格式: AZW3, DOCX, EPUB, MOBI, PDF, TXT
Chapter I Roman Britain 第一章 罗马统治（55BC～AD410）万神庙
Roman Britain was the part of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between BC 55 and about 410. The Romans referred to their territoryas Britannia, and it eventually consisted of all of the island south of the shifting frontier with Caledonia. Prior to the Roman invasion, Iron Age Britain already had cultural and economic links with Continental Europe, but the invaders introduced new developments in agriculture, urbanization, industry and architecture, leaving a legacy that is still apparent today.
1. History 历史发展● Early Contact
The first direct Roman contact came when the Roman general and future dictator, Julius Caesar, made two expeditionsto Britain in 55 and 54 BC as an offshoot of his conquest of Gaul, believing the Britons had been helping the Gallic resistance. The first expedition, more a reconnaissance than a full invasion, gained a foothold on the coast of Kent but, undermined by storm damage to the ships and a lack of cavalry, was unable to advance further.● 早期接触
在公元前55年和54年，作为高卢战争的一部分，罗马将军和未来的独裁者凯撒两次远征英国，因为凯撒认为英国人帮助高卢抵抗了罗马的进攻。这就是罗马与英国的第一次接触。第一次远征与其说是一次完整的进攻，不如说是一次军事侦查，罗马从此在肯特郡的海岸线上站稳了脚跟。但是这次进攻由于风暴的袭击和骑兵数量的不足，没有取得进一步的进展。● Second Contact
In his second invasion, Caesar took with him a substantially larger force and proceeded to coerce or invite many of the native Celtic tribes to pay tribute and give hostagesin return for peace. A friendly local king, Mandubracius, was installed, and his rival, Cassivellaunus, was brought to terms. Hostages were taken, but historians disagree over whether the tributeagreed was paid by the Britons after Caesar's return to Gaul with his forces.凯撒大帝● 第二次接触
在第二次入侵时，凯撒带着相对多的军事力量，进而迫使当地凯尔特部落同意通过纳贡和上缴人质以换取和平。门杜布拉修斯被扶植为当地的国王，他的对手卡西维劳努斯被迫投降。后来虽然人质的确被带走，但历史学家就凯撒带领军队回到高卢之后英国人是否按照当时的协定纳贡并没有取得一致的意见。● The Final Relationship
Caesar had conquered no territory and had left behind no troops, but had established clients on the island and had brought Britain into Rome's sphere of political influence. Augustus planned invasions in 34, 27 and 25 BC, but circumstances were never favorable, and the relationship between Britain and Rome settled into one of diplomacyand trade.● 结局
凯撒没有占领土地，也没有在当地留下军队，但在岛上建立的行省制度把罗马的政治文化带到了英国。奥古斯在公元前34、27和25年都曾经计划要入侵英国，但却从没有得到上帝的帮助。最后，英国和罗马之间的关系演变为外交和贸易的关系。● All Roads Lead to Roman
During their occupation of Britain, the Romans built an extensive network of roads which continued to be used in later centuries and many are still followed today. The Romans also built water supply, sanitation and sewage systems. Many of Britain's major cities, such as London（Londinium）, Manchester（Mamucium）and York（Eburacum）, were founded by the Romans. The Romans made good use of Britain's natural resources, mining lead, ironand tinand manufacturing pottery. They built baths, temples, amphitheatres and beautiful villas.
The Romans remained in control of Britain for nearly 400 years and Britain became part of a vast suphisticateRoman Empire all around the Mediterranean, the Roman impact upon the Britons was surprisingly limited. The Romans always treated the Britons as a subject people of slaveclass. Never during the 4 centuries did the Romans and Britons intermarry. The Romans had no impact on the language or culture of ordinary Britons. However, other invasions of far less sophisticatedpeopleshad far greater cultural impact upon Britain.● 条条道路通罗马
2. Julius Caesar 盖乌斯·凯撒
102/100 BCE: Gaius Julius Caesar was born（by Caesarean section according to an unlikely legend）of Aurelia and Gaius Julius Caesar, a praetor. His family had noble, patricianroots, although they were neither rich nor influential in this period. His aunt Julia was the wife of Gaius Marius, leader of the popular faction.
85 BCE: His father died, and a few years later he was betrothedand possibly married to a wealthy young woman, Cossutia. This betrothal marriage was soon broken off, and at age 18 he married Cornelia, the daughter of a prominent member of the popular faction; she later bore him his only legitimate child, a daughter, Julia. When the optimate dictator, Sulla, was in power, he ordered Caesar to divorce her; when Caesar refused, Sulla proscribedhim（listed him among those to be executed）, and Caesar went into hiding. Caesar's influential friends and relatives eventually got him a pardon.
3. Holy Bible and Christian 《圣经》与基督教的产生
The Romans brought the new religion, Christianity, to Britain. This came at first by indirectmeans, probably brought by traders and soldiers, and was quite well-established before the first Christian Emperor, Constantine, was proclaimed in AD306.
4. Hadrian's Wall 哈德良长城
Hadrian's Wall（Latin: Vallum Aelium—as inferred by text on the Staffordshire Moorlands Patera）is a stone and timberfortificationbuilt by the Roman Empire across the width of what is now northern England. Begun in AD 122, during the rule of emperorHadrian, it was the first of two fortifications built across Great Britain, the second being the Antonine Wall in what is now Scotland. Hadrian's Wall is the better known of the two because its physical remains are more evident today.
Opinions differ, but the growing consensusis that the Wall was built as a readily defended fortification which clearly defined the northern frontierof the Roman Empire in Britain（Britannia）. It would also improve economic stability and provide peaceful conditions in the frontier zone.
Hadrian's Wall was 80 Roman miles（73.5 statute miles or 117 kilometers）long, its width and height dependent on the construction materials which were available nearby. East of River Irthing the wall was made from squared stone and measured 3 meters（9.7 ft）wide and five to six meters（16-20 ft）high, while west of the river the wall was made from turfand measured 6 meters（20 ft）wide and 3.5 meters（11.5 ft）high. This does not include the wall's ditches, bermsand forts. The central section measured eight Roman feet wide（7.8 ft or 2.4 m）on a 10-foot（3.0 m）base. Some parts of this section of the wall survive to a height of 10 feet（3.0 m）.● 规模
The wall was garrisonedby auxiliary（non-legionary）units of the army（non-citizens）. Their numbers fluctuatedthroughout the occupation but may have been around 9,000 strong in general, including infantryand cavalry. The new forts could hold garrisons of 500 men, while cavalry units of 1,000 troops were stationed at either end. The total number of soldiers manning the early wall was probably greater than 10,000.● 驻军
该墙由军队的辅助单位驻防，他们的人数在整个占领期间有所波动，但一般是9,000精兵，包括步兵和骑兵。新的炮台可容纳500人驻守，而骑兵部队1000人驻扎在两端。早期配备的士兵总数可能超过10,000人。● World Heritage Site
They suffered serious attacks in 180, and especially between 190 and 197 when the garrison had been seriously weakened, following which major reconstruction had to be carried out under Septimius Severus. The regionnear the wall remained peaceful for most of the rest of the third century. It is thought that some in the garrison may have married and integrated intothe local community throughout the years.
Hadrian's Wall was declared a World Heritage Site in 1987, and in 2005 it became part of the larger "Frontiers of the Roman Empire" World Heritage Site which also includes sites in Germany.● 世界遗产
Chapter II “The Eternal Emperor”—Constantine the Great 第二章 “千古一帝”——君士坦丁大帝君士坦丁大帝雕塑
1. The First Roman Ruler to be Converted to Christianity 第一位信仰基督教的罗马统治者
Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus（Augustus 27 February. 272-22 May 337）, commonly known in English as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or（among Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Christians）Saint Constantine, was Roman emperor from 306, and the sole holder of that office from 324 until his death in 337. Best known for being the first Christian Roman emperor, Constantine reversed the persecutionsof his predecessor, Diocletian, and issued（with his co-emperor Licinius）the Edict of Milan in 313, which proclaimed religious tolerancethroughout the empire. Although he is not included in the Latin Church's list of saints, he is revered under the title "The Great" for his contributions to Christianity.
Constantine also transformed the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium into a new imperial residence, Constantinople, which would remain the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire for over one thousand years.
君士坦丁将拜占庭帝国——一个古希腊殖民地改变为帝国新的居民居住地——君士坦丁堡，此地在后来的1000多年中一直做为东罗马帝国的首都。● In the East
Constantine received a formal education at Diocletian's court, where he learned Latin literature, Greek, and philosophy. The cultural environment in Nicomedia was open, fluidand socially mobile, and Constantine could mix with intellectualsboth paganand Christian. He may have attended the lectures of Lactantius, a Christian scholar of Latin in the city. Because Diocletian did not completely trust Constantius—none of the Tetrarchs fully trusted their colleagues—Constantine was held as something of a hostage, a tool to ensure Constantius' best behaviour. Constantine was nonetheless a prominent member of the court: he fought for Diocletian and Galerius in Asia, and served in a variety of tribunates; he campaigned against barbarians on the Danube in 296, and fought the Persians under Diocletian in Syria（297）and under Galerius in Mesopotamia.● 在东方
君士坦丁在戴克里先法院接受了正规教育，在那里他学会了拉丁文学、希腊文和哲学。在尼科美底亚开放的文化环境下，君士坦丁可以和其余的学者一起讨论异教和基督教。他参加了市内著名拉丁学者潭修斯的讲座。由于戴克里先不完全信任士坦提乌斯（因为四头政治的统治者之间相互信任），君士坦丁被当做一个人质，成为了约束士坦提乌斯行为的工具。然而君士坦丁是一个突出的法庭成员，他为戴克里先和加莱里乌斯在亚洲而战，镇压了当地很多的动荡，他在296年征战了多瑙河上的野蛮人，297年在戴克里先的带领下打败了叙利亚的波斯人，在加莱里乌斯的带领下于298年到299年打败了美索不达米亚的波斯人。● Out of a Trap
Some of the ancient sources detail plots that Galerius made on Constantine's life in the months following Diocletian's abdication. They assert that Galerius assigned Constantine to lead an advance unit in a cavalry charge through a swamp on the middle Danube, made him enter into single combat with a lion, and attempted to kill him in hunts and wars. Constantine always emerged victorious: the lion emerged from the contest in a poorer condition than Constantine; Constantine returned to Nicomedia from the Danube with a Sarmatian captive to drop at Galerius' feet. It is uncertain how much these tales can be trusted.● 逃出阴谋
一些古老的传说中提到加列里乌斯在戴克里先退位后谋划结束君士坦丁的性命。传说加列里乌斯安排君士坦丁领导一支骑兵进入多瑙河的沼泽地区，使他单独跟一只狮子对战，以便在追捕和逃亡的战争中，结束君士坦丁的性命。但是君士坦丁总是能出奇制胜：因为那只狮子比起君士坦丁来说要弱小得多；君士坦丁带着他的战利品萨尔马提亚俘虏从多瑙河回到尼可米迪雅，并把狮子扔到加列里乌斯脚前，以示胜利。当然，这只不过是一个传说而已。● In the West
Constantine recognized the implicit danger in remaining at Galerius' court, where he was held as a virtual hostage. His career depended on being rescued by his father in the west. Constantius was quick to intervene. In the late spring or early summer of 305, Constantius requested leave for his son, to help him campaignin Britain. After a long evening of drinking, Galerius granted the request. Constantine's later propaganda describes how Constantine fled the court in the night, before Galerius could change his mind. He rode from post-house to post-house at high speed, mutilating every horse in his wake. By the time Galerius awoke the following morning, Constantine had fled too far to be caught. Constantine joined his father in Gaul.● 在西方
君士坦丁意识到继续隐藏在加列里乌斯场区的危险，因为在那里他其实是一个人质。他后来的发展主要是因为获得了在西方的父亲的援救。他的父亲士坦提乌斯很快就开始计划此事。在305年的春末或夏初，士坦提乌斯向加列里乌斯请求让他的儿子动身去帮助他在英国的战斗。在一个通宵的对饮之后，加莱里乌斯答应了他的请求。君士坦丁在后来的传记中描述自己是如何在加莱里乌斯改变主意之前趁着夜色逃离加列里乌斯场区：他骑着马以飞快的速度从后屋飞奔而出，切断追兵的马源。第二天早上加莱里乌斯醒来时，君士坦丁已经逃到了安全地带。于是君士坦丁与在高卢的父亲汇合在了一起。罗马标准金币● Early Rule
Constantine's share of the Empire consisted of Britain, Gaul, and Spain. He therefore commanded one of the largest Roman armies, stationedalong the important Rhine frontier. After his promotionto emperor, Constantine remained in Britain, and secured his control in the northwestern dioceses. He completed the reconstruction of militarybases begun under his father's rule, and ordered the repair of the region's roadways.● 早期统治
君士坦丁占领了帝国中的英国、高卢和西班牙的部分领土，并指挥他最大的军队之一驻扎在莱茵河边境。这支军队在君士坦丁当上皇帝之后仍旧留在英国，以继续他在主教地区的军事控制。他完成了父亲统治时开始修建的军事基地，并下令修复该地区的道路。● The Begin of Public Baths in Britain
Public baths（thermae）were built in Trier by Constantine. More than 100 meters（328 ft）wide by 200 meters（656 ft）long, and capable of serving several thousands at a time, the baths were built to rival those of Rome.● 不列颠岛上的公共浴池
不列颠岛上的公共浴池由君士坦丁建于特里尔。这个浴场超过100米（328英尺）宽，200米（656英尺）长，一次能够容纳数以千计的人沐浴。不列颠岛上的公共浴场能够与罗马的浴场相媲美。● Monetary Reforms
After the runaway inflationof the third century, associated with the production of fat moneyto pay for public expenses, Diocletian had tried to reestablish trustworthy minting of silver and billon coins. Constantine forsook this conservative monetary policy, preferring instead to concentrate on minting large quantities of good standard gold pieces—the solidus, the standard of silver and billon pieces being further degraded to assure the possibility of keeping fduciaryminting alongside a gold standard.● 货币改革
由于三世纪的恶性通货膨胀和发行的偿付给政府开支的法定不兑现纸币，戴克里先试图重新铸造可信赖的金银币。君士坦丁大帝放弃了他保守的货币政策，专注铸造大量的标准金币—苏勒德斯（一种古罗马金币）；标准的银币和比朗金合金，以确保除了金本位为计量单位以外的货币顺利流通。君士坦丁凯旋门● Works of Constantine
Constantine was a ruler of major historical importance, but he has always been a controversial figure. The fluctuations in Constantine's reputation reflect the nature of the ancient sources for his reign. These are abundant and detailed, but have been strongly influenced by the official propaganda of the period, and are often one-sided. There are no surviving histories or biographies dealing with Constantine's life and rule. The nearest replacement is Eusebius of Caesarea's Vita Constantini, a work that is a mixture of eulogy and hagiography. Written between 335 and circa 339, the Vita extols Constantine's moral and religious virtues. The Vita creates a contentiously positive image of Constantine, and modern historians have frequently challenged its reliability. The fullest secular life of Constantine is the anonymous Origo Constantini. A work of uncertain date, the Origo focuses on military and political events, to the neglect of cultural and religious matters.● 关于君士坦丁大帝的著作
2. Arch of Constantine 君士坦丁大帝凯旋门
The arch spans the Via Triumphalis, the way taken by the emperors when they entered the city in triumph. This route started at the Campus Martius, led through the Circus Maximus and around the Palatine Hill. During the Middle Ages, the Arch of Constantine was incorporated into one of the family strongholds of ancient Rome. Works of restoration were first carried out in the 18th century; the last excavations have taken place in the late 1990s, just before the Great Jubilee of 2000.
3. A Short View of Arches in the World 世界凯旋门纵览● 巴黎凯旋门
Chapter III The Viking and Danish Invasion 第三章 北欧海盗和丹麦的入侵北欧海盗船
1. The History of Norse Expansion 诺曼征服的历史
The Norwgian Vikings and the Danes from Denmark attacked various parts of England from the end of the 8th century. They became a serious problem in the 9th century, especially between 835 and 878.They even managed to captureYork, an important center of Christianity in 867. By the middle of the ninth century, the Vikings and the Danes were posing a threat to the Saxon kingdom of Wessex whose capital was at Winchester. Alfred, King of Wessex（871-899）, was strong enough to defeat the Danes gained control of the north and east of England（"the Danelaw"）, while Alfred would rule the rest. Alfred also persuaded their leader, Guthrum, and several of his leading warriors, to be baptized as Christians.
After Alfred's death, trouble broke out again. His successors reconqueredthe Danelaw, but in 980 Viking invasions renewed. King Ethelred the Unready（978-1016）tried paying the invaders to stay away by imposing a tax, called the danegeld, on his people. To his great disappointment, the Danes did not go away but grew greedier.
When Ethelred's death left no strong Saxon successor, the Witan chose Canute, the Danish leader, as king in 1016. Canute made England part of a Scandinavian empire which included Norway as well as Denmark. Canute proved to be a wise ruler. He divided power between Danes and Saxons and, to protect his northern border, compelledMalcolmⅡ, king of the Scots, to recognize him as overlord.
After Canute's death in 1035, his sons, Harold and Hardicanute reigned successively. After Hardicanute's death the succession passed to Edward the Confessor, son of Ethelred the Unready, who had spent most of his life in Normandy, the part of France settled by the Vikings.
公元1035年喀奴特死后，他的儿子哈罗德和哈迪喀奴特先后统治王国。哈迪喀奴特死后，王位传给了埃塞尔雷德的儿子爱德华，爱德华此前大部分时间住在北欧海盗定居的法国诺曼底。● Probable Causes of Norse Expansion
Norse societywas based on agricultureand trade with other peoples and placed great emphasis onthe concept of honour, both in combat（for example, it was unfair and wrong to attack an enemy already in a fight with another）and in the criminal justice system.
It is unknown what triggeredthe Norse expansion and conquests. This era coincided with the Medieval Warm Period（800-1300）and stopped with the start of the Little Ice Age（about 1250-1850）. The lack of pack-ice would have allowed Scandinavians to go "a-Viking" or "raiding".● 北欧扩张可能的原因
目前还不清楚是什么引起了挪威扩张和征服。这个时代开始于中世纪暖期（800～1300），于小冰期初（约1250～1850年）结束。堆冰的减少有利于斯堪的纳维亚人进行“北欧入侵”和“海盗的袭击”。● Viking Beliefs
According to Viking beliefs, Viking chieftains would please their war-gods by their bravery, and would become "worth-ship;" that is, the chieftain would earn a "burial at sea". They also performed land burials which often still included a ship, treasure, weapons, tools, clothing and even slaves and women buried alive with the dead chieftain, for his "journey to Valhalla, and adventure and pleasure in the after-life." Sages then composed sagas about the exploits of these chieftains, keeping their memories alive.
Freyr and his sister Freya were fertility gods. They were responsible for ensuring that people had many children and that the land produced plentiful crops. Some farmers even called their fields after Freyr, in the hope that this would ensure a good harvest. Towards the end of the Viking Age, more and more Scandinavians were converted to Christianity, often（or mostly）by force.● 北欧海盗的信仰
Viking expeditions: depicting the immense breadth of their voyagesthrough most of Europe, the Mediterranean Sea, Northern Africa, Asia Minor, the Arctic and North America.海盗入侵路线● 地理
海盗入侵线路：描绘了海盗们通过宽广巨大的欧洲在地中海、北部非洲、小亚细亚、北极和北美大部分的航程。● Invasion on Different Parts of Great Britain—England
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, after Lindisfarne was raided in 793, Vikings continued on small-scale raids across England. Viking raiders struck England in 793 and raided a Christian monasterythat held Saint Cuthbert's relics.The raiders killed the monksand captured the valuables. This raid was called the beginning of the "Viking Age of Invasion", made possible by the Viking longship.● 对英国各部分的入侵—英格兰
The Vikings conducted extensive raids in Ireland and founded the cities of Cork, Dublin and Limerick. The Vikings and Scandinavians settled down and intermixedwith the Irish. Literature, crafts, and decorative styles in Ireland and Britain reflected Scandinavian culture. Vikings traded at Irish markets in Dublin. Excavations found imported fabrics from England, Byzantium, Persia and central Asia. Dublin became so crowded by the 11th century that houses were constructed outside the town walls.
In 838, a small Viking fleet entered the River Liffey in eastern Ireland. The Vikings set up a base, which the Irish called a longphort. This longphort eventually became Dublin. After this interaction, the Irish experienced Viking forces for about 40 years. The Vikings also established longphorts in Cork, Limerick, Waterford, and Wexford. The Vikings could sail through on the main river and branch off into different areas of the country.● 爱尔兰（中古时北欧海盗使用的单帆多桨的）狭长快速战船，海盗船
The Vikings are thought to have led their first raids on what is now modern Scotland by the early eighth century AD. While there are few records, their first known attack was on the holy island of Iona in 794, the year following the raid on the other holy island of Lindisfarne, Northumbria.● 苏格兰
Wales was not colonised by the Vikings as heavily as eastern England. The Vikings did, however, settle in the south around St. David's, Haverfordwest, and Gower, among other places. Place names such as Skokholm, Skomer, and Swansea remain as evidence of the Norse settlement. The Vikings, however, did not subduethe Welsh mountain kingdoms.● 威尔士
2. Influence of Viking Settlement on the English Language 北欧入侵对英语语言的影响
The long-term linguisticeffect of the Viking settlements in England was threefold: over a thousand words eventually became part of Standard English; numerous places in the East and North-east of England have Danish names; and many English personal names are of Scandinavian origin.典型北欧建筑
There are more than 1,500 Scandinavian place names in England, mainly in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire（within the former boundaries of the Danelaw ）：over 600 end in-by, the Scandinavian word for "village" or "town" —for example Grimsby, Naseby, and Whitby; many others end in-thorpe（"farm"）,-thwaite（"clearing"）, and-toft（"homestead"）.
The distributionof family names showing Scandinavian influence is still, as an analysis of names ending in-son reveals, concentrated in the north and east, corresponding to areas of former Viking settlement. Early medievalrecords indicate that over 60％of personal names in Yorkshire and North Lincolnshire showed Scandinavian influence.
Chapter IV The Anglo-Saxons 第四章 盎格鲁-撒克逊人
1. Basis of Modern English Race: the Anglo-Saxons 现代英国的基础——盎格鲁-萨克逊时代The Anglo-Saxons（446-871）盎格鲁—撒克逊人（公元446～871年）● Anglo-Saxons
In the mid-5th century a new wave of invaders, Jutes, Saxons, and Angles came to Britain. They were three Teutonic tribes.
The Jutes, who fished and farmed in Jutland, came to Britain first. A Jutish chief became the King of Kent in 449. Then the Saxons, users of the short-sword from northern Germany, established their kingdom in Essex, Sussex and Wessex from the end of the 5th century to the beginning of the 6th century. In the second half of the 6th century, the Angles, who also came from northern Germany and were to give their name to the English people, settled in East Anglia, Mercia and Northumbria. And seven principal kingdoms of Kent, Essex, Sussex, Wessex, East Anglia, Mercia and Northumbria have been given the name of Heptarchy.● 盎格鲁—萨克逊人
居住在朱特兰岛（现丹麦南部）上从事打渔农耕的朱特人最先抵达不列颠。后来从德国北部来的使用短剑的撒克逊人在埃撒克斯、苏塞克斯和威塞克斯建立了王国，统治期从5世纪末至6世纪初。6世纪后半叶，同样来自德国北部的盎格鲁人，在东盎格利亚、麦西亚以及诺森伯利亚定居，同时也给英国人命名。七个主要王国—肯特、埃塞克斯、苏塞克斯、威塞克斯、东盎格利亚、麦西亚和诺森伯利亚被合称为七王国。● The Early Anglo-Saxons Converted to Christianity
The Anglo-Saxons brought their own Teutonic religion to Britain. Christianity soon disappeared, except among the Celts of Cornwall, Wales, Scotland and Ireland. In 597, Pope Gregory I sent St. A ugustine, the Prior of St. Andrew's Monastery in Rome, to England to convertthe heathen English to Christianity. In 579 St. Augustine became the first Archbishop of Canterbury. He was remarkably successful in converting the king and the nobility, but the conversion of the common people was largely due to the missionary activities of the monks in the north.● 最早的盎格鲁—撒克逊人改信基督教公元600年盎格鲁—撒克逊王国的主要版图
Old English literary works include genres such as epic poetry, hagiography, sermons, Bible translations, legal works, chronicles, riddles, and others. In all there are about 400 surviving manuscripts from the period, a significant corpus of both popular interest and specialist research.
The most famous works from this period include the poem Beowulf, which has achieved national epic status in Britain. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of important early English history. Cædmon's Hymn from the 7th century is the earliest attestedliterary text in English.● 文学
2. King Arthur and the Round Table Knight 亚瑟王和圆桌骑士
King Arthur is the figure at the heart of the Arthurian legends. One of the questions that has occupied those interested in King Arthur is whether or not he is a historical figure. The debate has raged since the Renaissance when Arthur's historicity was vigorously defended, partly because the Tudor monarchs traced their lineageto Arthur and used that connection as a justification for their reign. Modern scholarship has generally assumed that there was some actual person at the heart of the legends, though not of course a king with a band of knights in shining armor—though O.J. Padel in "The Nature of Arthur" argues that "historical attributes of just the kind that we find attached to Arthur can be associated with a figure who was not historical to start with."
亚瑟王是亚瑟王传说的核心人物。所有对亚瑟王感兴趣的人心中都存在一个问题，那就是历史上是否真正有这个人物。当亚瑟王的历史真实性遭到强烈质疑时，这场争论从文艺复兴时期便开始了。部分原因是都铎王室把亚瑟王当作他们的祖先，并把这个作为他们统治的理由。尽管不存在这个国王和这些身穿华丽盔甲的骑士们，但有学者在《亚瑟王的由来》一书中认为：亚瑟王这个历史上并不曾存在的人物，可能来源于我们所发现的那些亚瑟王传奇中描述的历史功绩。并且，现代的学术研究认为某些传说中的人物其实是真实存在的。● The Emblem of the Knights骑士团徽章
The emblemof the Knights of the Round Table worn round the necks of all the Knights was given to them by King Arthur as part of the ceremony of their being made a knight.
The Order's dominantidea was the love of God, men, and noble deeds. The cross in the emblem was to remind them that they were to live pure and stainlesslives, to strive after perfection and thus attain the Holy Grail.
The Red Dragon of King Arthur represented their allegiance to the King. The Round Table was illustrative of the Eternity of God, the equality, unity, and comradeship of the Order, and singleness of purpose of all the Knights.● 骑士团的徽章
3. The Holy Grail 圣杯
In Christian mythology, the Holy Grail was the dish, plate, cup or vessel that caught Jesus' blood during his crucifixion. It was said to have the power to heal all wounds. The development of the Grail legend has been traced in detail by cultural historians: it is a Gothic legend, which first came together in the form of written romances, deriving perhaps from some pre-Christian folklorichints, in the later 12th and early 13th centuries. The early Grail romances centered on Percival and were then woven into the more general Arthurian fabric.
The stories of the Grail are totally absent from Eastern Orthodox teachings and are not a part of the culture and mythos of those countries that were and are Orthodox（Orthodox Arabs, Orthodox Slavs, Orthodox Romanians, Orthodox Greeks）. This is even more true of the Arthurian myths which were not well known（until the present day Hollywood retellings）east of Germany. The notions of the Grail, its importance, and prominance are, and should always be regarded as, a set of ideas that are essentially local and particular, being linked with Catholic or formerly Catholic locales, Celtic mythology, and Anglo-French medieval storytelling. The contemporary wide distribution of these ideas is due to the huge influence of the pop culture of countries where the Grail Myth was prominent in the Middle Ages.
圣杯故事在东正教会的教义上完全不存在，并没有成为东正教会国家（阿拉伯东正教、斯拉夫东正教、罗马、东正教、希腊东正教）文化的一部分。直到好莱坞开始讲述亚瑟王的故事，德国东部的亚瑟王传说才开始流行起来。圣杯的概念和其重要性本质上都会或多或少与天主教、以前的天主教场、凯尔特的传说、盎格鲁——法兰西的中世纪故事相联系起来。这些观念对同时代的巨大贡献主要体现在对乡村通俗文化的影响上，因为中世纪圣杯文化在这里受到广泛关注。● The Holy Grail and the Fisher King
The tale of the Fisher King involves a king who is lame in one leg（a euphemism for impotency）which in turn causes the land to become barren（infertile）. The hero（Gawain, Percival, or Galahad）encounters the Fisher King and is invited to a feast, as per the older other world tales. The Grail is again presented as a platter of plenty but is also presented as part of a series of mystical relics, which also included a spear that drips blood and a broken sword. The purpose of the relics is to incite the hero to question them and thereby, through some unknown means, break the enchantment of the infirmed king and the barren land, although the hero invariably fails to do so.● 圣杯与渔夫国王
4. The Holy Grail and Arthurian Legend 圣杯与亚瑟王传说
The story of the Fisher King and the Grail was later incorporated into the Arthurian myths. At first it is presented as a retelling of the older Fisher King tale—for example, one telling involved Percival encountering the Fisher King and the Grail before arriving at Camelot, it eventually evolved into an explicit "quest" for the Grail—one such quest ending with twelve knights（of undetermined origin）ascending intoHeaven along with the Grail.
Some believe the grial is in the Chalice Well in Glastonbury—put there by Joseph of Arimathea. The search for the vessel became the principal quest of King Arthur and his Knights of the Roundtable.
一些人认为圣杯是卡斯顿伯利的圣餐杯——被阿里玛特的约瑟夫放在那里。寻求圣杯成为了亚瑟王和他的圆桌武士主要的活动。渔夫国王和圣杯的故事● Modern Interpretations
The legend of the Holy Grail is the basis of the use of the devalued term holy grail in modern-day culture. This or that "holy grail" is seen as the distant, all-but-unobtainable ultimate goal for a person, organization, or field to achieve. For instance, cold fusionor anti-gravity devices are sometimes characterized as the "holy grail" of applied physics.
The combination of hushed reverence and overheated chromaticharmonies of Richard Wagner's late opera Parsifal fatally inflated the Holy Grail theme, while it brought the old medieval tale back into a wider public consciousness. The high seriousness of the subject was also epitomized in Dante Gabriel Rossetti's painting, in which William Morris's soulful Titian-haired wife, at the time the painter's mistress, holds the Grail like a champagne glass that she is about to make ring with a snap of her long finger. The Grail was overripe, and Monty Python and the Holy Grail（1975）deflated it and all pseudo-Arthurian posturings.
The Grail had turned up in movies before: it debuted in a silent Parsifal. In The Light of Faith（1922）, Lon Chaney attempted to steal it, for the finest of reasons. The Silver Chalice, a novel about the Grail by Thomas B. Costain was made into a 1954 movie（in which Paul Newman）, that is considered notably bad by several critics, including Newman himself. Excalibur is a more traditional sex-in-armor representation of an Arthurian tale, in which the Grail is little more than a prop. Brancaleone at the Crusades, The Fisher King and Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade place the quest in modern settings.
Science fiction has taken the Quest into interstellar space, figuratively in Samuel R. Delany's 1968 novel Nova, and literally in the 1994 episode "Grail" of the television series Babylon 5.
For the authors of Holy Blood, Holy Grail, who assertthat their research ultimately reveals that Jesus may not have died on the cross, but lived to marry Mary Magdalene and father children, whose Merovingian bloodline continues today, the Grail is a mere sideshow.● 现代诠释
科幻小说已经把寻求的空间移到星际空间。“圣杯”曾在塞缪尔·R·迪拉尼1968年出版的小说《新星》中象征性地提到，而1994年的电视连续剧《巴比伦5》中，有关“圣杯”的情节被直接地表现出来。《圣血，圣杯》的作者声称他们最终的研究显示了耶稣最后可能并没有死在十字架上，而是仍然活着，并且同玛丽亚·抹大拉结了婚，有了子女。法国的梅罗文加王朝血统延续到今天，圣杯仅仅是其中一个插曲而已。● The Da Vinci Code
Dan Brown's bestselling novel The Da Vinci Code is likewise based on the idea that the real Grail is not a cup but the earthly remains of Mary Magdalene（again cast as Jesus' wife）, plus a set of ancient documents telling the true story of Jesus, his teachings and descendants. In Brown's novel, it is hinted that the Grail was long buried below Rosslyn Chapel just like one tradition claims, but in recent decades its guardianshad it relocated to a secret chamber below the Inverted Pyramid in front of the Louvre Museum. Of course, the latter location has never been mentioned in real Grail lore. Yet such was the public interest in even a fictionalized Grail that the museum soon had to rope off the exact location mentioned by Brown, lest visitors inflict any damage in a more or less serious attempt to access the supposed hidden chamber.● 《达芬奇密码》
Chapter V Alfred the Great 第五章 阿尔弗雷德大帝（871～899）阿尔弗雷德大帝（849～899）
1. King Alfred and His Contributions 阿尔弗雷德国王及其贡献
He was King of Wessex from 871 to 899. Alfred is noted for his defense of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of southern England against the Vikings, becoming the only English king to be accorded the epithet "the Great". Alfred was the first King of the West Saxons to style himself "King of the Anglo-Saxons". Details of his life are described in a work by the Welsh scholar and bishop, Asser. Alfred was a learned man who encouraged education and improved his kingdom's legal system and militarystructure. Alfred is a Catholic and an Eastern Orthodox Church saint and is commonly regarded as a hero of the Christian Church in the Anglican Communion, with a feast day of 26 October.
Alfred defeated the Danes and reached a friendly agreement with them in 879. The Danes gained control of the north and east, while he ruled the rest. He also convertedsome leading Danes into Christians.
He founded a strong fleet and is known as "the father of the British navy". He reorganized the Saxon army, making it more efficient. He translated a Latin book into English. He also established schools and formulated a legal system. All this earns him the title "Alfred the Great."
阿尔弗雷德大帝的继承人爱德华一世（899-924）于918年将丹麦人彻底赶出英格兰；自阿尔弗雷德大帝开始，其子孙连续五位都是尚武的国王，打败了不断入侵的北欧人，使撒克逊人的统治在英格兰全面复兴。他是欧洲中世纪最杰出的君主之一，被后世尊称为“英国国父”。英格兰人曾对他有这样的评价：“史册所载的一切名字中，只有我们英国的阿尔弗雷德的历史是没有污点的。他的一生堪称白璧无瑕。”● Restoration of London, King of the English征战中的阿尔弗雷德大帝
For the next few years there was peace, the Danes being preoccupied in Francia. A raid on Kent in 884 or 885 close to Plucks Gutter, though successfully repelled, encouraged the East Anglian Danes to rise up. The measures taken by Alfred to repress this uprising culminatedin the taking（or more probably, retaking）of London in 886. Alfred apparently regarded this as a turning point in his reign. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says that "all of the English people not subject to the Danes submitted themselves to King Alfred." Asser added that "Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, restored the city of London splendidly ... and made it habitable once more." Alfred's "restoration" entailed reoccupying and refurbishingthe nearly deserted Roman walled city, building quays along the Thames, and laying a new city street plan. It is probably at this point that Alfred assumed the new royal style of King of the Anglo-Saxons.● 恢复伦敦，成为英国国王
接下来的几年都处于和平年代，因为此时丹麦人正忙于攻占法兰克。大约884年或885年，在肯特郡的突袭中，丹麦人虽然被击退，却鼓励了东盎格鲁丹麦人起义。阿尔弗雷德采取措施镇压起义，后于886年夺回了伦敦。阿尔弗雷德认为这在他的统治中是一个明显的转折点。《盎格鲁撒克逊编年史》上写道：“所有不受丹麦人支配的英国人向阿尔弗雷德国王臣服了。”阿赛尔说，“阿尔弗雷德，撒克逊国王，出色地夺得了伦敦市……并使其更适合居住”。阿尔弗雷德的“复辟”使几乎废弃的城市重新得到整修，建筑沿着泰晤士河，并奠定了新的城市街道规划。可能是在这一点上，阿尔弗雷德国王展现了盎格鲁撒克逊国王的新的皇家风格。● Religion and Culture
In the 880s, Alfred was "cajoling and threatening" his nobles and man to learn, perhaps inspired by the example of Charlemagne a century before, who undertook an equally ambitious effort to revive learning. It entailed the recruitment of clericalscholars from Mercia, Wales and abroad to enhance the tenor of the court and of the episcopacy; the establishment of a court school to educate his own children, the sons of his nobles, and intellectually promising boys of lesser birth; an attempt to require literacy in those who held offices of authority; a series of translations into the vernacular of Latin works the king deemed "most necessary for all men to know"; the compilation of a chronicle detailing the rise of Alfred's kingdom and house; and the issuance of a law code that presented the West Saxons as a new people of Israel and their king as a just and divinely-inspired law-giver.● 宗教与文化
2. The Laws of Alfred 《阿尔弗雷德法典》
3. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 《盎格鲁—撒克逊编年史》
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English chroniclingthe history of the Anglo-Saxons. The annals were initially created late in the 9th century, probably in Wessex, during the reign of Alfred the Great. Multiple manuscript copies were made and distributed to monasteriesacross England and were independently updated. In one case, the chronicle was still being actively updated in 1154.
Nine manuscripts survive in whole or in part, though not all are of equal historical value and none of them is the original version. The oldest seems to have been started towards the end of Alfred's reign, while the most recent was written at Peterborough Abbey after a fire at that monastery in 1116. Almost all of the material in the chronicle is in the form of annals, by year; the earliest are dated at 60 BC, and historical material follows up to the year in which the chronicle was written, at which point contemporary records begin. These manuscripts collectively are known as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.
The Chronicle is not unbiased: there are occasions when comparison with other medieval sources makes it clear that the scribes who wrote it omittedevents or told one-sided versions of stories; there are also places where the different versions contradict each other. Taken as a whole, however, the Chronicle is the single most important historical source for the period in England between the departure of the Romans and the decades following the Norman Conquest. Much of the information given in the Chronicle is not recorded elsewhere. In addition, the manuscripts are important sources for the history of the English language; in particular, the later Peterborough text is one of the earliest examples of Middle English in existence.
Seven of the nine surviving manuscripts and fragments now reside in the British Library. The remaining two are in the Bodleian Library at Oxford and the Parker Library of College, Cambridge.彼得伯勒纪事初始页《盎格鲁—撒克逊编年史》是以古英语记载的史册，上面记录了盎格鲁撒克逊人的历史。最初的史册于9世纪后期，即阿尔弗雷德大帝在位期间，在威塞克斯得以创建。此后，多个手稿被分发给了英格兰的寺院进行独立更新。值得一提的是，直到1154年，编年史一直都在更新中。
Chapter VI William the Conqueror 第六章 征服者威廉（1066～1087）
William the Conqueror, also known as William I of England, was the King of England from Christmas, 1066 until his death. He was also William II, Duke of Normandy, from 3 July 1035 until his death. Before his conquest of England, he was known as "William the Bastard" because of the illegitimacyof his birth.征服者威廉
征服者威廉（英格兰威廉一世），从1066年圣诞节开始直到他逝世，一直是英格兰国王。从1035年7月3日直到去世，威廉还被称为诺曼底公爵，威廉二世。在他征服英格兰以前，因出生不合法，他被称为“私生子威廉”。● Physical Appearance
No authenticportraitof William has been found. Nonetheless, he was depicted as a man of fair stature with remarkably strong arms. William showed a magnificent appearance, possessing a fercecountenance. He enjoyed excellent health until old age; nevertheless his noticeable corpulence in later life increased eventually so much that French King Philip I commented that William looked like a pregnant woman. Examination of his femur, the only bone to survive when the rest of his remains were destroyed, showed he was approximately 5' 10" tall which was around two inches taller than the average for the 11th century.● 面貌特征
1. William's Rule 威廉一世的统治（1066～1087）● England's Feudalism Under the Rule of William the Conqueror
Under William, the feudal system in England was completely established. According to this system, the King owned all the land personally. William gave his barons large estates in England in return for a promise of military service and a proportion of the land's produce. These estates were scattered far and wide over the country, so that those who held them could not easily combine to rebel the king. The barons, who had become William's tenants-in-chief, parceled out land to the lesser nobles, knights and freemen, also in return for goods and services. At the bottom of the feudal scale were the villeins or serfs. One peculiar feature of the feudal system of England was that all landowners must take the oath of allegiance, not only to their immediate lord, but also to the king.印有威廉头像的金币● 在威廉统治下的英国封建制度
2. The Norman Conquest（1066） 诺曼征服● Reasons for William's Invasion of England after Edward's Death
It was said that king Edward had promised the English throne to William, but the Witan chose Harold as king. So William led his army to invade England. In October 1066, during the important battle of Hastings, William defeated Harold and killed him. One Christmas Day, William was crowned king of England, thus beginning the Norman Conquest of England.● 威廉在爱德华死后入侵英国的原因
据说，爱德华国王曾答应把英格兰王位传给诺曼底公爵威廉，但是贤人会议挑选了哈罗德为国王。因此威廉带领他的军队进攻英格兰。公元1066年10月，在哈斯丁斯附近的激烈交锋中，威廉打败了哈罗德军队，同时哈罗德也在此战争中战死。在圣诞节当天，威廉加冕为英格兰国王，这就是诺曼征服英格兰的开端。● The Norman Conquest and Its Consequences
The Norman Conquest of 1066 is perhaps the best-known event in English history. William the Conqueror confiscatedalmost all the land and gave it to his Norman followers. He replaced the weak Saxon rule with a strong Norman government. He replaced the weak Saxon rule with a strong Norman government. So the feudalsystem was completely established in England. Relations with the Continent were opened, and the civilization and commerce were extended. Norman-French culture, language, manners and architecture were introduced. The Church was brought into closer connection with Rome, and the church courts were separated from the civil courts.
The English is a mixture of nationalities of different origins. The ancestors of many English people were the ancient Angles and Saxons. Some English people are of the Norman-French origin.● 诺曼征服及其产生的影响
英国是一个集不同民族于一体的国家。许多英国人的祖先是古盎格鲁和撒克逊人，还有一些英国人是诺曼血统。● Battle of Hastings
William chose Hastings as it was at the end of a long peninsulaflankedby impassable marshes. The battle was on the isthmus. William at once built a fort at Hastings to guard his rear against potential arrival of Harold's fleet from London. Having landed his army, William was less concerned about desertion and could have waited out the winter storms, raided the surrounding area for horses and started a campaign in the spring. Harold had been reconnoitering the south of England for some time and well appreciated the need to occupy this isthmus at once.
The Battle of Hastings lasted all day. Although the numbers on each side were about equal, William had both cavalry and infantry, including many archers, while Harold had only foot soldiers and few if any archers. Along the ridge's border, formed as a wall of shields, the English soldiers at first stood so effectively that William's army was thrown back with heavy casualties. William rallied his troops reportedly raising his helmet, as shown in the Bayeux Tapestry, to quell rumors of his death. Meanwhile, many of the English had pursued the fleeing Normans on foot, allowing the Norman cavalry to attack them repeatedly from the rear as his infantry pretended to retreat further. Norman arrows also took their toll, progressively weakening the English wall of shields. At dusk, the English army made their last stand. A final Norman cavalry attack decided the battle irrevocablywhen it resulted in the death of Harold who, legend says, was killed by an arrow in the eye.● 黑斯廷斯战役
William initiated many major changes. He increased the function of the traditional English shires（autonomous administrative regions）, which he brought under central control; he decreased the power of the earls by restricting them to one shire apiece. All administrative functions of his government remained fixed at specificEnglish towns, except the court itself; they would progressively strengthen, and the English institutions became amongst the most in Europe.
In 1085, in order to ascertain the extent of his new dominions and to improve taxation, William commissioned all his counsellors for the compilation of the Domesday Book, which was published in 1086. The book was a survey of England's productive capacitysimilar to a modern census.
William ordered many castles, keeps, and mottes, among them the Tower of London's foundation（the White Tower）, to be built throughout England. These ensured effectively that the many rebellionsby the English people or his own followers did not succeed.● 改革
3. Lincoln Cathedral and The Da Vinci Code 林肯大教堂和《达芬奇的密码》
There are several variations of the legend surrounding the Cathedral. According to 14th-century legend, two mischievouscreatures called imps were sent by Satan to do evil work on Earth. After causing mayhem elsewhere in Northern England the two imps headed to Lincoln Cathedral where they smashed tables and chairs and tripped up the Bishop. An angel appeared in the Angel Choir and ordered them to stop. One of the imps sat atop a stone pillarstarted throwing rocks at the angel whilst the other imp cowered under the broken tables and chairs. The angel turned the first imp to stone allowing the second imp to escape. The imp that turned to stone, the Lincoln Imp, can still be found, frozen in stone, sitting atop his stone column in the Angel Choir.
围绕这个教堂还有几个不同的传奇人物。根据14世纪的传说，两个称为撒旦的淘气精灵被送到地球上做邪恶的工作。在其他地区造成混乱后，他们前往林肯大教堂，捣毁那里的桌子和椅子，绊倒了主教。一个天使出现在天使合唱团，并命令他们停止。一个精灵坐在石柱顶上开始朝着天使扔石头，另一只畏缩在坏了的桌子和椅子下面。天使把第一个精灵变成了石头，允许第二只逃脱了。被变成石头的那只精灵至今仍旧坐在林肯大教堂的石柱顶上。林肯大教堂● Rose Windows
Lincoln Cathedral features two major rose windows, which are a highly uncommon feature among medieval architecture in England. On the north side of the cathedral there is the "Dean's Eye" which survivesfrom the original structure of the building, and on the south side there is the "Bishop's Eye" which was most likely rebuilt circa 1325-1350. This south window is one of the largest examples of curvilinear tracery seen in medieval architecture. Curvilinear tracery is a form of tracery where the patterns are continuouscurves. This form was often done within pointed arches and squared windows because those are the easiest shapes, so the circular space of the window was a unique challenge to the designers. This window is also interesting and unique in that the focus of the tracery was shifted away from the center of the circle and instead placed in other sections. The glazing of the window was equally as difficult as the tracery for many of the same reason; therefore, the designers made a decision to cut back on the amount of iconographywithin the window. Most cathedral windows during this time displayed many colorful images of the bible; however at Lincoln there are very few images. Some of those images that can be seen within the window include saints Paul, Andrew, and James.● 玫瑰视窗
The cathedral was used for the filming of The Da Vinci Code（based on the book of the same name）. Filming took place mainly within the cloisters and chapter house of the cathedral, and remained a closed set. The Cathedral took on the role of Westminster Abbey, as the Abbey had refused to permit filming. In order to make the Lincoln chapter house appear similar to the Westminster Chapter House, muralswere painted on a special layer over the existing wall, and elsewhere polystyrenereplicas of Isaac Newton's tomb and other Abbey monuments were set up. The cathedral also doubled as Westminster Abbey for the film Young Victoria, filmed in September 2007.● 电影《达芬奇密码》
Chapter VII William Rufus 第七章 威廉二世（1087～1100）威廉二世
1. William II's Rule 威廉二世的统治（1087～1100）● Appearance
According to William of Malmesbury, William Rufus was "well set; his complexion florid, his hair yellow; of open countenance; different coloured eyes, certain glittering specks; of astonishing strength, though not very tall, and his belly rather projecting."
William II is the third son of William I of England（William the Conqueror）, was King of England from 1087 until 1100, with powers over Normandy, and influence in Scotland. He was less successful in extending control into Wales. William is commonly known as William Rufus, perhaps because of his red-faced appearance.
Although William was an effective soldier, he was a ruthlessruler and, it seems, was little liked by those he governed: according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, he was "hated by almost all his people." However, chroniclerstended to take a dim view of William's reign, arguablyon account of his long and difficult struggles with the Church: these chroniclers were themselves generally products of the Church, and so might be expected to report him somewhat negatively. William was roundly denounced in his time and after his death for presiding over what was held to be a dissolute court, in terms which, in modern times, have raised questions over his sexuality. In keeping with Norman tradition, William scorned the English and their culture.● 面貌特征