跨文化商务交际实训(txt+pdf+epub+mobi电子书下载)

作者:张彦

出版社:航空工业出版社

格式: AZW3, DOCX, EPUB, MOBI, PDF, TXT

跨文化商务交际实训

跨文化商务交际实训试读:

内容提要

全书共分十二个项目。前三个项目从总体上介绍跨文化交际的概念及内涵,后九个项目则锻炼学生在不同的商务语境中运用跨文化交际技能的能力。

项目一为绪论,总体介绍了跨文化商务交际的内涵,文化与交际差异及其在商务活动中的表现;项目二介绍了跨文化交际中的语言交际,通过实例把语言与文化的关系生动有趣地展现在学生面前;项目三介绍了跨文化非语言交际,主要阐述了非语言的三大内容:时间观念、空间观念以及身势语的使用,用实例充分展示了非语言交际在跨文化交际中的重要作用及应用规则;项目四介绍了跨文化语境中的同事关系,以及中西方商务语境中上级与下级、权利与义务、集体与个人等在思维方式、行为习惯、谈话风格方面存在的差异;项目五介绍了跨文化交往中的幽默认知,以及在跨文化交往中如何理解幽默、欣赏幽默和使用幽默;项目六立足于展会的语境,介绍了如何跨越文化障碍,成功在展会上结识新客户的技巧;项目七从格式、内容布局、选词造句等方面详细介绍了中西方商务信函的异同;项目八介绍了通过电话与国外客商实现成功磋商的技巧;项目九介绍了在接待外商的过程中需要注意的细节,包括接机、招待、餐桌礼仪等;项目十介绍了在带领外商看货的过程中会出现的种种跨文化障碍,如接待前的准备、介绍产品的方式、工厂的环境、工人的素质等;项目十一介绍了跨文化商务谈判,包括谈判前期准备细节、谈判方式的差异等;项目十二介绍了跨文化营销,如实现全球化营销应该注意运用哪些策略。

本书每个项目下还包含了课内测试与扩展知识两项内容,方便学生与教师进行深入思考并拓宽知识面。

编者的话

随着经济全球化步伐的加速,跨文化交际能力在国际商务活动中的重要性日益凸显。企业若想在国际市场上占有一席之地,不仅需要高超的技术手段,而且需要深入了解对方国家的文化。这在一定程度上激励商务英语教学加速培养复合型的经贸外语人才的步伐。如今,把跨文化交际能力的培养放在商务英语教学的突出位置已经成为普遍共识。

近年来跨文化学科得到长足发展,各大专院校都相继开设了有关跨文化交际的课程,跨文化交际专著、论文也不断涌现。但总体而言,跨文化商务交际的教学在我国经贸和相关专业中还处于比较薄弱的初级阶段。目前,介绍如何把商务活动实践与跨文化交际理论结合起来,如何把国际商务文化与中国本土文化结合起来的教材很少,适合高职高专商务英语专业学生使用的实训类教材更是凤毛麟角。有鉴于此,本书多位编者根据多年来跨文化交际和跨文化商务交际教学的经验,参考了大量国内外的最新相关材料,编写了《跨文化商务交际实训》,希望成为高职高专类相关专业学生以及商务人员进修提高的可用教材。

编者借鉴了当前一些优秀教科书的编写思路,并结合教程实训特点,对本书结构做了以下设计:第一,将跨文化商务交际中的典型案例醒目地置于每个项目之首,以充分调动学生的兴趣,并通过对实例的思考与分析,唤醒学生的跨文化交际意识;第二,每个项目都设计了练习题,力图锻炼学生在商务语境中运用跨文化交际技能的能力;第三,每个项目后都补充了相关知识点,期望能进一步拓宽学生学习视野。

本书的编写、修改得到了众多领导、老师、同事、朋友的指点与帮助。在这里要特别感谢蔡红老师,她为本书做了大量的前期工作,并提出了完整的设想和构架;还要特别感谢孙鸿仁教授,他对本教材进行了认真地审阅,并提出了宝贵的修改意见;另外,还要感谢所有在校对过程中帮助过我的同事们,特别是施万国老师和舒文老师,以及胡超、窦卫霖、顾曰国、郭志新等专家、学者,编者从他们发表的文章或专著中选取了部分资料。最后,还要感谢提供支持和诸多帮助的吴世玲老师、朱伟芳老师,是她们的关注和爱护才使本书得以顺利出版。

尽管我们已很努力,但由于时间和资料等条件限制,加之编者水平有限,书中定有不足之处,恳请读者批评指正。编者2011年5月

Lesson one:Reviewing Intercultural Business Communication

项目一  了解跨文化商务交际

Warm-up Cases

Case 1  Differert Views on“Saving the Thing”

A Chinese electronic engineer of Sony Corporation Ltd.told his own experience.One day,he saw a broken PCBA,which was a circuit board for the multimedia computer.He picked it up and found there were many expensive components on it.As an engineer,he thought it was his duty to repair it.Otherwise,it would be discarded as useless.It took him two hours before he finally fixed it,and it worked perfectly when tested.As he felt so proud of what he had done,he signed his name on the card that was tied to the PCBA.

About one hour later,the PCBA was rejected by the QC Department,and he was called to the General Manager’s office.“Why did you repair that damaged PCBA and put it on the line?”the Japanese manager asked him suspiciously.

“It’s not a defected piece any more.I’m sure it works well.”He answered with a confident gesture.“In order to save money for the company,I have done a hard but excellent job.It is good for the company.Why do you call me here and ask me in such a serious way?”He looked directly into the manager’s eyes.

Instead of answering his questions,the manager asked him a direct question.“Do you want to buy a multimedia computer with this seriously broken but well repaired PCBA inside?”

Suddenly,the Chinese engineer came to realize something—if he were a consumer,he definitely would not buy a computer like this.He suddenly understood there was a cultural difference between them.So he said in an apologetic way,“Yes,well,manager.Saving the thing when it still has some value is our Chinese way.But from this case I understand what quality means to us now.It’s true that if I were a consumer,I wouldn’t buy a computer in a good working condition but with a broken PCBA inside it.”

“It is a reasonable explanation,and that’s a cultural difference.”The manager said with a satisfied expression on his face.“You know,Mr.Cue.You tried to save 1,000 US dollars for Sony,but the goodwill of Sony is priceless.If the repaired broken PCBA passed our checks and went to the consumers,it would be a disaster for Sony’s goodwill.And that’s why we must throw away seriously defected PCBAs.”

分  析:作为中国学生,想必大家很容易理解中国工程师的做法。因为在我们很小的时候,我们的父母和老师就教导我们,要学会节省,不能铺张浪费。这同时也是中华名族的传统美德。大家应该还记得一句耳熟能详的俗语:“新三年,旧三年,缝缝补补又三年”。大多数现在的学生可能觉得这种话语些过时了,但是案例中的这位中国工程师已将这种中华名族的传统美德铭记于心,并通过实际行动表现了出来。可由于不同国家文化背景上的差异,外企对节省的概念有不同的理解。案例中的企业高管注重的是产品质量,产品质量高于一切。虽然中国工程师是一番好意,但他没有注意到商务领域内文化的不同点,因而就造成了双方的误会。幸而最后问题在中国工程师与企业高管的及时沟通中妥善解决了。由此可见,随着时代的发展,社会的进步,掌握跨文化商务交际知识的重要性。

Case 2  Twelve Cups of Tea

When I (from America)first went to Hong Kong for business,I had no idea about Chinese tea-drinking and found me caught in a very awkward situation.I visited a Chinese family and was immediately given a cup of tea.I was not thirsty and I did not particularly like that type of tea,but out of politeness I finished the cup.But the more I drank,the more I was given.I kept insisting that I did not want any more,but the host took no notice.I drank about twelve cups of tea that afternoon!The host must have thought I was very greedy,but I did not know how to avoid getting more tea poured.

分  析:中国传统的待客之道强调热情,具体可以体现为在喝茶时不断为客人续杯,在宴请时不断为客人夹菜、劝菜等,即使客人说“够了”,我们也只当那是客套话,而非本意。但是案例中的“我”来自美国,在其本土文化中,每个人都是一个独立的个体,他们有权利也有能力为自己做任何决定,同时也会给予别人自由选择的空间。所以,当他们在吃饭时,经常使用的是“help yourself”,这样就可以让客人有自行选择的权利和较大的自由度。但案例中的“我”不理解中国传统的待客文化,又不想失礼,因而最终陷入尴尬的境地。

Self-study Introduction

Brief Review on Intercultural Business Communication

由于文化背景上的差异,语言在跨文化商务活动中有了截然不同的文化内涵。文化差异是文化误解和文化冲突的原因。因此,涉外企业必须重视对跨文化商务往来中东西方文化差异的研究,进而成功地进行国际商务活动。

跨文化商务交际受到众多因素的影响,例如,人们在思维方式、价值观念、文化取向、语言、社会规范等方面的差异会导致他们在编码过程、言语和非言语行为等众多方面的差异。在跨文化国际商务交际中,上述差异会给不同文化背景的人们带来极大的困难,因此,了解文化间的差异是国际商务交际成功的关键。东西方文化差异及其在国际商务交际中的体现有以下几个方面:

第一、跨文化商务交际中东西方思维方式的差异

东方文化以中国文化为典型特征。受“主客体统一”传统哲学思想的影响,中国人的思维往往强调以人为本,注重主体意识。表现在语言上,“汉语多用‘人称’主语,句式多倾向于‘主动’句式”。例如一则外贸函电中文报盘:“我们须申明,丝绒的需求殷切,而现货有限,该盘有效期仅限一周。”汉语使用第一人称和第二人称代词比较多,这反映出中国人的交际和关注对象更多集中在“我”和“你”之间。

西方思维模式起源于西方机械综合论宇宙观。西方人注重客观事物和现象对人的作用和影响,反映在语言上,以英语为典型代表,英语“倾向于多用‘非人称’主语,句式多倾向于‘被动’,‘主动’句式并重”。例如:The goods were promised to be delivered within a week,and we have been put to considerable inconvenience through the long delay.英语第三人称的使用频率比汉语要高,多用被动语态。用被动语态,可把信息的焦点集中在实际存在的问题上,刻意隐去责任方,给对方留下面子。这是商务文化沟通的一种语用策略。给对方面子是为了在解决实际问题时得到对方的支持与合作。

在国际商务文化中,无论是商务信函写作,还是商务洽谈、人称和语态的选择一定要考虑对象国思维方式的差异并遵循礼貌原则。

第二、跨文化商务交际中东西方价值观念的差异

在跨文化商务交际过程中,东西方由于价值观的不同往往易起冲突。文化具有鲜明的个性,不同的文化之间自然会产生差异,商务活动中影响跨文化交际的东西方价值观念差异包括群体依存和个体自主,这一价值观念的差异是最主要的差异。

例如,对称赞的反应是基于谈话者共同的文化价值。如果谈话者之间的文化价值不同或者一方的文化价值不能被另一方所接受,那么称赞就不会达到目的。西方人认为每个人都有自己的个性,这应该受到重视,而中国人更看重集体的利益。所以,中国人对称赞所作的反应通常是不突出自己,中国人视谦虚为传统美德,卑己尊人;而西方人往往接受别人对自己的称赞,把它当作对自己成就的一种承认。再如,在商业谈判中如果西方人说:“Please drop in at any time,we can have a dinner sometime,I will call you.”(欢迎你随时光临,什么时候我们一起吃顿饭,我再打电话给你。)千万不要以为是向你发出邀请,这只是一种结束谈话的信号,比直接说出结束语更为婉转、得体,效果更佳。西方人的真正邀请一般包括明确的内容、地点和时间。

另外,西方人的自我观具有相对独立性。西方人在交际中注重个人隐私和独立,强调个性。而中国人的自我观没有相对独立性,总是把自我放在适当的社会关系中才会有意义,才会变得完整,注重集体荣誉感,强调群体。

总之,世界不同文化群体既有人类所共有的思维规律,也有在自己文化氛围中形成的具有各自特色的思维方式和价值观念。在跨文化商务交际中,很多人都倾向于认为对方也用与自己同样的方式思维,从而导致交际难以顺利进行。其实在经济全球化、文化多元化的时代,各个民族之间互相尊重,差异共存才是根本,是基础。林语堂指出,要想理解一个不同文化的异邦,特别是中国这样与其他国家差别如此之大的异邦,往往不是凡人所能胜任的。这种工作需宽广博爱的情怀。做这种工作的人必须像感觉自己心脏的跳动一样去感觉事物,用心灵的视觉去观察事物。此外,他必须摆脱自己下意识思维的影响,摆脱一切从小养成的观念意识,摆脱成年时代所得的深刻印象。只有秉此超脱与淳朴的心地,一个人才能真正理解一个异族的文化。所以,在跨文化商务交际中,我们应尊重各国的历史文化、社会制度和发展模式,求同存异,共同发展。

Culture-Based Functional Language

1.Common expressions

Intercultural business communication

Cultural differences

Cultural values

Individualism

Collectivism

Power distance

Uncertainty avoidance

Masculinity

Femininity

2.Model dialogues

Same Language,Different Behavior

An American traveled to England and was staying with a friend.During his stay,the American decided to talk to the Englishman about some things that were bothering him.

American:I feel uncomfortable with many of the people here,but I don’t know why.I speak the same language,so there shouldn’t be any problem.Back home,I usually get along with people.You know that I’m very friendly.

Englishman:Yes,that’s true,but you’re friendly in the way that Americans are friendly.

American:I’m not sure I understand.

Englishman:Well,for example,at the meeting the other night,you immediately called people by their first names.We do that here,but not when we first meet someone.

American:That’s how we make people feel comfortable.People feel friendlier toward each other when they use first names.

Englishman:It’s different here.For example,when you met my boss you should have used his last name.Also there’s something else that you do but English people don’t often do.

American:What’s that?

Englishman:You touch people on the shoulder quite a bit,especially when you compliment them.

American:I guess I’ve never thought about that before.I suppose that is what I do at home.

Asian Style of Communication VS.American

Style of Communication

Mr.Philip and Mr.Wang are talking about the report.

Mr.Philip:When can you finish the report?(Mr.Philip thinks:I need it for the meeting.)(Mr.Wang thinks:Why did he ask me about this?)

Mr.Wang:I am not sure.When do you need it?(Mr.Philip thinks:How could he not know? If he doesn’t know,who would?)(Mr.Wang thinks:He is the boss.He should tell me when he needs it.)

Mr.Philip:The sooner,the better.Could you have it ready in a couple of weeks?(Mr.Philip thinks:I’d push him,otherwise I will never get it.)(Mr.Wang thinks:I have already tried my best.I am not sure when I can finish it.It depends.In addition,I have a heap of work to do.)

Mr.Wang:OK.No problem.I’ll give it to you in two weeks’ time.(Mr.Philip thinks:Terrific!Now there’s a deadline.I don’t have to worry about it any more.)(Mr.Wang thinks:He wants a deadline.Then I’ll just give it to him.I would rather not make him lose his temper.Anyway,I’ll just do as much as I can.)

In fact,it generally takes three weeks to finish that report.Therefore,Mr.Wang had to work overtime to meet the deadline.But by the last day of the second week,he still needed two working days to complete the report.

Mr.Philip:Where’s the report? You have it ready,don’t you?(Mr.Philip thinks:He should keep his deadline.Otherwise,I can’t trust him in the future.)(Mr.Wang thinks:Didn’t he see how hard I have been working? What he required is not practical at all.What kind of boss is he?)

Praise

The American manager praises one Japanese employee in front of his groups.

American:Mr.Suginmono,I have noticed that you are doing an excellent job on the assembly line.I hope that the other workers notice how it should be done.

Japanese:(He is uneasy.)Praise is not necessary.I am only doing my job.(He hopes that the other Japanese workers do not hear.)

American:You are the best,most excellent and dedicated worker we have ever had at the Jones Corporation.

Japanese:(He blushes and nods his head several times,and keeps working.)

American:Well,are you going to say “Thank you”,Mr.Suginmono,or just remain silent?

Japanese:Excuse me,Mr.Jones.May I leave for five minutes?

American:Sure.(He is annoyed and watches Sugimono exit.)I can’t believe how rude some Japanese workers are.They seem to be disturbed by praise and don’t answer you…just remain silent.

Friendship

Interviewer:Good morning and welcome to This Island Now,the programme in which we set out to survey various aspects of life in Britain today.This week our focus shifts to friendship and we are lucky to have with us Professor Nigel Abercrombie who has just published a book on this very subject.Welcome to the programme.

Abercrombie:Thank you,I’m very happy to be here.

Interviewer:Now,some people have the impression that the British,perhaps the English in particular,are a rather unsociable lot.The sort of people who would perhaps rather spend time with their dogs than with one another.Do you think this is fair?

Abercrombie:No,no,not really,though I can see how an outsider coming from another culture might get that impression.Misunderstandings can be caused by differences in the way in which friendship is expressed.

Interviewer:You mean,in what we say?

Abercrombie:Partly.Among my Chinese students,for example,I often hear expressions of surprise at the frequency with which English friends apologize to one another over relatively trivial things such as asking for help in some small matter or telephoning late at night.They are also surprised that we tend to use polite forms such as “Could you…”and “Would you mind…”when making requests of even close friends.

Interviewer:And this is not the case among Chinese?

Abercrombie:Well,you see,in China requests are generally directed to friends using more direct forms.This can lead to problems when they are making friends in England.

Interviewer:In what way?

Abercrombie:Well,a Chinese addressing an English person he knows quite well may adopt language which sounds too direct and demanding to the English ear.

Interviewer:So he may sound rude when he intends to sound friendly?

Abercrombie:Quite.And the opposite applies as well,of course.English friends may sound as if they are being cold and distant when they are in fact feel perfectly friendly towards those they are speaking to.

Interviewer:Thank you for your coming today.

Abercrombie:My pleasure.

Practice

1.Task

Now you have been a sophomore,you may have certain experiences in intercultural communication.You are required to talk about your intercultural communication experience with the title “My First Intercultural Communication Experience”.

2.Key Points to Practice

A.The form of this topic could be sole presentation,dialogue or role play.

B.Cultural differences should be presented in your performance.

Students’ performance should contain the above two points.If the student could present his performance accurately and fluently,especially with typical cultural differences,he gets “达到”;if the student just talks the story but could not present the cultural differences clearly ,he gets “基本达到”;if the students could not achieve the goal of “基本达到”,he gets “未达到”.

Supplementary Reading

The Basics of Cultural Values

Cultural variables result from unique sets of shared values among different groups of people.Most of the variations between cultures stem from underlying value systems,which cause people to behave differently under similar circumstances.

1.Individualism vs.Collectivism个体主义与集体主义

Individualism doesn’t mean 个人主义or自私自利.Maybe a better translation would be 个体主义.It’s neutral in meaning,not derogatory.Here,it’s used as a philosophical term,against collectivism.But in China,individualism often equals with selfishness.

Individualism indicates the extent to which a society is loosely knit social framework in which people are supposed to take care only of themselves and their immediate families.There is more emphasis on “I”than on “we”.According to Hofstede’s study of IBM,the U.S.ranks number 1 on individualism worldwide,followed by Australia,Great Britain,Canada,and the Netherlands.

Collectivism emphasizes common interests,conformity,cooperation,and inter-dependence.It indicates a tight social framework in which people distinguish between in-groups and out-groups and expect their in-groups to look after them.In collectivist culture,you tend to make a very clear distinguish between your in-groups and out-groups.You intend to rely on in-groups and regard out-groups as aliens.Also,your in-groups are supposed to take care of you.In Hofstede’s study,countries that rank lowest on individualism included Colombia,Venezuela,Panama,Equador,and Guatemala.

2.Power distance权力距离

Power distance indicates the extent to which a society accepts the fact that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally among individuals.Simply put,power distance is the distance a person feels or keeps between themselves and a person in a position of power.

Power distance may be small or great depending on what kind of culture it is.In societies where distance is small,the boss and his employees may seem to be equal.The boss encourages his subordinates to use his first name and have informal chat with him.This is an ideal situation,where everyone is supposed to be equal.Where power distance is great,the boss seems to be a God-like figure,and is almost unapproachable.He enjoys more privilege.

3.Uncertainty avoidance不确定性规避

Uncertainty avoidance indicates the extent to which members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous situation and try to avoid them by providing rules.

In cultures that rank high on uncertainty avoidance,you tend to make a lot of rules,so that you may have as little uncertainty as possible.You may emphasize uniformity and dislike deviance.In cultures that rank low on uncertainty avoidance,you tend to accept differences and feel more relaxed about them.People are controlled,easy-going,quiet,and do not show emotions.

In cultures with strong uncertainty avoidance,time is money.There is a strong inner urge to work hard.People experience a higher anxiety and tense.Latin American,Latin European,Mediterranean countries,Japan,and Korea had high rankings.In a society with weak uncertainty avoidance,time is free.Working hard is not a virtue.People experience less anxiety and stress and they are more ready to accept deviant people’s ideas.Counties or regions ranked low were U.S.,India,Great Britain,Ireland,Sweden,Denmark,and Singapore.

4.Masculinity vs.Femininity男权主义与女权主义

Masculinity indicates the extent to which the dominant values in a society tend towards assertiveness and acquisition of things and away from concern for people and the quality of life.

Masculinity comes from masculine and implies aggressiveness and assertiveness,while femininity comes from feminine and stresses naturaring,paying attention to people’s feelings and needs.In a society with high masculinity score,men dominate in society and sex differences are clear.One lives to work.Money and things are important.In a society with low masculinity,sex roles are more flexible,there is equality between sexes.Quality of life is a high priority in life.One works in order to live.Work is less central in people’s life.

Lesson Two:Comprehending Intercultural Verbal Communication

项目二  理解跨文化言语交际

Warm-up Cases

Case 1  The Slip of the Tongue

TransOceanic was a worldwide logistics services company involved in freight forwarding and container consolidation,based in the United States.For almost six months they had been working hard to expand their network of local representatives throughout the Middle East.TO’s number one regional priority was to conclude a representation agreement with Arabco,one of Saudi Arabia’s largest and most established logistics.

To achieve this goal,Regional Manager Ted Goodfellow of TransOceanic had been meeting once or twice a month with Arabco.By now the two companies had agreed on all the financial,legal and technical issues.Ted was now back in Riyadh to wrap up the final details and to sign the contract.This visit was largely a formality—both sides clearly wanted this agreement.

During the pleasant meeting with the top Arabco executives Ted casually mentioned,“We at TransOceanic are really looking forward to working with you here in the Persian Gulf!”At that there was a moment of shocked silence on the Arabco side of the conference table.Then the three senior executives arose and strode angrily out of the room,breaking off negotiations.

Bewildered,Ted looked at the two junior Saudis who had remained behind.He hated to see six months of hard work go up in smoke.“What happened here?”he asked the young Arabs across the table.“Did I say something wrong?”

After some hesitation one of the Arabco employees explained that in Saudi Arabia,the body of water in question was called the Arabian Gulf.By misnaming it Ted had unintentionally implied that the Gulf belonged to Iran—a country which Saudi Arabia at that time considered hostile and threatening.

The bosses of Arabco were now too upset with Ted to listen to an apology from him.“Well,what should we do then to get these talks back on track?”asked Ted.But the young Arabs just shrugged,smiled faintly and ushered the American to the door.On the way back to his hotel Ted Goodfellow focused his mind on finding a way to repair the damaged relationship.

分  析:案例中的Ted由于一时的“口误”损失了一笔生意,同时也给他的上司留下了不好的印象。这都是因为Ted不了解阿拉伯当地的文化,不了解阿拉伯人对海域所有权的敏感性。Ted将阿拉伯人认为的阿拉伯海说成了波斯湾,即使只是一时的口误也成了难以弥补的过错。这也同时说明语言表达的过程中要严格结合不同的文化内涵,以免造成不必要的误会。

Case 2  Li Hongzhang’s Embarrassment

Li Hongzhang,one of the top officials in the Qing Dynasty,was invited to visit the Unite States.He was warmly welcomed.One day,Li was hosting a banquet for the American officials in a popular restaurant.As the banquet started,according to the Chinese custom,Li stood up and said,“I am very happy to have all of you here today.Though these dishes are coarse and not delicious and not good enough to show my respect for you,I hope you will enjoy them….”(今天承蒙各位光临,不胜荣幸。我们略备粗馔,聊表寸心,没有什么可口的东西,不成敬意,请大家多多包涵……)

The next day,the English version of his words was shown in the local newspaper.To his shock,the restaurant owner flew into a

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