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Part I Writing (30 minutes)Directions: Suppose you are asked to give advice on whether to major in science or humanities at college, write an essay to state your opinion. You are required to write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.
__________________________________________________________________________________Part II Listening Comprehension (30 minutes)Section ADirections: In this section, you will hear two long conversations. At the end of each conversation, you will hear four questions. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 1 to 4 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
1. A) Doing enjoyable work.
B) Earning a competitive salary.
C) Having friendly colleagues.
D) Working for supportive bosses.
2. A) 20%.
3. A) Those full of skilled workers.
B) Those that are well managed.
C) Those run by women.
D) Those of a small size.
4. A) They can win recognition of their work.
B) They can better balance work and life.
C) They can hop from job to job easily.
D) They can take on more than one job.
Questions 5 to 8 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
5. A) It is a collection of photos.
B) It is an introduction to music.
C) It is about the city of Bruges.
D) It is a book of European history.
6. A) When writing about Belgium's coastal regions.
B) When taking pictures for a concert catalogue.
C) When vacationing in an Italian coastal city.
D) When painting the concert hall of Bruges.
7. A) The rich heritage of Europe will be lost completely.
B) The seawater of Europe will be seriously polluted.
C) The entire European coastline will be submerged.
D) The major European scenic spots will disappear.
8. A) Tourists use wooden paths to reach their hotels in the morning.
B) It attracts large numbers of tourists from home and abroad.
C) People cannot get around without using boats.
D) Its waterways are being increasingly polluted.Section BDirections: In this section, you will hear two passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear three or four questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 9 to 12 are based on the passage you have just heard.
9. A) They try hard to avoid getting off on the wrong foot.
B) They spend too much time anticipating their defeat.
C) They take too many irrelevant factors into account.
D) They make careful preparations beforehand.
10. A) Mental images often interfere with athletes' performance.
B) Golfers usually have positive mental images of themselves.
C) Thinking has the same effect on the nervous system as doing.
D) A person's nervous system is more complicated than imagined.
11. A) Anticipate possible problems.
B) Make a list of do's and don'ts.
C) Try to appear more professional.
D) Picture themselves succeeding.
12. A) She won her first jury trial.
B) She wore a designer dress.
C) She presented moving pictures.
D) She did not speak loud enough.
Questions 13 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard.
13. A) It enables patients with diabetes to recover sooner.
B) Its health benefits have been overestimated.
C) Its long-term effects are yet to be proved.
D) It helps people to avoid developing breast cancer.
14. A) It tracked their eating habits since their adolescence.
B) It focused on their difference from men in fiber intake.
C) It tracked their change in food preferences for 20 years.
D) It focused on their ways of life during young adulthood.
15. A) Fiber may bring more benefits to women than men.
B) Fiber may improve the function of heart muscles.
C) Fiber may make blood circulation more smooth.
D) Fiber may help to reduce hormones in the body.Section CDirections: In this section, you will hear three recordings of lectures or talks followed by three or four questions. The recordings will be played only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 16 to 18 are based on the recording you have just heard.
16. A) Investigating the impact of media on government.
B) Studying the hazards of young people drinking.
C) Conducting research on consumer behaviour.
D) Observing the changes in marketing.
17. A) It is a chief concern of parents.
B) It is an act of socialising.
C) It is the cause of many street riots.
D) It is getting worse year by year.
18. A) They researched the impact of mobile phones on young people.
B) They spent a week studying their own purchasing behaviour.
C) They conducted a thorough research on advertising.
D) They analysed their family budgets over the years.
Questions 19 to 22 are based on the recording you have just heard.
19. A) It is likely to give up paper money in the near future.
B) It is the first country to use credit cards in the world.
C) It is trying hard to do away with dirty money.
D) It is helping its banks to improve efficiency.
20. A) Whether it is possible to travel without carrying any physical currency.
B) Whether it is possible to predict how much money one is going to spend.
C) Whether the absence of physical currency is going to affect everyday life.
D) Whether the absence of physical currency causes a person to spend more.
21. A) The cash in her handbag was missing.
B) The service on the train was not good.
C) The restaurant car accepted cash only.
D) There was no food service on the train.
22. A) By drawing money week by week.
B) By putting money into envelopes.
C) By limiting their day-to-day spending.
D) By refusing to buy anything on credit.
Questions 23 to 25 are based on the recording you have just heard.
23. A) Population explosion.
B) Extinction of rare species.
C) Chronic hunger.
D) Environmental deterioration.
24. A) About half of them are unintended.
B) They contribute to overpopulation.
C) They have been brought under control.
D) The majority of them tend to end halfway.
25. A) It is beginning to attract postgraduates' attention.
B) It is neglected in many of the developing countries.
C) It is becoming a subject of interdisciplinary research.
D) It is essential to the wellbeing of all species on earth.Part III Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)Section ADirections: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Let's all stop judging people who talk to themselves. New research says that those who can't seem to keep their inner monologues(独白)in are actually more likely to stay on task, remain 26 better and show improved perception capabilities. Not bad, really, for some extra muttering.
According to a series of experiments published in the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology by professors Gary Lupyan and Daniel Swignley, the act of using verbal clues to 27 mental pictures helps people function quicker.
In one experiment, they showed pictures of various objects to twenty 28 and asked them to find just one of those, a banana. Half were 29 to repeat out loud what they were looking for and the other half kept their lips 30 . Those who talked to themselves found the banana slightly faster than those who didn't, the researchers say. In other experiments, Lupyan and Swignley found that 31 the name of a common product when on the hunt for it helped quicken someone's pace, but talking about uncommon items showed no advantage and slowed you down.
Common research has long held that talking themselves through a task helps children learn, although doing so when you've 32 matured is not a great sign of 33. The two professors hope to refute that idea, 34 that just as when kids walk themselves through a process, adults can benefit from using language not just to communicate, but also to help “augment thinking”.
Of course, you are still encouraged to keep the talking at library tones and, whatever you do, keep the information you share simple, like a grocery list. At any 35, there's still such a thing as too much information.A) apparentlyB) arroganceC) brillianceD) claimingE) dedicatedF) focusedG) incurH) instructedI) obscurelyJ) sealedK) spectatorsL) triggerM) utteringN) volumeO) volunteersSection BDirections: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.Rich Children and Poor Ones Are Raised Very Differently
A) The lives of children from rich and poor American families look more different than ever before.
B) Well-off families are ruled by calendars, with children enrolled in ballet, soccer and after-school programs, according to a new Pew Research Center survey. There are usually two parents, who spend a lot of time reading to children and worrying about their anxiety levels and hectic schedules.
C) In poor families, meanwhile, children tend to spend their time at home or with extended family. They are more likely to grow up in neighborhoods that their parents say aren't great for raising children, and their parents worry about them getting shot, beaten up or in trouble with the law.
D) The class differences in child rearing are growing — a symptom of widening inequality with far-reaching consequences. Different upbringings set children on different paths and can deepen socioeconomic divisions, especially because education is strongly linked to earnings. Children grow up learning the skills to succeed in their socioeconomic stratum(阶层), but not necessarily others.
E) “Early childhood experiences can be very consequential for children's long-term social, emotional and cognitive development,” said Sean Reardon, professor of poverty and inequality in education at Stanford University. “And because those influence educational success and later earnings, early childhood experiences cast a lifelong shadow.” The cycle continues: Poorer parents have less time and fewer resources to invest in their children, which can leave children less prepared for school and work, which leads to lower earnings.
F) American parents want similar things for their children, the Pew report and past research have found: for them to be healthy and happy, honest and ethical, caring and compassionate. There is no best parenting style or philosophy, researchers say, and across income groups, 92% of parents say they are doing a good job at raising their children. Yet they are doing it quite differently. Middle-class and higher-income parents see their children as projects in need of careful cultivation, says Annette Lareau, whose groundbreaking research on the topic was published in her book Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race and Family Life. They try to develop their skills through close supervision and organized activities, and teach children to question authority figures and navigate elite institutions.
G) Working-class parents, meanwhile, believe their children will naturally thrive, and give them far greater independence and time for free play. They are taught to be compliant and respectful to adults. There are benefits to both approaches. Working-class children are happier, more independent, complain less and are closer with family members, Ms. Lareau found. Higher-income children are more likely to declare boredom and expect their parents to solve their problems. Yet later on, the more affluent children end up in college and on the way to the middle class, while working-class children tend to struggle. Children from higher-income families are likely to have the skills to navigate bureaucracies and succeed in schools and workplaces, Ms. Lareau said.
H) “Do all parents want the most success for their children? Absolutely,” she said. “Do some strategies give children more advantages than others in institutions? Probably they do. Will parents be damaging children if they have one fewer organized activity? No, I really doubt it.”
I) Social scientists say the differences arise in part because low-income parents have less money to spend on music class or preschool, and less flexible schedules to take children to museums or attend school events. Extracurricular activities reflect the differences in child rearing in the Pew survey, which was of a nationally representative sample of 1,807 parents. Of families earning more than $75,000 a year, 84% say their children have participated in organized sports over the past year, 64% have done volunteer work and 62% have taken lessons in music, dance or art. Of families earning less than $30,000, 59% of children have done sports, 37% have volunteered and 41% have taken arts classes.
J) Especially in affluent families, children start young. Nearly half of high-earning, college-graduate parents enrolled their children in arts classes before they were 5, compared with one-fifth of low-income, less-educated parents. Nonetheless, 20% of well-off parents say their children's schedules are too hectic, compared with 8% of poorer parents.
K) Another example is reading aloud, which studies have shown gives children bigger vocabularies and better reading comprehension in school. 71% of parents with a college degree say they do it every day, compared with 33% of those with a high school diploma or less. White parents are more likely than others to read to their children daily, as are married parents. Most affluent parents enroll their children in preschool or day care, while low-income parents are more likely to depend on family members. Discipline techniques vary by education level: 8% of those with a postgraduate degree say they often beat their children, compared with 22% of those with a high school degree or less.
L) The survey also probed attitudes and anxieties. Interestingly, parents' attitudes toward education do not seem to reflect their own educational background as much as a belief in the importance of education for upward mobility. Most American parents say they are not concerned about their children's grades as long as they work hard. But 50% of poor parents say it is extremely important to them that their children earn a college degree, compared with 39% of wealthier parents.
M) Less-educated parents, and poorer and black and Latino parents are more likely to believe that there is no such thing as too much involvement in a child's education. Parents who are white, wealthy or college-educated say too much involvement can be bad. Parental anxieties reflect their circumstances. High-earning parents are much more likely to say they live in a good neighborhood for raising children. While bullying is parents' greatest concern over all, nearly half of low-income parents worry their child will get shot, compared with one-fifth of high-income parents. They are more worried about their children being depressed or anxious.
N) In the Pew survey, middle-class families earning between $30,000 and $75,000 a year fell right between working-class and high-earning parents on issues like the quality of their neighborhood for raising children, participation in extracurricular activities and involvement in their children's education.
O) Children were not always raised so differently. The achievement gap between children from high- and low-income families is 30-40% larger among children born in 2001 than those born 25 years earlier, according to Mr. Reardon's research. People used to live near people of different income levels; neighborhoods are now more segregated by income. More than a quarter of children live in single-parent households — a historic high, according to Pew — and these children are three times as likely to live in poverty as those who live with married parents. Meanwhile, growing income inequality has coincided with the increasing importance of a college degree for earning a middle-class wage.
P) Yet there are recent signs that the gap could be starting to shrink. In the past decade, even as income inequality has grown, some of the socioeconomic differences in parenting, like reading to children and going to libraries, have narrowed.
Q) Public policies aimed at young children have helped, including public preschool programs and reading initiatives. Addressing differences in the earliest years, it seems, could reduce inequality in the next generation.
36. Working-class parents teach their children to be obedient and show respect to adults.
37. American parents, whether rich or poor, have similar expectations of their children despite different ways of parenting.
38. While rich parents are more concerned with their children's psychological well-being, poor parents are more worried about their children's safety.
39. The increasing differences in child rearing between rich and poor families reflect growing social inequality.
40. Parenting approaches of working-class and affluent families both have advantages.
41. Higher-income families and working-class families now tend to live in different neighborhoods.
42. Physical punishment is used much less by well-educated parents.
43. Ms. Lareau doesn't believe participating in fewer after-class activities will negatively affect children's development.
44. Wealthy parents are concerned about their children's mental health and busy schedules.
45. Some socioeconomic differences in child rearing have shrunk in the past ten years.Section CDirections: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.
Tennessee's technical and community colleges will not outsource(外包)management of their facilities to a private company, a decision one leader said was bolstered by an analysis of spending at each campus.
In an email sent Monday to college presidents in the Tennesee Board of Regents system, outgoing Chancellor John Morgan said an internal analysis showed that each campus' spending on facilities management fell well below the industry standards identified by the state. Morgan said those findings — which included data from the system's 13 community colleges, 27 technical colleges and six universities — were part of the decision not to move forward with Governor Bill Haslam's proposal to privatize management of state buildings in an effort to save money.
“While these numbers are still being validated by the state, we feel any adjustments they might suggest will be immaterial,” Morgan wrote to the presidents. “System institutions are operating very efficiently based on this analysis, raising the question of the value of pursuing a broad scale outsourcing initiative.”
Workers' advocates have criticized Haslam's plan, saying it would mean some campus workers would lose their jobs or benefits. Haslam has said colleges would be free to opt in or out of the outsourcing plan, which has not been finalized.
Morgan notified the Haslam administration of his decision to opt out in a letter sent last week. That letter, which includes several concerns Morgan has with the plan, was originally obtained by The Commercial Appeal in Memphis.
In an email statement from the state's Office of Customer Focused Government, which is examining the possibility of outsourcing, spokeswoman Michelle R. Martin said officials were still working to analyze the data from the Board of Regents. Data on