our past act or word because the eyes of others have no other data for computing our orbit than our past acts, and we are loath to disappoint them. What’s more, a foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds, adored by little statesmen and philosophers and divines. And with consistency a great soul has simply nothing to do. It will ruin a man’s creativity.

I cannot totally agree with him. Although I confess that there are some positive meanings in his proposal, I cannot neglect the positive aspects of consistency. Because that we sometimes need consistency to restrict people’s behaviors. For example, nature has its own law that we must follow, or we will violate the order of it.

In my mind, whether people should give up consistency or not depends on the specific situation. That is, Keeping it firmly or giving it up is not wise choice. We should treat it case-by-case.

4.What is the agreement of one’s actions? Why is it important for people?

Key:

The agreement of one’s actions is that the actions will be harmonious, no matter how unlike they seem.

Because only with this agreement, can people be each honest and natural in their hour. Conformity explains nothing, and people’s genuine action will explain itself and their other genuine actions. So, it is important for people.

第4单元 纳撒尼尔•霍桑

4.1 复习笔记

I. Introduction to author(作者简介)

Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864) is a novelist.

纳撒尼尔·霍桑(1804-1864)是一位小说家。

1.Life(生平)

Hawthorne was born in Salem, Massachusetts. Some of his ancestors were men of prominence in the Puritan theocracy. One of his ancestors was a colonial magistrate, notorious for his part in the persecution of the Quakers, and another was a judge at the Salem Witchcraft Trial in 1692. Gradually, the family fortune declined. Hawthorn was intensely conscious of the wrongdoing of his ancestors, and this awareness led to his understanding of evil being at the core of human life, so he seemed to be haunted by his sense of sin and evil in his life.

霍桑出生于马萨诸塞州的萨勒姆镇,他的一些祖先是17世纪新英格兰清教神权统治中的显赫人物。他的一位祖先是殖民地行政官,因参与迫害贵格派教徒而臭名昭著。另一位祖先则是1692年萨勒姆审巫案的法官。家族渐渐走向没落。霍桑强烈地意识到他祖先的罪恶,这也让他明白了邪恶存在于人生命的核心部分,因此终其一生,他心中的罪恶感都挥之不去。

2.Writing style(写作风格)

(1) He is the most ambivalent writer, a consummate romantic in the American literature history. One salient feature of Hawthorne’s art is his ambiguity, of which the technique of multiple views employed in the last part of his masterpiece The Scarlet Letter offers a good illustration.

(2) He is good at exploring of the complexity of human psychology. He is anatomist of "the interior of the heart". His works are full of mental activities.

(3) Allegory is used to hold fast against the crushing blows of reality, the symbolism serves as a weapon to attack and penetrate it. Hawthorne is a master of symbolism, which he took from the Puritan tradition and bequeathed to American literature in a revivified form. The symbol can be found everywhere in his writing, and his masterpiece, The Scarlet Letter, provides the most conclusive proof.

(1) 霍桑是美国文学历史上思想最为矛盾、写作手法娴熟的浪漫主义作家。矛盾性是霍桑写作艺术的一个显著特征,在他的代表作《红字》的最后一部分作家运用了多重视角的写作技巧。

(2) 他善于探究人的复杂心理,是人物内心的剖析师。他的作品有着丰富的心理活动描写。

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