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晨读夜诵．欧美文化常识大全集(英汉对照)试读：版权信息COPYRIGHT INFORMATION书名：晨读夜诵．欧美文化常识大全集(英汉对照)作者：李颖排版：Cicy出版社：华东理工大学出版社出版时间：2015-09-23ISBN：9787562842750本书由华东理工大学出版社有限公司授权北京当当科文电子商务有限公司制作与发行。— · 版权所有 侵权必究 · —序言用英语“悦读”世界
在阅读中，我们感受独特的风情。这里有Robinson Crusoe (《鲁滨逊漂流记》)中坚定无畏的冒险与开拓，有Pilgrim's Progress (《天路历程》)中闪耀着宗教神圣之光的虔诚与信念，有A Midsummer Night's Dream（《仲夏夜之梦》）般喧闹的幻想与狂欢，也有Sherlock Holmes（《福尔摩斯探案集》）中熠熠生辉的科学与理性。
在阅读中，我们体验语言的魅力。当我们读到《老人与海》那句 “A man can be destroyed but not defeated.（一个人可以被毁灭，但不能被打败。）”时，我们忍不住惊讶，震撼的思想竟可以用如此简单的文字凝结。当我们读到《西风颂》中的“If winter comes, can spring be far behind?（如果冬天来了，春天还会远吗？）”时，我们又忍不住赞叹，悠远的哲思竟可以与抑扬的韵律如此巧妙地融合。然而，也许我们自己都不会意识到，在阅读过程中，这些英语文字已然悄无声息地潜入我们的内心，缓缓沉淀，直至融入我们自己的语言。
在阅读中，我们感悟生命的成长。英文经典，披沙沥金，闪耀着人类共同的智慧之光。 无论是狄更斯的Great Expectation（《远大前程》），还是海伦·凯勒的Three Days to See （《假如给我三天光明》），这些曾经激扬着西方一代人的篇章，同样会激励着这个时代的我们。将自身成长中的迷茫与痛苦、激情与喜悦，置于人类更广阔的精神世界，我们便会发现，我们的心灵得到抚慰，视野得以拓展，生命获得意义……
Prometheus was a Titan. In the war between Zeus and the giants he had stood on the side of the new Olympian gods. Out of the clay he made the first man, to whom Athena gave soul and holy breath. Prometheus spent a lot of time and energy in creating the gift of fire. And fire raised man above all animals.
Later，there held a joint meeting of gods and men. The meeting was to decide what part of burnt animals should be given to gods and what to men. Prometheus cut up an ox and divided it into two parts: under the skin he placed the fresh, and under the fat he put the bones, for he knew the selfish Zeus loved fat. Zeus saw through the trick and felt displeased at the Prometheus' favor towards men. So in a masterful way he took away the gift of fire from mankind. However，Prometheus managed to steal fire from heaven and secretly brought it down to men.注
Flying into an anger at this unjustified act of rebellion, Zeus let the other gods chain Prometheus to a rock on Mountain Caucasus，where a hungry eagle ever tore at his liver which ever grew again. His period of pain was to be thirty-thousand years. Prometheus faced his bitter fate firmly and never lost courage before Zeus. At last Heracles 注made Prometheus and Zeus restore to friendship, when Heracles came over in search of the golden apple and killed the eagle and set the friend of mankind free.
注：Titan [ˈtaɪtn] n. 巨人
注：rebellion [rɪˈbeljən] n. 谋反；叛乱
注：restore [rɪˈstɔː(r)] v. 恢复；重建Narcissus自恋美少年纳西塞斯
Narcissus, the son of the river-god Cephisus and the nymph 注Liriope, was an extraordinarily handsome, yet cold and vain youth. With flowing blond hair, beautiful blue eyes and bright white teeth, he 注attracted many admirers but, in his arrogance, spurned them all. The suffering of one of them, however, brought down upon him a deadly curse.注
The admirer was the youth Aminias, who became distraught when Narcissus cruelly spurned him and slew himself before his door, calling on the goddess Nemesis to avenge him. The goddess Nemesis heard the prayer for vengeance and arranged for Narcissus to fall in love with his own reflection. Poor Narcissus watched his own reflection, every time he tried to touch the face of the vision he loved, it broke up on the shimmering surface of the water. Narcissus stopped 注eating, lost his beautiful looks and pined for his love. Eventually he pined away and was transformed by the nymphs into a narcissus flower. Others, however, say he was filled with despair and remorse and killed himself beside the pool. From his dying life's blood the flower was born. Now narcissus flowers can be found to this day growing wherever you can find water and trees.
注：vain [veɪn] adj. 自负的；虚荣的；自命不凡的
注：spurn [spɜːn] v. 轻蔑地拒绝
注：distraught [dɪˈstrɔːt] adj. 心烦意乱的；几乎发狂的
注：pine [paɪn] v. 憔悴；痛苦；渴望Apollo太阳神阿波罗
Among the crowd of Olympian gods, the one most widely admired was Apollo, who was the son of Zeus and Leto. Apollo was the sun-god. He wore a purple robe. He usually sat in his bright eastern palace early in the morning and made ready to start his daily journey across the sky. During the day he drove his carriage of gold and ivory, and brought light, life and love to the great world below. Late in the afternoon he came to the end of his journey in the far western sea and got on his golden boat to return to his eastern home.
Apollo was the god of music and poetry. He could stir up all 注feelings. These feelings are expressed in lofty songs. With his lyre of gold and the sweet accents of his godlike voice, he led the choir of the Muses at Olympus. His son, Orpheus, took over such skill from the father that his lyre moved man and animals alike.
Apollo stood for youthful and manly beauty. His golden hair, stately注 manner and air all combined to make him the admiration of the world. A beautiful girl, by the name of Clytle，was so fond of his beauty and glory that from dawn to dusk she knelt on the ground，her hands outstretched towards the sun-god，and her eyes looked at his golden wheeled carriage racing across the blue sky. Though her love was not returned, she had never changed her mind about Apollo. The gods were moved at the sad sight，and changed her into a sunflower.
注：lofty [ˈlɒfti] adj. 崇高的；高尚的
注：stately [ˈsteɪtli] adj. 庄严的；高贵的Daphne月桂女神达芙妮
Daphne was the daughter of the river god Peneus. In Greek 注mythology, she was the personification of the laurel, a tree whose leaves formed into garlands. Daphne was particularly associated with Apollo.注
Apollo was a great archer, but sometimes he was a little full of himself. One day he caught sight of another archer Eros and teased him, putting down his abilities as an archer. Angry at this insult, Eros shot two arrows. One arrow dipped in gold had the power to create 注insatiable lust in a person, while the other one, blunted and dipped in 注lead, created absolute abhorrence towards all things romantic and passionate. The arrow dipped in gold struck Apollo, but the arrow dipped in lead struck fair Daphne.
Apollo chased down the maiden, desperate for her love, but she wanted nothing to do with him, and she ran from him endlessly. Soon, she grew weary in her running and that Apollo would ultimately catch her. Fearful, she called out to her father for help. Peneus transformed his daughter into a laurel tree. Suddenly her legs took root, and her arms grew into long and slender branches. Apollo reached the laurel tree, and still enamored with Daphne, he made himself a laurel wreath (a circle made of laurel that you put on your head) from the tree. And that is why the laurel tree was, and still is, a symbol of the god Apollo, and is used by emperors within the culture.
阿波罗狂热地追逐达芙妮，渴求她的爱情，然而达芙妮却丝毫不为所动，拼命地奔跑想要逃脱。跑了好一阵子， 达芙妮已经筋疲力尽，眼看阿波罗就要追上她了，恐惧绝望的达芙妮大声呼喊寻求父亲的帮助。河神珀纽斯将女儿变成一株月桂树，瞬间她的两条腿变成树根深深扎入土里，手臂化成了修长的树枝。 阿波罗追到月桂树前，依旧深爱达芙妮的他用月桂树的树枝编成花环戴在头上。从此月桂树成了阿波罗的象征，也受到了众多国王的青睐。
注：personification [pəˌsɒnɪfɪˈkeɪʃn] n. 化身；象征
注：archer [ˈɑːtʃə(r)] n. 弓箭手
注：insatiable [ɪnˈseɪʃəbl] adj. 无法满足的
注：abhorrence [əbˈhɒrəns] n. 厌恶；憎恨Aphrodite爱神阿佛洛狄忒
In Greek mythology, Aphrodite is one of the most worshipped 注Greek deities. She is the goddess of love, beauty and sexual rapture. Her Roman equivalent is the goddess Venus.
According to Hesiod, she was born when Uranus (the father of the 注gods) was castrated by his son Cronus. Cronus threw the severed genitals into the ocean which began to churn and foam about them. From the aphros (“sea foam”) arose Aphrodite, and the sea carried her to Cyprus. Homer calls her a daughter of Zeus and Dione.注
Because of her beauty, other gods feared that their rivalry over her would interrupt the peace among them and lead to war, so Zeus married her to Hephaestus, who, because of his ugliness and deformity, was not seen as a threat. Aphrodite had many lovers — both gods, such as Ares, and men, such as Anchises.注
Among her mortal lovers, the most famous was perhaps Adonis. Both Aphrodite and Persephone fell in love with Adonis. The two goddesses began such a quarrel, Zeus was forced to intercede. He decreed that Adonis would spend a third of the year with Aphrodite, a third of the year with Persephone, and a third of the year with whomever he wished.
注：rapture [ˈræptʃə(r)] n. 狂喜；欣喜若狂
注：castrate [kæˈstreɪt] v. 阉割
注：rivalry [ˈraɪvlrɪ] n. 竞争；对抗
注：mortal [ˈmɔːtl] n. 凡人；人类Oedipus“弑父恋母”的俄狄浦斯王
Oedipus was a tragic hero in Greek mythology. In the most well-注known version of the myth, Laius wished to thwart a prophecy, which said that his child would grow up to murder his father and marry his mother. Thus, he fastened the infant's feet together with a large pin and left him to die on a mountainside. The baby was found on Kithairon by shepherds and raised by King Polybus and Queen Merope in the city of Corinth.
Oedipus learned from the oracle at Delphi of the prophecy, and left Corinth. Heading to Thebes, Oedipus met an older man in a chariot注 and killed him(Laius) in a quarrel. On arriving Thebes, Oedipus answered Sphinx's riddle correctly, defeating it and winning the throne of the dead king and the hand in marriage of the king's widow, his mother, Jocasta.
Oedipus and Jocasta had two sons and two daughters. In his search to determine who killed Laius (and thus end a plague on Thebes), Oedipus discovered it was he who had killed the late king (his father). Jocasta, upon realizing that she had married her own son and Laius's murderer, hanged herself. Oedipus then seized two pins from her dress and blinded himself with them.
注：thwart [θwɔːt] v. 阻碍；阻挠
注：chariot [ˈtʃæriət] n. 敞篷双轮马车；战车Achilles's Heel阿基里斯之踵注
Achilles is the quintessentially heroic subject of Homer's Iliad. When Achilles was born, his mother Thetis tried to make him immortal. She took Achilles to the River Styx, which was supposed to offer 注powers of invulnerability, and dipped his body into the water. But as Thetis held Achilles by the heel, his heel was not washed over by the water of the magical river.
Achilles grew up to be a formidable warrior, possessing fierce and uncontrollable anger. Achilles was part of the Achaean (Greek) force in 注the Trojan War. Proud and autocratic, Agamemnon antagonized Achilles, and so he sat out the fighting. At long last, revenge motivated him to join the fray after his friend Patroclus was killed by Hector, the greatest of the Trojans. Achilles came to Troy leading the fifty ships of the Myrmidons. His most notable feat during the Trojan War was the slaying of Hector outside the gates of Troy. But near the end of the Trojan War, Achilles died of a fatal wound in the heel inflicted by Paris, Hector's brother (the god Apollo guided Paris' arrow).
The term “Achilles' heel” has come to mean a deadly weakness in spite of overall strength, which can actually or potentially lead to downfall.
注：quintessential [kwɪntɪˈsenʃl] adj. 典型的
注：invulnerability [ɪnˌvʌlnərəˈbɪlətɪ] n. 不受伤害；刀枪不入
注：antagonize [ænˈtæɡənaɪz] v. 惹恼；引起敌意或反感The Golden Touch神奇点金术
Midas, son of the Great Goddess of Ida, by a hero whose name is not remembered, was a pleasure-loving King of Macedonian Bromium, where he planted his famous rose gardens.
One day，the old hero Silenus，Dionysus' former teacher，注happened to straggle from the main body of the Dionysian army as it marched out of Thrace into Boeotia, and was found sleeping and drunken in the rose gardens. Midas entertained him for five days and nights, and then ordered a guide to lead him to Dionysus' headquarters.
Dionysus, who had been worrying about Silenus，sent to ask how Midas wished to be rewarded. He replied without hesitation: “Please turn all I touch into gold.” However，not only stones，flowers, 注and the furnishings of his house turned to gold, but when he sat down to table, so did the food he ate and the water he drank. Midas soon begged to be freed from his wish, because he was fast dying of hunger and thirst. Highly amused, Dionysus told him to visit the source of the river Pactolus and there wash himself. He obeyed, and was at once freed from the golden touch, but the sands of the river Pactolus are bright with gold to this day.
注：straggle [ˈstræɡl] v. 掉队；落伍
注：furnishings [ˈfɜːnɪʃɪŋz] n. 家具陈设；室内摆设Palladium雅典娜神像
When Ilus had first built his new seat, the city of Troy, he prayed Zeus to show some sign of blessing for it. His prayer was heard, and a wooden image of Pallas (Athena) fell from heaven to within the walls of the city. Known as the Palladium, the statue afforded the city safety and protection. At religious meetings of the goddess, it was carried through the city streets amid joys and songs of praise.
After the flames of war had spread for ten years before the walls 注of Troy, a prophet foretold that Troy could never be expected to fall as long as the Palladium was treasured by its people. In order to steal it out, Odysseus and Diomedes slipped into the capital one night in 注disguise, known to none but Helen. The bad woman took out them to Hecuba, the queen of Troy, at whose feet Odysseus immediately bowed down and asked for mercy. The queen granted their request, and with the help of Helen, they successfully brought the image back to the Greek camp at dawn. Later it was said that Aeneas got hold of it and carried it with him to his new land, where it was preserved together with the goddess' fire.
In English, since around 1600, the word palladium has been used figuratively to mean anything believed to provide protection or safety, and in particular in Christian contexts a sacred relic or icon believed to have a protective role in military contexts for a whole city, people or nation.
注：prophet [ˈprɒfɪt] n. 预言家；先知
注：in disguise 伪装；乔装The Apple of Discord不和金苹果
The wedding of Peleus and the sea-goddess Thetis were held and all gods were invited. But the absence of one goddess was clearly noticeable. It was Eris, the goddess of discord. As she planted seeds of discord wherever she went, it was natural that her presence at the 注ceremony was not desirable. She had good reason to feel angry, so she decided to make fun of the group at the party. Eris slipped into the hall after the couple left and rolled on the floor a golden apple, having the words，“For the fairest”. It caused a violent quarrel among the three goddesses，Hera，Athena and Aphrodite. Zeus found it advisable to send them before a shepherd boy on Mt Ida, Paris by name, for judgment. Hermes, the messenger, took the apple in his hand and led the goddesses away.
Paris was son of Priam, king of Troy. On this particular day, as he was taking care of his sheep on the mountainside, the youth was surprised to see four human beings standing before him. Hermes told him about his mission and left. The three holy beauties then competed with each other, showing themselves up before the shepherd. Hera promised to make him king of Asia. Athena undertook to help him get 注imperishable fame in war; whereas Aphrodite offered to secure for him the love of the most beautiful woman in the world. The primitive instinct of the boy thus moved, Aphrodite won the prize, and the other two goddesses left in anger and became deadly enemies of Troy.
注：desirable [dɪˈzaɪərəbl] adj. 令人满意的；受欢迎的
注：imperishable [ɪmˈperɪʃəbl] adj. 永存的；不朽的The Golden Fleece金色羊毛
King Athamus of northern Greece took as his first wife the cloud goddess Nephele. They had two children, the boy Phrixus and the girl 注Helle. Later Athamus became enamored of and married Ino, the daughter of Cadmus. When Nephele left in anger, drought came upon the land.
Ino was a wicked woman and the two children received all the cruel treatment that a stepmother could devise. Ino plotted the deaths 注of her stepchildren: she persuaded her credulous husband into believing that his son, Phrixus, was the actual cause of the disaster, and should be sacrificed to Zeus to end the drought. The poor boy was then placed on the altar and was about to be knifed when a ram with golden fleece was sent down by the gods and carried off the two children on its back.
As they flew over the strait that divides Asia from Europe, Helle,